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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 52 matches for " Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi "
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Tumor-Associated Glycans and Immune Surveillance
Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi,Anastas Pashov,Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Vaccines , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/vaccines1020174
Abstract: Changes in cell surface glycosylation are a hallmark of the transition from normal to inflamed and neoplastic tissue. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) challenge our understanding of immune tolerance, while functioning as immune targets that bridge innate immune surveillance and adaptive antitumor immunity in clinical applications. T-cells, being a part of the adaptive immune response, are the most popular component of the immune system considered for targeting tumor cells. However, for TACAs, T-cells take a back seat to antibodies and natural killer cells as first-line innate defense mechanisms. Here, we briefly highlight the rationale associated with the relative importance of the immune surveillance machinery that might be applicable for developing therapeutics.
Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology
Leah Hennings,Cecile Artaud,Fariba Jousheghany,Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi,Anastas Pashov,Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Cancers , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/cancers3044151
Abstract: Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.
Expression analysis of carbohydrate antigens in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast by lectin histochemistry
Soheila Korourian, Eric Siegel, Thomas Kieber-Emmons, Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi
BMC Cancer , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-8-136
Abstract: For detection of TACA expression, specimens were stained with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-I (GS-I) and Vicia vilosa agglutinin (VVA). We studied associations of lectin reactivity with established prognostic factors, such as tumor size, tumor nuclear grade, and expression of Her-2/neu, p53 mutant and estrogen and progesterone receptors.We observed that both lectins showed significant associations with nuclear grade of DCIS. DCIS specimens with nuclear grades II and III showed significantly more intense reactivity than DCIS cases with nuclear grade I to GS-1 (Mean-score chi-square = 17.60, DF = 2; P = 0.0002) and VVA (Mean-score chi-square = 15.72, DF = 2; P = 0.0004).The results suggest that the expression of VVA- and GS-I-reactive carbohydrate antigens may contribute to forming higher grade DCIS and increase the recurrence risk.Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy and currently the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. An increasing number of women choose more sensitive screening with digital mammograms and magnetic resonance imaging, which has ultimately resulted in dramatic increase in the diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) during recent years [1-4]. The majority of invasive breast cancers likely develop over extended periods of time from pre-invasive lesions such as DCIS and culminating in metastatic disease [5-9]. Untreated DCIS lesions develop into invasive breast cancer with an average progression rate of 43% as estimated by using the results of 8 different independent studies performed with a wide range of follow-up time [3].An increased risk of a recurrence as DCIS or invasive cancer was associated with initial DCIS lesions that were larger than 10 mm or were of high or intermediate nuclear grade [10-14]. High nuclear grade of initial lesions and cancer recurrence were significantly associated with increased rates of metastasis and breast cancer death [15,16]. Therefore, nuclear grade is used as a major de
Chondroitin sulfates play a major role in breast cancer metastasis: a role for CSPG4 and CHST11 gene expression in forming surface P-selectin ligands in aggressive breast cancer cells
Craig A Cooney, Fariba Jousheghany, Aiwei Yao-Borengasser, Bounleut Phanavanh, Tina Gomes, Ann Kieber-Emmons, Eric R Siegel, Larry J Suva, Soldano Ferrone, Thomas Kieber-Emmons, Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi
Breast Cancer Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2895
Abstract: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and flow cytometry assays were used to detect the expression of genes involved in the sulfation and presentation of chondroitin in several human breast cancer cell lines. Transient transfection of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with the siRNAs for carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase-11 (CHST11) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4 ) was used to investigate the involvement of these genes in expression of surface P-selectin ligands. The expression of CSPG4 and CHST11 in 15 primary invasive breast cancer clinical specimens was assessed by qRT-PCR. The role of CS-GAGs in metastasis was tested using the 4T1 murine mammary cell line (10 mice per group).The CHST11 gene was highly expressed in aggressive breast cancer cells but significantly less so in less aggressive breast cancer cell lines. A positive correlation was observed between the expression levels of CHST11 and P-selectin binding to cells (P < 0.0001). Blocking the expression of CHST11 with siRNA inhibited CS-A expression and P-selectin binding to MDA-MB-231 cells. The carrier proteoglycan CSPG4 was highly expressed on the aggressive breast cancer cell lines and contributed to the P-selectin binding and CS-A expression. In addition, CSPG4 and CHST11 were over-expressed in tumor-containing clinical tissue specimens compared with normal tissues. Enzymatic removal of tumor-cell surface CS-GAGs significantly inhibited lung colonization of the 4T1 murine mammary cell line (P = 0.0002).Cell surface P-selectin binding depends on CHST11 gene expression. CSPG4 serves as a P-selectin ligand through its CS chain and participates in P-selectin binding to the highly metastatic breast cancer cells. Removal of CS-GAGs greatly reduces metastatic lung colonization by 4T1 cells. The data strongly indicate that CS-GAGs and their biosynthetic pathways are promising targets for the development of anti-metastatic therapies.Tumor-associated glycans play a significant
Bridging Innate and Adaptive Antitumor Immunity Targeting Glycans
Anastas Pashov,Bejatolah Monzavi-Karbassi,Gajendra P. S. Raghava,Thomas Kieber-Emmons
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/354068
Abstract: Effective immunotherapy for cancer depends on cellular responses to tumor antigens. The role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in T-cell recognition and T-cell receptor repertoire selection has become a central tenet in immunology. Structurally, this does not contradict earlier findings that T-cells can differentiate between small hapten structures like simple glycans. Understanding T-cell recognition of antigens as defined genetically by MHC and combinatorially by T cell receptors led to the “altered self” hypothesis. This notion reflects a more fundamental principle underlying immune surveillance and integrating evolutionarily and mechanistically diverse elements of the immune system. Danger associated molecular patterns, including those generated by glycan remodeling, represent an instance of altered self. A prominent example is the modification of the tumor-associated antigen MUC1. Similar examples emphasize glycan reactivity patterns of antigen receptors as a phenomenon bridging innate and adaptive but also humoral and cellular immunity and providing templates for immunotherapies.
The Fractured Bur, One of the Occupational Injuries in Dentistry (Case Report)
Monzavi A.
Journal of Dental Medicine , 2000,
Abstract: Dentists and dental professional are constantly in contact with round, sharp, hot, and rotating instruments such as burs, scalpel blades, files, etc., in daily practice. Gate Glidden is one of the mentioned instruments used for removing gutta percha from root canal- treated teeth. In this article, a rare case of penetration of a fractured Gate Gildden bur into a dentist's elbow is reported and precaution instructions are discussed.
The effect of digitalized museum information on learning
Damon Monzavi
University Museums and Collections Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Five years ago, the Gemstones Museum began introducing Iranians to the art, science and industry of gemstones and minerals. One of the ways that the Gemstones Museum tries to communicate is through making its digital documentation accessible through Bluetooth technology. When visitors turn on their Bluetooth in the Museum entrance, they are asked to subscribe to the SMS newsletter. By subscribing, the member receives an SMS newsletter every two days. When a child or student subscribes, he or she receives a quiz question or a puzzle and can win points in a competition, leading to a prize. Inside the Museum, visitors are encouraged to enter into their phone the numbers next to exhibits. On doing this, they receive information about the exhibit, together with images and music. Most of the Museum’s visitors (especially from the younger generation) enjoy this kind of learning, and in the course of less than one year more than 5,000 people have subscribed to our SMS newsletters.
A Case of Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Kidney Mimicking Nephroblastoma
Rahele Monzavi
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2009,
Abstract: "nAlthough rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is one of the most common malignant tumors in infants and children, RMS of the kidney is extremely rare. In fact, among the three subtypes of RMS, alveolar RMS occurs more often in large muscles of the trunk, arms and legs and typically affects older children or teenagers. Here we report a case of alveolar RMS of the kidney in a 6-month-old girl with the imaging findings. "nThis article shows that the "claw sign" in CT scan, which is described in wilms tumor, can be seen in other renal masses in children and the aggressive nature of tumor growth should arise suggestion of other rare renal masses such as RMS.
A comparison on the marginal gap of two base metal alloys (Minalux, VeraBond2) during firing cycles of porcelain
Monzavi A.,Lavvaf Sh.
Journal of Dental Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: Statement of Problem: Nowadays economical issues on high gold alloys have changed the practice of metal-ceramic restorations toward base-metal alloys. Minalux is one of the base-metal alloys produced in Iran. Marginal fitness is of high importance to be evaluated in dental alloys."nPurpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the marginal adaptation of two base-metal alloys, Minalux (Mavadkaran Co. Iran) and VeraBond2 (Aibadent Co. USA ) during firing cycles of porcelain. Materials and Methods: In an experimental study 24 standard brass dies, with 135° chamfer finishing line were fabricated by Computer Numeric Controlled (CNC) milling machine. The samples were randomly divided in two groups, A and B, 12 in each. Following wax-up, the samples were equally cast with two mentioned alloys. In each group, there were 4 controlled samples, which proceeded to firing cycle without veneering porcelain. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements of marginal gap from buccal and lingual aspects were performed after 4 stages of casting, degassing, porcelain application and glazing. The data were analyzed using Four-way ANOVA and multiple comparative test based on Tukey criteria. Results: The findings of this study revealed that there was no significant difference in the marginal gap of Minalux (31.10±7.8u.m) and VeraBond2 (30.27±6.96u.m) with confidence level at 0.95 (P=0.43). For both alloys the greatest gap was observed after degassing stage (P<0.05). Porcelain and porcelain veneering proximity caused significant changes in the marginal gap of Minalux castings (P<0.05), however, such changes did not occur in VeraBond2 (PO.05)."nConclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the marginal gaps of two base metal alloys, Minalux and VeraBond2, were proved to be identical and that of the Minalux alloy existed in the range of acceptable clinical application. It was also concluded that Minalux dental alloys could provide proper marginal adaptation.
Use of Irreversible Hydrocolloid to Blockout Interproximal Spaces for an Easy Impression Taking
A. Monzavi,G. Asadi
Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Making impression to obtain an accurate working cast needs to use accurate impression materials such as polyether. On the other hand, polyether cannot be used easily in places with undercut such as excessive interproximal spaces and under the pontics of fixed partialdentures as it may be locked in these free spaces. In this article, a method is presented to blockout interproximal spaces in order to minimize distortion and to facilitate impression removal from the mouth.
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