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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 238 matches for " Baseline "
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An Adaptive Approach of Satellite Baseline Estimation in InSAR  [PDF]
Xianghua Wang
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.612100
Abstract: Baseline is an important parameter of radar interferometry. Generally, it can be estimated by satellite orbital data or ground control points. In this paper, an adaptive method is proposed to estimate it with combination satellite orbital data, and the accuracy of baseline estimated can be improved without ground control points; actual data of ERS and ENVISAT ASAR have been used in algorithm development and the final obtained elevation shows that the precise orbit data is more accurate than original orbit data in estimating baseline.
Differences in Baseline Characteristics of Patients Treated with Olanzapine or Other Antipsychotics in Japanese Patients with Acute Schizophrenia: A 1-Year Observational Study under Routine Clinical Practice in Japan  [PDF]
Michihiro Takahashi, Shinji Fujikoshi, Jumpei Funai, Levent Alev, Masaomi Iyo
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.53034
Abstract: Objective: Baseline characteristics of acute schizophrenia patients were analyzed to identify differences in the baseline characteristics of patients treated with olanzapine monotherapy compared with those treated with other antipsychotic monotherapies. Methods: This prospective, naturalistic observational study was designed to evaluate discontinuation rates of olanzapine and non-olanzapine antipsychotic monotherapy in Japanese adult patients with acute schizophrenia. Results: A total of 1089 patients were assessed: 578 patients were treated with olanzapine, 487 with non-olanzapine atypical antipsychotics, and 24 with typical antipsychotics. The mean Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) Schizophrenia, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) total, and BPRS positive scores were higher in patients treated with olanzapine compared with most of the non-olanzapine treated patients. The majority of patients with a CGI-S Schizophrenia score of 7 (29/41 patients) as well as patients with a BPRS total score of 90 or higher (14/18 patients) were treated with olanzapine. On the other hand, physicians tended to prescribe antipsychotics other than olanzapine for patients with heavier body weight or diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that olanzapine was more likely to be prescribed to patients with more severe schizophrenia symptoms. However, further studies are warranted to reach a definite conclusion.
A Steganography method for JPEG2000 Baseline System
P.Ramakrishna Rao M.Tech.,[CSE]
Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Hiding capacity is very important for efficient covert communications. For JPEG2000 compressed images, it is necessary to enlarge the hiding capacity because the available redundancy is very limited. In addition, the bitstream truncation makes it difficult to hide information. In this paper, a high-capacity steganography schemeis proposed for the JPEG2000 baseline system, which uses bit-plane encoding procedure twice to solve the problem due to bitstream truncation. Moreover, embedding points and their intensity are determined in a well defined quantitative manner via redundancy evaluation to increase hiding capacity. The redundancy is measured by bit, which is different from conventional methods which adjust the embedding intensity by multiplying a visual masking factor. High volumetric data is embedded into bit-planes as low as possible to keep message integrality, but at the cost of an extra bit-plane encoding procedure and slightly changed compression ratio. The proposed method can be easily integrated into the JPEG2000 image coder, and the produced stego-b
The Partial Fuzzy Set
Dr. Pranita Goswami
International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: The Partial Fuzzy Set is a portion of the Fuzzy Set which is again a Fuzzy Set. In the Partial Fuzzy Set the baseline is shifted from 0 to 1 to any of its α cuts . In this paper we have fuzzified a portion of the Fuzzy Set by transformation
Participation and Activity Rates: Monitoring Exposure Potential for Native Americans and Others in the United States  [PDF]
Joanna Burger
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.28116
Abstract: Managers and regulators are concerned about potential human health effects from exposure on lands contaminated by chemicals and radionuclides. Determining target cleanup levels is partly dependent upon future land use, and potential exposure from human use. This paper provides data from surveys of activity patterns of people attending festivals in four states, located in the vicinity of Department of Energy facilities. There were significant differences in both participation rates, and activity rates as a function of both location and ethnicity that can be used by managers to track exposure, land use, and preferred activities on natural lands. In general, 1) a higher percent of Native Americans engaged in consumptive activities than others, 2) a higher percent of Caucasians engaged in some non-consumptive activities than Native Americans, 3) a higher percentage of Native Americans engaged in activities on sacred grounds, 4) activity rates were generally higher for Native Americans for consumptive activities and religious/cultural than for Caucasians, 5) fishing rates were higher than other consumptive activities, and camping/hiking were higher than other non-con- sumptive activities, and 6) hunting rates were higher in subjects from Idaho than elsewhere. Baseline human use is critical for monitoring potential exposure, and provides the basis for monitoring, risk assessment and future land use, and these data can be used by managers for assessment and management. Tracking changes over time will reflect changing recreational, subsistence, and cultural/religious trends that relate to land use, public perceptions, and exposure.
Modeling Severity of Tuberculosis as a Multiple Cause of Death in South Africa  [PDF]
Ntonghanwah Forcheh, Keamogetse Setlhare, Alphonse K. A. Amey
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2014.21003
Abstract: The multiple cause of death (MCOD) analysis is used to account for the full contribution of TB as a cause of death to South African mortality in 2008 that were coded using ICD10. Following a review of MCOD methods, a sufficient set of variables for use in MCOD and a new method of quantifying the severity of each cause of death are proposed. The results show that a total of 86,818 (14.3% of all deaths) were TB related, and within all deaths due to natural underlying causes, 86,373 (16.1%) were TB related. Furthermore, 42,581 (7.9%) were due to TB only, 6.0% had TB as an underlying cause along with other contributory causes and 2.0% had TB as a contributory cause. TB was mentioned as the underlying cause of death in 74,863 certificates or 13.9% of deaths due to natural underlying causes. Further analysis using multinomial baseline logit models, reveals that the relative odds of death in any demographic group compared with death in the baseline categories depend on the severity level of TB considered. It is proposed that the severity measure should be adopted when studying the contribution of all main causes of death to total mortality.
Estimation of Carbon Emission Reductions by Managing Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest: Case Study in Popa Mountain Park  [PDF]
Yu Ya Aye, Savent Pampasit, Chanin Umponstira, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas, Nophea Sasaki
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.52009

Global efforts in mitigating climate change are increasingly important as more evidence of climate change impact is apparent. Reducing carbon emissions under the United Nations’ reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation of carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) have multiple implications for climate change mitigation and sustainable development. However, implementing REDD+ project requires understanding of the magnitude of emissions in the absence of project activities (baseline) and vice versa (projectline). This study attempted to estimate carbon emission reductions by reducing deforestation in dry mixed deciduous forests in Popa Mountain Park in Myanmar. Baseline deforestation was determined using the 1989-2005 forest cover data, while carbon stocks were derived from forest inventory data. Our results show that about 25% to 63% of forest area in the study site will be lost between 2013 and 2043 if no REDD+ project is implemented. Our study results suggest that managing4220 haof dry mixed deciduous forest in Popa Mountain Park could reduce emissions of about 104023.8 - 241991.0 tCO2 over a 30-year project cycle or about 3467 - 8066 tCO2 annually depending on deforestation rates. In terms of carbon revenues, the project would generate about US $349503.3 - $846968.6 per 30 years or US $11650.1 - $28232.3 annually depending on the assumption of carbon price. It is therefore important that carbon financing be made available to protect the forests in the Popa Mountain Park as well as other parts in Myanmar.

Baseline Laboratory Profile of HIV Positive Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Jos North Central Nigeria: Implications for Pre-vention, Treatment, Care and Support  [PDF]
Christian Ogoegbunem Isichei, Mercy Wakili Isichei, Jean Emile Njab, Johnson Ibidun Rotimi, Tinuade Abimbola Oyebode, Charles Ujunwa Anyaka, Kenneth Emeka Enwerem, Ayuba Ishiaku Affi, Lucius Chidiebere Imoh, Alexander Ogielu Abu, Solomon Abiola Asorose, Noel Omuya Amadu, Propser Ihenacho Okonkwo, Ngozi Ijeoma Okoro
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.54036
Abstract: Background: We characterized baseline laboratory data of patients to identify priority treatment areas, most affected populations, anticipated clinical complications and assessed the potential burden of retention in care in Jos, Plateau State—North Central Nigeria. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional design from January 2004 to December 2005 at Faith Alive Foundation (FAF). All participants were HIV-positive and underwent pre-antiretroviral therapy counseling based on the national antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines and baseline laboratory testing. Data were captured on Microsoft Excel, validated on Epi Info and analyzed on SPSS version 21 at P < .05 level of significance. Results: Total of 1499 (463 men and 1036 women) participants were evaluated in this study. The age and sex related distribution of participants showed that majority (80.3% for males and 92.5% for females) were 16 - 45 years old. Amylase and creatinine were significantly higher in males than females (P = .02). Anaemia was the most common baseline abnormality (63% for females and 58% for males), while baseline CD4 count was significantly lower in males than females (P < .02) and at one-third had elevated liver enzymes (AST and ALT). Conclusion: The baseline laboratory profile of most HIV positive patients in Jos and environs of North Central–Nigeria was characterized by anaemia, elevated creatinine, and abnormal liver transaminase levels (AST and ALT). This pre-ART laboratory result suggests that HIV-positive individuals have multiple clinical abnormalities which may require more extensive care than just treating the HIV disease.
Improvement of Conversation Skills through Script Fading in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder  [PDF]
Daniel Carvalho de Matos, Pollianna Galv?o Soares de Matos, Ana Flávia Lima Teles da Hora, Melina Serra Pereira, Kaline Silva Azevedo
Creative Education (CE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.103035
Abstract: The script fading procedure aims to develop better communication skills of children and youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder in relationship with other people. The procedure seeks to incorporate cues in several contexts. Scripts may be organized in day-to-day situations of life, such as playful interactions among children and the scripts may consist in pictorial, textual or auditory stimuli. If a learner, for example, lacks conversation skills, but has good repertoire regarding textual behavior, scripts consisting of written phrases may be presented and the learner has to read them. The listener may interact with the speaker like he is emitting responses free from the control of scripts. With repetitive exposure to the contingency and the establishment of a more fluent repertoire of textual behavior, the script is gradually faded out by word removal one by one. This process continues until the learner’s responses become free from the control of the whole scripts. Previous research has demonstrated the establishment of independent performance, maintenance and generalization to different settings and listeners. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this procedure in establishing conversation skills in a child aged 9 with ASD. Textual scripts were applied to three sets of conversation. After a baseline condition, training started and the experimental control by the independent variable was established through a multiple baseline design across the three different conversation topics. Independent performance was successfully established through reinforcement of correct performance and error correction. Although the interventions were conducted in a university-based laboratory, the established repertoires generalized to the child’s school classroom and another listeners (another adult and a child). Implications to school inclusion regarding the establishment of conversation among children in school setting were discussed.
International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET) , 2016,
Abstract: Cost over-runs and time over-runs are prevalent in most of the projects carried out in developing nations such as India. There may be multiple reasons for these overruns. In order to reduce them, there should be efficient use of the construction softwares available in the market. This paper emphasises the use of these softwares to reduce these issues by the use of a scientific technique called earned value analysis. Earned Value Analysis is an industry standard method of measuring a project’s progress at any given point of time, forecasting its completion date and final cost, analysing variances in the schedule and budget as the project proceeds. It is a method for measuring project performance, it indicates how much of the budget should have been spent, in view of the amount of work done and the baseline cost for the task, assignment and resources. The analysis helps in finding out the deviations both in cost as well as in time i.e. schedule variance and cost variance. This paper emphasizes on the use of this techniques in modern softwares such as Microsoft Project and Oracle Primavera P6 in order to exercise better management over the project.
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