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Seroprevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Wild Rodents from the Canary Islands
Aarón Martin-Alonso, Pilar Foronda, María Antonieta Quispe-Ricalde, Carlos Feliu, Basilio Valladares
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027747
Abstract: Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a lungworm of rats (Muridae) that is the causative agent of human cerebral angiostrongyliasis. The life cycle of A. cantonensis involves rats and mollusks as the definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. This study was designed to increase the knowledge about the occurrence and distribution of A. cantonensis in its definitive host in the Canary Islands, using parasitological and serological analysis in different areas and age groups. Methodology/Principal Findings Between 2009 and 2010, 54 black rats (Rattus rattus) from Tenerife were captured from six human-inhabited areas and sera samples were obtained. The lung nematodes were identified by morphological and molecular tools as A. cantonensis. The 31-kDa glycoprotein antigen was purified from A. cantonensis adult worms by electrophoresis and electroelution. Of the 54 tested rodents, 30 showed IgG antibodies against A. cantonensis 31-kDa antigen by ELISA. Therefore, the overall seroprevalence was 55.6% (95% CI: 42.4–68). Seroprevalent rodents were found in all the 6 areas. This 31-kDa antigen was not recognized by some sera of rats infected by other helminth species (but not A. cantonensis). Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against A. cantonensis and prevalence based on the presence of adult worms showed significant correlation (R2 = 0.954, p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance The present results could indicate a high prevalence of A. cantonensis in Tenerife and suggest the inclusion of two new zones in the distribution area of the parasite. The commonness and wide distribution of A. cantonensis in rats implies the presence of intermediate hosts, indicating that humans may be at risk of getting infected.
Immunization against Lamb Haemonchosis with a Recombinant Somatic Antigen of Haemonchus contortus (rHcp26/23)
Leticia García-Coiradas,Francisco Angulo-Cubillán,Basilio Valladares,Enrique Martínez,Concepción de la Fuente,José María Alunda,Montserrat Cuquerella
Veterinary Medicine International , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/852146
Abstract: Haemonchosis, caused by the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus, is a common parasitic disease of sheep. Our previous results showed that a soluble fraction from adult stages of the nematode (p26/23) induced partial protection against challenge. Recombinant DNA technology was applied to obtain a synthetic protein (rHcp26/23). Immunological assays (ELISA, Western blotting, and immunolocalization), using sera from lambs immunized with p26/23, confirmed the identity of the recombinant protein and demonstrated that the synthetic protein is equivalent to the purified protein employed in the previous immunoprophylaxis studies. Vaccination of lambs with 300 g of rHcp26/23 and Freund's adjuvant elicited a notable specific antibody response. Immunization did not induce any significant protection after challenge with 16000 infective larvae of H. contortus, and comparable values for parasite faecal egg output, packed cell volume, and abomasal parasite burdens were found in vaccinated and control animals.
Modeling of leishmaniasis infection dynamics: novel application to the design of effective therapies
Bettina M L?nger, Cristina Pou-Barreto, Carlos González-Alcón, Basilio Valladares, Bettina Wimmer, Néstor V Torres
BMC Systems Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-0509-6-1
Abstract: Four biologically significant variables were chosen to develop a differential equation model based on the GMA power-law formalism. Parameters were determined to minimize error in the model dynamics and time series experimental data. Subsequently, the model robustness was tested and the model predictions were verified by comparing them with experimental observations made in different experimental conditions. The model obtained helps to quantify relationships between the selected variables, leads to a better understanding of disease progression, and aids in the identification of crucial points for introducing therapeutic methods.Our model can be used to identify the biological factors that must be changed to minimize parasite load in the host body, and contributes to the design of effective therapies.The WHO considers leishmaniasis as one of the six most important tropical diseases worldwide [1]. It is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania that are passed to humans and animals by sandflies of the subfamily Phlebotominae [2]. Leishmaniasis, which is endemic in 88 countries, has an annual incidence of two million cases and is estimated to cause over 50,000 deaths per year [3]. The disease has three main forms: cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form of the disease, is also known as "kala azar", "black fever" or "dumdum fever". It especially affects hosts with weak immune systems, such as children or adults suffering from malnutrition or HIV. The human immune response that limits leishmaniasis is mediated by Th1 cells that activate macrophages to kill the parasite (cellular immunity). When cellular immunity is deficient, an expansion of Th2 cells occurs which allows the parasite to survive within the monocytes and fosters disease development [4]. After an incubation period that varies from ten days to two years [3], typical symptoms are fever, diarrhea, body weight loss, lymphaden
Microscopy and molecular biology for the diagnosis and evaluation of malaria in a hospital in a rural area of Ethiopia
Maria A Santana-Morales, Raquel N Afonso-Lehmann, Maria A Quispe, Francisco Reyes, Pedro Berzosa, Agustin Benito, Basilio Valladares, Enrique Martinez-Carretero
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-199
Abstract: A cross-sectional survey of 471 individuals was carried out in a hospital in the rural area of Gambo (Ethiopia). Blood samples were prepared for microscopic observation and collected in filter paper for Seminested-Multiplex PCR (SnM-PCR) and real time PCR (qPCR) testing. The SnM-PCR was considered as the gold standard technique and compared with the rest. Thus, agreement between SnM-PCR and LM was determined by calculating Kappa Statistics and correlation between LM and qPCR quantification was calculated by pair-wise correlation co-efficient.Samples analysed by LM and SnM-PCR were positive for Plasmodium sp. 5.5% and 10.5%, respectively. Sensitivity was 52.2% by LM and 70% by qPCR. Correlation co-efficient between microscopy counts and qPCR densities for Plasmodium vivax was R2?=?0.586. Prevalence was estimated at 7% (95% CI: 4.7–9.3). Plasmodium vivax was the dominant species detected and the difference was statistically significant (χ2?=?5.121 p?<?0.05). The highest prevalence of the parasite (10.9%) was observed in age groups under 15?years old.Accurate malaria diagnostic methods have a great effect in the reduction of the number of malaria-infected individuals. SnM-PCR detection of malaria parasites may be a very useful complement to microscopic examination in order to obtain the real prevalence of each Plasmodium species. Although SnM-PCR shows that it is a good tool for the determination of Plasmodium species, today light microscopy remains the only viabletool for malaria diagnosis in developing countries. Therefore, re-inforcement in the training of microscopists is essential for making the correct diagnosis of malaria. Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species in Gambo, a meso-endemic area for this species.
Detection of Leishmania braziliensis in human paraffin-embedded tissues from Tucumán, Argentina by polymerase chain reaction
Córdoba Lanús, Elizabeth;Pi?ero, José Enrique;González, Ana Cristina;Valladares, Basilio;Lizarralde de Grosso, Mercedes;Salomón, Oscar Daniel;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762005000200013
Abstract: american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) is an endemic disease in northern argentina. we applied the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) followed by a hybridization labelled probe to 21 paraffin embedded human skin biopsies, already analyzed histologically, from leishmaniasis endemic areas in the province of tucumán, argentina. we used primers previously designed to detect a leishmania-specific 120-base-pair fragment of kinetoplast dna minicircle, other two primer pairs that amplify kdna minicircles belonging to the l. braziliensis and l. mexicana complexes respectively, and specific oligonucleotide primers to detect l. (v.) braziliensis which amplify the sequence of the ribosomal protein l-14 of this species. the pcr-hybridization showed a sensitivity of 90.5% when compared to the histopathology test which was 61.9%. five of the total samples analyzed were positive for the l. braziliensis complex whilst none was positive for the l. mexicana complex. the specific primers for l. (v.) braziliensis detected the parasite in four samples. these results are consistent with those reported for close endemic areas and demonstrate that the causative agent of human leishmaniasis in the analyzed cases was l. (v.) braziliensis. pcr should be used as a diagnostic tool for tegumentary leishmaniasis, especially in the mucosal form, and as a valuable technique for the identification of the leishmania species that causes the disease in certain areas.
Morfológica e Castilhamente: um Estudo das Constru??es X-mente no Português do Brasil
BASILIO, Margarida;
DELTA: Documenta??o de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-44501998000300003
Abstract: this work addresses the question of the morphological structure of x-mente forms and of the degree of productivity of -mente in forming adverbs in brazilian portuguese. the author (a) shows that -mente is not properly a suffix in brazilian portuguese; (b) claims that, although the great majority of morphological types of adjectives can be involved in x-mente adverbs, the formative -mente does not have inflection level productivity; and (c) presents a preliminary study of productivity conditions of -mente in forming modal adverbs.
Metaphor and metonymy in word formation
Basilio, Margarida;
DELTA: Documenta??o de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-44502006000300006
Abstract: this work investigates the relevance of analogy, metonymy and metaphor in word formation patterns and their products. initially, the semantic side of proportional analogy in morphological restructuring is analyzed. the work then concentrates on the role of metonymy in the formation of instrumentals and agent nouns. the last part of the work is dedicated to the role of metaphor in compounding. the main point of the paper is to show how metaphor is fundamental to the constitution of the lexicon and, consequently, how unfortunate for the discussion of metaphor in language is the relative disregard to word-formation processes.
Global convergence and non existence of periodic points of period 4
Basilio Messano
Le Matematiche , 1989,
Abstract: It is given a non trivial example of nonempty subset I of C0([0,1]2) such that: whatever F I be, for the pair ([0,1]2,F) the successive approximations method converges globally (i.e. For each P [0,1]2 the sequence (Fn(P))n N converges to a fixed point of F if and only if F has no periodic point of period 4.
Convegno Internazionale Tecnico·Scientifico dello Spazio Presentazione del Prof. Seno Basilio Focaccia, Presidente della Rassegna e del Convegno Tecnico·Scientifico dello Spazio.
Basilio Focaccia
Annals of Geophysics , 1962, DOI: 10.4401/ag-5414
Abstract: .
Morfológica e Castilhamente: um Estudo das Constru es X-mente no Português do Brasil
BASILIO Margarida
DELTA: Documenta??o de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada , 1998,
Abstract: Neste trabalho é discutida a estrutura morfológica das constru es X-mente no português do Brasil e estudadas em caráter preliminar as condi es de produtividade das constru es adverbiais X-mente no português do Brasil. A autora (a) problematiza a análise de -mente como deriva o sufixal; (b) observa que, embora a produtividade de -mente n o possa ser considerada de nível flexional, a grande maioria de tipos morfológicos de adjetivos podem ser envolvidos em constru es X-mente; e (c) faz uma análise preliminar das condi es de produtividade de advérbios modalizadores em -mente.
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