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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 151795 matches for " Bashir H. Osman "
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A State of the Art Review on the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams under Cyclic Loading  [PDF]
Bashir H. Osman
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2018.64049
Abstract: In the last two decades, the study of reinforced concrete (RC) structures elements such as bridge deck slabs, bridge girders, or offshore installations, which?are?subjected to cyclic action typically induced by seismic motions has received the attention of many researchers.Furthermore, the past two decades have witnessed rapid growth in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) confining jackets for the strengthening/retrofit of reinforced concrete (RC) columns and beams. Moreover, several theoretical and empirical modelshave been proposed for evaluating theshear strength of beams, columns and beam-to-column joints. In thispaper, an overview of the models currently available in the scientific literature forevaluating theshear capacity ofbeams, columns andexterior beam-to-column jointsis reported.?Further, important practical issues which contribute inshear strengthening of structures with different element types especially RC beams with different strengthening techniques, such as steel plate and FRP laminate are discussed.Finally,?directions for future research based on the existing gaps of the existing works are presented.
Effect of Pesticide Residues (Sevin) on Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Free Nitrogen Fixers (Azotobacter spp)  [PDF]
Mohammed M. A. Elbashier, Xiaohou Shao, Alnail Mohmmed, Albashir A. S. Ali, Bashir H. Osman
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/as.2016.72009
Abstract: Since the pesticides are considered as an essential component for crops production through controlling pests, they have shown a negative effect on crops and soil environment when used intensively. This experiment was conducted at Wadi Soba farm (Sharq Elneel) Khartoum, Sudan. It aimed to study the effect of Sevin residuals on carrot growth and Azotobacter spp. colonies growth. Carrot planted in late February 2013, Sevin pesticide (2.5 L/ha and 5 L/ha) was added to estimate plant height, dry weight, the number of plant leaves and the number of Azotobacter spp. colonies isolated from the carrot rhizosphere (0 - 15 cm). The obtained results showed that the Sevin recommended dose (2.5 L/ha) relatively had a positive effect on the plant height, dry weight, and the number of plant leaves. The average of plant height for recommended dose was 59.67 cm compared to control (53.67 cm) and high dose (27.33 cm). The average of plant dry weight obtained by the recommended dose was 503.33 g and for control was 476.67 g and for high dose was 166.7 g, it decreased 67% from control and recommended dose. The average of plant leaves number were 25.34, 13.66 and 21.33 for recommended dose, high dose and control respectively, the number of leaves increased about 16% by recommended dose and decreased 35% by high dose. The average of Azotobacter spp. colonies obtained by high dose of Sevin demonstrated a lower numbers which were 20 × 104, 5.67 × 106 and 0.33 × 108 compared with control (78.33 × 104, 44 × 106 and 15.33 × 108) and the recommended dose (64 × 104, 33 × 106 and 7 × 108). The high dose of Sevin had a negative effect on both carrot growth and Azotobacter spp. colonies growth.
Detection and Quantification of Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine in Sera and Urine of Sudanese Patients Infected with Schistosoma haematobium  [PDF]
A. Hammad, Manahil Nouri, Abdelbagi Alfadil, H. A. Musa, M. A. Osman, A. Bashir, Nawal Eltayeb Omer, Yasir Hassan, A. Alfarazdeg, A. Mustafa
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2016.61006
Abstract: Cytokines have been in focus of scientific in for more than decade now. Analyzing their expression has enabled a better understanding of pathogenesis of various diseases. Moreover, they are now for beyond their stage when they were of interest for pathophysiological research. In the present study, we used an assay to anti-inflammatory cytokines. One hundred and thirty sera and urine from egg positive individuals and 42 samples of healthy individuals in Eldeum locality—an endemic area of S. haematobum and 28 healthy individuals from non-endemic area were tested. Concentration of IL5 and IL10 is reverse. IL5 is low in serum but high in urine before treatment and high in serum and low in urine after treatment. IL10 is high in serum, low in urine before treatment and low in serum, high in urine after treatment.
Sodium Toxicity control by the use of Magnesium in an Anaerobic Reactor
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2004,
Abstract: : This study investigated the effectiveness of magnesium in reducing sodium toxicity in mesophilic (35oC) completely mixed anaerobic digesters (CMADs). The CMADs were operated at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading of 0.5 g/l/day initially which was gradually increased to 1.8 g/l/day. To evaluate the effect of sodium concentration on methanogens, the biomass in one of the CMADs was acclimated to an increasing concentration of sodium while the feed to the second CMAD was not supplemented with any additional sodium. The COD removal efficiency and methane production decreased by nearly 30% and 20% respectively at a sodium concentration of 9.0 g/l. Similarly, the total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration increased from a mere 200 mg/l to 3000 mg/l. At this point, magnesium was added gradually to one of the reactors. The COD removal efficiency and methane production returned to the original level of 92% and 62% respectively, and the VFA concentration became negligible. It can be concluded that magnesium is very effective in reducing sodium toxicity to methanogens. @JASEM
Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Peri-Natal Sudanese Women and Associated Risks Factors  [PDF]
Abdelgadir H. Osman, Taissier Y. Hagar, Abdelaziz A. Osman, Hussein Suliaman
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.54039
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to estimate a point prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among Sudanese peri-natal women attending ant-natal and postnatal clinics in the capital city of Sudan. Simultaneously, to examine the associated risks factors. Participants were 945 peri-natal women in two main women antenatal and post natal clinics in the Capital City of Sudan screened consecutively. They were divided into two groups. The first group was of, Four Hundreds eighty (480) women in their third trimester, and the second group consisted of Four Hundreds Sixty Five (465) women in the first 10 week of postnatal period. All participants were screened, using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), and Personal information Questionnaire (PIQ) for collecting socio-demographic, personal, medical, social and family history data. Routine urine and blood results were recorded. Results: 59% of prenatal and 46% of postnatal women suffered from high levels of distress in the form of mixed anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, only 20.9% of peri-natal women suffered of moderate to severe depression. Over 90% of the depressed women were not formally diagnosed or received psychiatric help. Poor marital relationship, physical co-morbidity, positive family history and past psychiatric history of depression were the main significant risk factors associated with perinatal depression and anxiety. Conclusion: Contrary to the commonly held views that perinatal women are mainly plighted with depression as the main mental illness, this study confirms initial findings that, anxiety disorder is far more prevalent and more distressing to this vulnerable group. Moreover, psychiatric morbidities in both prenatal and postnatal periods attract high prevalence rates in low income countries. Maternal health policies in low income countries must incorporate routine screening for mental health status, basic support and interventions for mental illnesses in perinatal women. Depression and emotional disorders in perinatal women should be seen as important public health priority.
BinaxNOW - An immunochromatographic test for the diagnosis of human influenza viruses: Comparison with viral culture and polymerase chain reaction
Bhattacharya S,Osman H
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: A rapid test for influenza viruses (Binax NOW ) was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In season-1, 35 respiratory samples were tested retrospectively; in season-2, 45 samples were tested prospectively [gold-standard: viral culture in season-1, culture+ reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in season-2]. Results: Sensitivity for Binax for influenza A was 59.3 and 0% in season-1 and -2, respectively. Sensitivity was low for influenza B (33.3% in season-1, 26.1% in season-2). Samples having low viral load were more likely to have a negative Binax test. Specificity of Binax was high (100 and 94.7% with influenza A and B, respectively). Conclusion: Sensitivity information provided in the kit insert does not always reflect post licensure performance in clinical settings.
Prevalence of Rifampicin Resistance and Associated Risk Factors among Suspected Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Cases in TB Centers Mogadishu-Somalia: Descriptive Study  [PDF]
Ahmed Y. Guled, Ayub Hassan Elmi, Bashir Mohamud Abdi, Abdihamid Mohamed Ali Rage, Fartun Mohamed Ali, Abdullahi Hassan Abdinur, Abdullahi Abdulle Ali, Anab Adam Ahmed, Khadra Abdullahi Ibrahim, Salah Osman Mohamed, Fos Ali Mire, Omar Abdi Adem, Ali Dirie Osman
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2016.62003
Abstract: Introduction and Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a significant global health concern. Patients who had failed previous TB treatment, relapsed after treatment, contacted known MDRTB patients or defaulted during previous treatment, and HIV patients are considered to be suspected and at high risk for developing drug resistant TB specially MDR-TB. However, there is little data available on the prevalence and trends of MDR tuberculosis in national level but luck of it in Mogadishu is our main concern. Methodology: This was a crosssectional, descriptive study involving all suspected MDR TB patients attended at the Mogadishu three Tb centers. Results: A total of 138 cases of suspected MDRTB patients were included in the study. Of these, 70 patients (51%) had rifampicin resistant-TB. Of the 138 study participants, 94 (68.62%) were between 21 - 40 years old that indicates the dominance of productive age group (21 - 40 years). Previous Tuberculosis treatment has been noted to be a major risk factor for development of multidrug resistance tuberculosis. MDR-TB prevalence is significantly higher in male than female patients. Conclusion and Interpretation: The prevalence of Rifampicin resistance among these high risk groups was significant. The high association of previous TB treatment to MDR-TB might be explained due to inappropriate anti-tubercular regimens, sub-optimal drugs, inadequate or irregular drug supply, unsatisfactory patient or clinician compliance, lack of supervision of treatment and absence of infection control measures in healthcare facilities. As the prevalence of MDRTB is high and yet the cases remain un-isolated in the community we recommend the MOH/NTP and funding agencies to facilitate establishment of MDRTB management centers earlier in Mogadishu in order to treat the MDRTB case otherwise it might Amplify of the incidence of this Emerging Disease.
Performance Analysis of Techniques Used for Determining Land Mines  [PDF]
Yavuz Ege, Adnan Kakilli, Osman K?l??, Hüseyin ?al?k, Hakan ??tak, Sedat Nazl?bilek, Osman Kalender
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.510098
Abstract: Today, remote sensing is used for different methods and different purposes. In all of the detection methods, some considerations such as low energy consumption, low cost, insensitivity to environmental changes, high accuracy, high reliability and robustness become important. Taking into account these facts, remote sensing methods are used in applications such as geological and archeological research, engineering areas, health services, preserving and controlling natural life, determination of underground sources, controlling air, sea and road traffic, military applications, etc. The method to be used is based on the object type to be detected, material to be made, and location to be found. The remote sensing methods from the past up to today can be listed as acoustic and seismic, ground penetration radar (GPR) detection, electromagnetic induction, infrared (IR) imaging, neutron quadrupole resonance (NQR), thermal neutron activation (TNA), neutron back scattering, X-ray back scattering, and magnetic anomaly detection. In these methods, detected raw images have to be processed, filtered and enhanced. In order to achieve these operations, some algorithms are needed to be developed. In this study, the methods used in detecting land mines remotely and their performance analysis have been given. In this way, the last situation on the advantages and disadvantages of methods used, application areas and detection accuracies are determined. Furthermore, the algorithms such as transmission line matrix (TLM), finite difference time-domain (FDTD), the method of moment (MoM), split step parabolic equation (SSPE) and image processing and intelligent algorithms are presented in detail.
On $G$-sequential connectedness
Hüseyin ?akall?,Osman Mucuk
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Recently, Cakalli has introduced a concept of $G$-sequential connectedness in the sense that a non-empty subset $A$ of a Hausdorff topological group $X$ is $G$-sequentially connected if there are no non-empty, disjoint $G$-sequentially closed subsets $U$ and $V$ meeting $A$ such that $A\subseteq U\bigcup V$. In this paper we investigate further properties of $G$-sequential connectedness and prove some interesting theorems.
Antispasmodic and Antidiarrheal Activities of Valeriana hardwickii Wall. Rhizome Are Putatively Mediated through Calcium Channel Blockade
Samra Bashir,Raafia Memon,Anwar H. Gilani
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/304960
Abstract: Valeriana hardwickii is indigenous to Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon, where it is traditionally being used as an antispasmodic and antidiarrheal, besides its culinary use as spice. The aim of this paper was to provide pharmacological validation to these medicinal uses. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Valeriana hardwickii rhizome (Vh.Cr) was studied on isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice for spasmolytic and antidiarrheal properties, respectively. Vh.Cr caused concentration-dependent (0.01–1 mg/mL) relaxation of spontaneous contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum and inhibited K
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