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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8878 matches for " Ben Ilunga Bulanda "
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Sociodemographic and Anthropometric Profile of Positive HIV Patients in Early Traditional Treatment: Case of the Bonkoko Center  [PDF]
Ben Ilunga Bulanda, Elvis Tshunza Kateba, Berry Ikolango Bongenia, Victor Nyiama Kasongo, Micheline Abiba Kingombe, Erick Ntambwe Kamangu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104555
Context: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Antiretroviral (ART) drug coverage is still very low throughout the country. Hence, a large number of People Living with HIV (PLHIV) use traditional treatment made from plants to fight the HIV infection and the opportunistic infection associated to it. Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate the clinical parameters; para clinical and socio-demographic studies at the beginning of treatment of People Living with HIV (PLHIV) who adhere to traditional treatment in Kinshasa. Methods: A cohort study was conducted in the Bonkoko center with a baseline of 3 months; 97 HIV positive patients were included randomly according to the specific inclusion criteria from January 11, 2016 to April 11, 2016. Clinical, biological and socio-demographic parameters were recorded in all patients at baseline. Results: A total of 97 patients were selected for the job. A total of 79 women (81%) and 18 men (19%) participated voluntarily. The mean age was 40.8 ± 10 years and the most represented age range was 36 - 45 years. The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) is 23.07 ± 3.8 at baseline. The married dominated the sample while the dominant religion was the other religions called revival. The level of study that dominated the population was the secondary level. The mean biological values at baseline were as follows: Glycaemia 85 ± 19 mg/dl; Urea 22.5 ± 6.66 mg/dl; Creatinine 0.88 ± 0.22 mg/dl; Total cholesterol 169.6 ± 37.7 mg/dl; HDL 52.6 ± 15.1 mg/dl; LDL 96.4 ± 31.4 mg/dl; Triglyceride 102.8 ± 47 mg/dl; SGPT 23.3 ± 11.1 UI/L; SGOT 22.3 ± 10 UI/L; Amylase 81.9 ± 31.1 UI/L; and the median values for CD4 was 220 cells/ml and for the Viral Load was 4.10 log10 copies of RNA/ml. Conclusion: This study showed that patients who adhere to traditional medicine for the treatment of HIV infection are not different from those starting Antiretroviral into modern centers. The patient is in search of wellness and what is better. These patients followed by Traditional Medicine must be considered and taken care of in an integral way like all PLHIV followed by modern medicine.
Vertical Transmission Rate of HIV from Seropositive Mothers Followed in the Different Care Centers in Kinshasa from 2010 to 2015  [PDF]
Divine Chuga, Ben Ilunga Bulanda, Jean Yves Debels Kabasele, Médard Omakoy Okonda, Berry Ikolango Bongenya, Erick Ntambwe Kamangu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104769
Background: In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the use of Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection from mother to child is still very low. Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of infants born from HIV-positive mother in different centers in Kinshasa. Methods: This study is a retrospective cohort of at least 2 years on the records of mother-child couple followed in 8 centers of Kinshasa. Based on a sample survey form with specific criteria, some files were selected. Results: The record keeping of all centers was estimated at 70% on average; the most represented age group was from 26 to 35 years with 102 women (54%) out of 190. Forty-five percent (45%) of pregnant women started pre-natal consultation (CPN) in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. All mothers had been diagnosed with 3 Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT). The majority of women were under: AZT 3TC NVP and CTX and 139 (73%) women were diagnosed at stage 1 of HIV infection according to WHO’s standard. One hundred new born were male. Seventy-eight newborns weighed between 2.01 and 3.00 kg at birth. Ninety seven percent of newborns were treated at birth. Ninety-one children who were on Nevirapine syrup; six of them were not put on treatment. Ninety five percent of newborns were diagnosed HIV-negative 9 months after birth by PCR; 2% of children were undiagnosed as a result of refusal and 3% of children had undetermined serology. This gives a mother-to-child transmission rate of 2% at 9 months of birth for the centers of Kinshasa. Conclusion: Despite the insufficient coverage of the PMTCT service in our community, the centers in Kinshasa respond to the PMTCT approach and the transmission rate in the 8 centers of 4 districts of Kinshasa is 2%.
Virological Profile of Patients Infected with HIV Starting Antiretroviral Treatment in Kinshasa  [PDF]
Erick Ntambwe Kamangu, Ben Ilunga Bulanda, Berry Ikolango Bongenia, Huguette Tshweka Botomwito, Georges Lelo Mvumbi, Patrick De Mol, Dolores Vaira, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Richard Lunganza Kalala
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101564
Abstract: Background: Viral Load (VL), CD4 T cells count and clinical signs are significant parameters for the decision of starting ARV Treatment (ART). The aim of this study is to determine the Viral Load profile of eligible patients on treatment in the centers according to the algorithm used in Kinshasa and the DRC. Methodology: Our sample consisted of 153 HIV-positive patients naive of ART. All patients aged over 18 years were included in the study without gender discrimination. The determination of the VL was made at the laboratory of Molecular Biology of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Kinshasa using a previously described technique. Results: Of the 153 patients included in the study, 92 (60.1%) were women. The age of the patients was in the range 18 - 65 years with a mean of 37 years. Most patients (91.5%) were clinical stage 3, while the rest (8.5%) were clinical stage 4 for HIV infection. The rates of CD4 T lymphocytes were between 8 and 915 cells/mm3 with a median value of 180 cells/mm3. Seventy nine patients (86.8%) had CD4 count below 500 cells/mm3. The median VL of patients is 5.68 log10 RNA copies/ml. The minimum and maximum values are respectively 0.37 and 7.95 log10 RNA copies/ml. Conclusion: The majority of patients (63.4%) in Kinshasa begin antiretroviral treatment with a poor prognosis. The Viral loads are usually very high in these patients and CD4 quite collapsed. Indeed, the median value of CD4 for the patients is 180 cells/mm3 for the population, while the mean value of Viral Load is 5.48 log10 RNA copies/ml.
Infection with Hepatitis B and C Virus in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Public Health Problem  [PDF]
Ben Ilunga Bulanda, Berry Ikolango Bongenya, Jean-Yves Debels Kabasele, Médard Omakoy Okonda, Divine Chuga, Christian Tshisumbu, Elvis Tshunza Kateba, Erick Ntambwe Kamangu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104760
Background: Viral hepatitis represents a major public health burden with more than 375 million people with chronic hepatitis B infection and 130 to 150 million with hepatitis C for 2016. Sub-Saharan Africa has the heaviest burden of the epidemic. Objective: The objective of this review is to present the characteristics of hepatitis B and C infections (HBV and HCV), present the synthesis and estimate its magnitude in the Democratic Republic of Congo for the last 20 years. Methods: This work consisted in cataloging the various published articles and abstracts presented in scientific conferences having as subject of interest the infection with viral hepatitis B and C in the DRC. The search for these published works on different infections was done on the internet from different search engines. The research was limited to published works and abstracts presented over the last 20 years. Pediatric studies, studies in patients with renal or hepatic infections or without original data were not included in this review. Results: According to the various works published and presented in conference since 1997, the populations targeted for the investigations on the hepatitis B and C infections are the poly-transfused, the blood donors and the People Living with HIV. Seven (7) works have been documented for the DRC meeting the various selection criteria. In 1999, the carriage of HBV infection was 9.2% in Kinshasa. In 2000, the carriage of HBV was 5.9% while that of HCV was 4.8% in Kinshasa. In 2001, the portage of HCV was 5.0% in Kinshasa. In 2004, the prevalence of HBs antigen was 5.4% in Kisangani. In 2008, the prevalence of HBV and HCV was 8% and 4% respectively in Bukavu. In 2008, seroprevalences of HBV and HCV were respectively 4.2% and 3.8% in Bukavu. In 2012 and 2013, prevalence of HCV was 5.8% and 5.2% respectively in Kinshasa. Conclusions: Although often asymptomatic, viral hepatitis B and C are a public health problem for the Democratic Republic of Congo. The prevalence of these viral infections is far superior to that of HIV infection in Blood Transfusion Centers across the country.
Infilling annual rainfall data using feedforward back-propagation Artificial Neural Networks (ANN): application of the standard and generalised back-propagation techniques
M Ilunga
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Water resource planning and management require long time series of hydrological data (e.g. rainfall, river flow). However, sometimes hydrological time series have missing values or are incomplete. This paper describes feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) techniques used to infill rainfall data, specifically annual total rainfall data. The standard back-propagation (BP) technique and the generalised BP technique were both used and evaluated. The root mean square error of predictions (RMSEp) was used to evaluate the performance of these techniques. A preliminary case study in South Africa was done using the Bleskop rainfall station as the control and the Luckhoff-Pol rainfall station as the target. It was shown that the generalised BP technique generally performed slightly better than the standard BP technique when applied to annual total rainfall data. It was also observed that the RMSEp increased with the proportion of missing values in both techniques. The results were similar when other rainfall stations were used. It is recommended for further study that these techniques be applied to other rainfall data (e.g. annual maximum series, etc) and to rainfall data from other climatic regions.
Infilling streamflow data using feed-forward back-propagation (BP) artificial neural networks: Application of standard BP and pseudo Mac Laurin power series BP techniques
M Ilunga, D Stephenson
Water SA , 2005,
Abstract: Hydrological data (e.g. rainfall, river flow data) are used in water resource planning and management. Sometimes hydrological time series have gaps or are incomplete, or are not of good quality or are not of sufficient length. This problem seems to be more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. In this paper, feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs) techniques are used for streamflow data infilling. The standard back-propagation (BP) technique with a sigmoid activation function is used. Besides this technique, the BP technique with an approximation of the sigmoid function by pseudo Mac Laurin power series Order 1 and Order 2 derivatives, as introduced in this paper, is also used. Empirical comparisons of the predictive accuracy, in terms of root mean square error of predictions (RMSEp), are then made. A preliminary case study in South Africa (i.e. using the Diepkloof (control) gauge on the Wonderboomspruit River and the Molteno (target) gauge on Stormbergspruit River in the River summer rainfall catchment) was then done. Generally, this demonstrated that the standard BP technique performed just slightly better than the pseudo BP Mac Laurin Orders 1 and 2 techniques when using mean values of seasonal data. However, the pseudo Mac Laurin approximation power series of the sigmoid function did not show any substantial impact on the accuracy of the estimated missing values at the Molteno gauge. Thus, all three the standard BP and pseudo BP Mac Laurin orders 1 and 2 techniques could be used to fill in the missing values at the Molteno gauge. It was also observed that a linear regression could describe a strong relationship between the gap size (0 to 30 %) and the expected RMSEp (thus accuracy) for the three techniques used here. Recommendations for further work on these techniques include their application to other flow regimes (e.g. 4-month seasons, mean annual extreme, etc) and to streamflow series of a winter rainfall region. Water SA Vol. 31 (2) 2005: pp.171-176
Knowledge, Attitude, Practice of the Kamina City Population in the Democratic Republic of Congo on Voluntary Screening of HIV/Aids  [PDF]
Ilunga Masuku Anany
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104479
HIV/AIDS infection, although of particular gravity in developing countries, today affects all countries of the world. Among the means used to combat this pathology is voluntary testing, which is both an effective and economical strategy for facilitating behavior change. This study allowed us to contribute to the improvement of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the population on voluntary HIV/AIDS testing. This is a cross-sectional study of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the Kamina population on voluntary testing for HIV infection. A total of 384 people from 82 Ward in Kamina was interviewed using a pre-established questionnaire. Ninety-six respondents (25%) said they knew about voluntary testing; Of these, 79% or 82.3% thought knowing their HIV status was the only benefit of voluntary testing. The level of knowledge about voluntary testing appears to be low among the population studied; there are still misunderstandings about the benefits of voluntary testing and the means of prevention. This result could be used as reference data in the revitalization of a voluntary testing center and the protection of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in our environment.
Environmental Impacts (ER CO2) of an Improved Multi-Fuel Gasifier Forced Air Cookstove in the City of Kinshasa  [PDF]
Oscar Mulumba Ilunga, Hurtado Pérez Elías José
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.96039
Abstract: Sub-Saharan African countries depend 80% on the biomass-wood to meet their daily needs in terms of cooking foods. Traditional cookstoves are much more used to this effect. Many change programmes for replacing cookstove model have been planned. Yet many of these programmes have not been preceded by environmental impact studies. This work offers high-performance cookstove models and determines their impact on the reduction of CO2 emissions, a very harmful greenhouse gas causing the planet warming and climate change. Replacing the traditional cookstove by an improved stove may lead to an economy in terms of fuel ranging from 33.2% to 75.4% according to the model of cookstoves. Yet the Gasifier using pellets as fuel remains the most beneficial stove in terms of fuel saving (75.4%) and in terms of ER CO2, i.e. 2748 t CO2/Year. An improved gasifier cookstove is multi-fuel. He can use charcoal, pellets and wood. This is an indispensable cooking tool with alternative fuels. In this work, the ER CO2 was evaluated using two methods. The KPT, which is a field method and the CCT which is a laboratory method. By the KPT method a gasifier ICS/GAS/P records up to an ERCO2 of 2748 t CO2/Year, while with the same gasifier, an ERCO2 of 2619 t CO2/year is found by the CCT method. The comparison between the two methods shows the same trend but with very high values of ERCO2 for the KPT method results. The variation between the two methods ranges between 1% approximately to 6.9 percent.
Assessing the resistance and bioremediation ability of selected bacterial and protozoan species to heavy metals in metal-rich industrial wastewater
Kamika Ilunga,Momba Maggy NB
BMC Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-28
Abstract: Background Heavy-metals exert considerable stress on the environment worldwide. This study assessed the resistance to and bioremediation of heavy-metals by selected protozoan and bacterial species in highly polluted industrial-wastewater. Specific variables (i.e. chemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen) and the growth/die-off-rates of test organisms were measured using standard methods. Heavy-metal removals were determined in biomass and supernatant by the Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. A parallel experiment was performed with dead microbial cells to assess the biosorption ability of test isolates. Results The results revealed that the industrial-wastewater samples were highly polluted with heavy-metal concentrations exceeding by far the maximum limits (in mg/l) of 0.05-Co, 0.2-Ni, 0.1-Mn, 0.1-V, 0.01-Pb, 0.01-Cu, 0.1-Zn and 0.005-Cd, prescribed by the UN-FAO. Industrial-wastewater had no major effects on Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus licheniformis and Peranema sp. (growth rates up to 1.81, 1.45 and 1.43 d-1, respectively) compared to other test isolates. This was also revealed with significant COD increases (p < 0.05) in culture media inoculated with living bacterial isolates (over 100%) compared to protozoan isolates (up to 24% increase). Living Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the highest removal rates of heavy metals (Co-71%, Ni-51%, Mn-45%, V-83%, Pb-96%, Ti-100% and Cu-49%) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (Al-23% and Zn-53%) and Peranema sp. (Cd-42%). None of the dead cells were able to remove more than 25% of the heavy metals. Bacterial isolates contained the genes copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA encoding the resistance to Cu, Cr, Co-Ni and Cd-Ni-Co, respectively. Protozoan isolates contained only the genes encoding Cu and Cr resistance (copC and chrB genes). Peranema sp. was the only protozoan isolate which had an additional resistant gene cnrA3 encoding Co-Ni resistance. Conclusion Significant differences (p < 0.05) observed between dead and living microbial cells for metal-removal and the presence of certain metal-resistant genes indicated that the selected microbial isolates used both passive (biosorptive) and active (bioaccumulation) mechanisms to remove heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study advocates the use of Peranema sp. as a potential candidate for the bioremediation of heavy-metals in wastewater treatment, in addition to Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus licheniformis.
Microbial Diversity of Emalahleni Mine Water in South Africa and Tolerance Ability of the Predominant Organism to Vanadium and Nickel
Ilunga Kamika, Maggie N. B. Momba
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086189
Abstract: The present study aims firstly at determining the microbial diversity of mine-water collected in Emalahleni, South Africa and secondly isolating and characterizing the most dominant bacterial species found in the mine water in terms of its resistance to both V5+ and Ni2+ in a modified wastewater liquid media. The results revealed a microbial diversity of 17 orders, 27 families and 33 genera were found in the mine-water samples with Marinobacteria (47.02%) and Anabaena (17.66%) being the most abundant genera. Considering their abundance in the mine-water samples, a species of the Marinobacter genera was isolated, identified, and characterised for metal tolerance and removal ability. The MWI-1 isolate (Marinobacter sp. MWI-1 [AB793286]) was found to be closely related to Marinobacter goseongensis at 97% of similarity. The isolate was exposed to various concentrations of Ni2+ and V5+ in wastewater liquid media and its tolerance to metals was also assessed. The MWI-1 isolate could tolerate V5+ and Ni2+ separately at concentrations (in terms of MIC) up to 13.41±0.56 mM and 5.39±0.5 mM at pH 7, whereas at pH 3, the tolerance limit decrease to 11.45±0.57 mM and 2.67±0.1 mM, respectively. The removal of V5+ and Ni2+ in liquid media was noted to gradually decrease with a gradual increase of the test metals. A significant difference (p<0.05) between V5+ and Ni2+ removal was noted. Marinobacter sp. MWI-1 achieved the maximum permissible limit of 0.1 mg-V5+/L prescribed by UN-FAO at 100 mg/L, while at 200 mg/L only V5+ was removed at approximately 95% and Ni2+ at 47%. This study suggests that mine-water indigenous microorganisms are the best solution for the remediation of polluted mine water.
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