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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2739 matches for " Barry Fuller "
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Molecular mechanisms of liver ischemia reperfusion injury: Insights from transgenic knockout models
Gourab Datta,Barry J Fuller,Brian R Davidson
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2013, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i11.1683
Abstract: Ischemia reperfusion injury is a major obstacle in liver resection and liver transplantation surgery. Understanding the mechanisms of liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and developing strategies to counteract this injury will therefore reduce acute complications in hepatic resection and transplantation, as well as expanding the potential pool of usable donor grafts. The initial liver injury is initiated by reactive oxygen species which cause direct cellular injury and also activate a cascade of molecular mediators leading to microvascular changes, increased apoptosis and acute inflammatory changes with increased hepatocyte necrosis. Some adaptive pathways are activated during reperfusion that reduce the reperfusion injury. IRI involves a complex interplay between neutrophils, natural killer T-cells cells, CD4+ T cell subtypes, cytokines, nitric oxide synthases, haem oxygenase-1, survival kinases such as the signal transducer and activator of transcription, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases/Akt and nuclear factor κβ pathways. Transgenic animals, particularly genetic knockout models, have become a powerful tool at elucidating mechanisms of liver ischaemia reperfusion injury and are complementary to pharmacological studies. Targeted disruption of the protein at the genetic level is more specific and maintained than pharmacological inhibitors or stimulants of the same protein. This article reviews the evidence from knockout models of liver IRI about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying liver IRI.
IGF-I activates caspases 3/7, 8 and 9 but does not induce cell death in colorectal cancer cells
Shi Yu Yang, Capucine Bolvin, Kevin M Sales, Barry Fuller, Alexander M Seifalian, Marc C Winslet
BMC Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-158
Abstract: Using three colorectal cancer cell lines and one muscle cell line, associations between IGF-I and activities of caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 have been examined; the role of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) in the caspase activation has been investigated.The results show that exogenous IGF-I significantly increases activity of caspases 3/7, 8 and 9 in all cell lines used; blocking IGF-I receptor reduce IGF-I-induced caspase activation. Further studies demonstrate that IGF-I induced caspase activation does not result in cell death. This is the first report to show that while IGF-I activates caspases 3/7, 8 and 9 it does not cause colorectal cancer cell death.The study suggests that caspase activation is not synonymous with apoptosis and that activation of caspases may not necessarily induce cell death.Normal human colon consists of many crypts; each crypt contains several thousand differentiated cells and a small number of stem cells. Stem cells reside at the bottom of the crypts and divide slowly and systemically, whereas differentiated cells divide rapidly and travel to the top of the crypt. Each day a total of approximately 1010 cells are shed into the colon lumen through apoptosis [1]. Apoptosis is therefore crucial for the maintenance of normal colon morphology and function. When programmed cell death does not occur appropriately in the colon, cells that should be eliminated might persist, become neoplastic and subsequently develop into colorectal cancer (CRC).CRC is the third most common cancer in the western world. Despite advances in the management of this condition, including improved surgical techniques, the use of chemo or radiotherapy and, more recently, the use of screening, the mortality has not changed for decades. At least 40% of patients with colorectal cancer develop metastases; chemotherapy alone or in combination with radiotherapy is usually used as an adjuvant therapy to surgery for the advanced disease [2]. These approaches, however, are no
Inducing apoptosis of human colon cancer cells by an IGF-I D domain analogue peptide
Shi Yu Yang, Kevin M Sales, Barry J Fuller, Alexander M Seifalian, Marc C Winslet
Molecular Cancer , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-7-17
Abstract: We have designed and synthesised a novel antagonist of IGF-I receptor. The effect of this antagonist on human colon cancer cell proliferation was examined by a non-radioactive assay; the apoptosis was revealed by determining the activities of cellular caspases3/7, 8 and 9. The apoptosis pathways were investigated by examining the levels of pro-apoptosis proteins with Western blotting. Following 40 hours treatment with the novel antagonist peptide, colon cancer cell Caspase 3/7 activities increased 2–7 times; Caspase 8 activities increased 2–5 times and Caspase 9 increased 1.2–1.6 times. The proliferation of cancer cell was inhibited by 14–15%. The data showed that the antagonist induced colon cancer cell apoptosis and inhibited cancer cell proliferation. The different changes of Caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 activities suggested that the extrinsic pathways may play a major role in the antagonist peptide-induced apoptosis.This is the first report on this novel antagonist to induce human colon cancer cell apoptosis and inhibit cancer cell proliferation. These results suggest that IGF-I receptor antagonists may have the potential to be developed as a novel therapy for colon cancers in the future.Worldwide, colorectal cancer accounts for almost one million new cases and causes a half million deaths annually [1]. In Europe colorectal cancer ranks second in frequency of new cases in both men and women and is the second leading killer after lung cancer [2]. Colorectal cancer is presently treated by surgical ablation, but many colorectal cancers are detected at a late stage when surgery cannot cure the disease. At least 40% of patients with colorectal cancer develop metastases; chemotherapy alone or in combination with radiotherapy can be used as an adjuvant therapy to surgery for more advanced disease [3]. However, these approaches are not highly effective against disseminated colorectal cancer [4]. New therapeutic strategies are needed for treatment of advanced or metastatic color
The National One Week Prevalence Audit of Universal Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Admission Screening 2012
Christopher Fuller, Julie Robotham, Joanne Savage, Susan Hopkins, Sarah R. Deeny, Sheldon Stone, Barry Cookson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074219
Abstract: Introduction The English Department of Health introduced universal MRSA screening of admissions to English hospitals in 2010. It commissioned a national audit to review implementation, impact on patient management, admission prevalence and extra yield of MRSA identified compared to “high-risk” specialty or “checklist-activated” screening (CLAS) of patients with MRSA risk factors. Methods National audit May 2011. Questionnaires to infection control teams in all English NHS acute trusts, requesting number patients admitted and screened, new or previously known MRSA; MRSA point prevalence; screening and isolation policies; individual risk factors and patient management for all new MRSA patients and random sample of negatives. Results 144/167 (86.2%) trusts responded. Individual patient data for 760 new MRSA patients and 951 negatives. 61% of emergency admissions (median 67.3%), 81% (median 59.4%) electives and 47% (median 41.4%) day-cases were screened. MRSA admission prevalence: 1% (median 0.9%) emergencies, 0.6% (median 0.4%) electives, 0.4% (median 0%) day-cases. Approximately 50% all MRSA identified was new. Inpatient MRSA point prevalence: 3.3% (median 2.9%). 104 (77%) trusts pre-emptively isolated patients with previous MRSA, 63 (35%) pre-emptively isolated admissions to “high-risk” specialties; 7 (5%) used PCR routinely. Mean time to MRSA positive result: 2.87 days (±1.33); 37% (219/596) newly identified MRSA patients discharged before result available; 55% remainder (205/376) isolated post-result. In an average trust, CLAS would reduce screening by 50%, identifying 81% of all MRSA. “High risk” specialty screening would reduce screening by 89%, identifying 9% of MRSA. Conclusions Implementation of universal screening was poor. Admission prevalence (new cases) was low. CLAS reduced screening effort for minor decreases in identification, but implementation may prove difficult. Cost effectiveness of this and other policies, awaits evaluation by transmission dynamic economic modelling, using data from this audit. Until then trusts should seek to improve implementation of current policy and use of isolation facilities.
Music Assessment in Higher Education  [PDF]
John A. Fuller
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.26056
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the type and level of assessment being done at selected music departments in higher education. A twelve-item questionnaire was developed and distributed to twenty-two universities. Sixteen universities were chosen because they are the peer institutions to the author’s campus. The others do not have music major but possess other strengths including several ensembles, many courses for students to choose from and in many cases, a minor in music. Cover letters and questionnaires were emailed to the Director of each Music Department. The cover letter explained the purpose of the questionnaire and asked that the director forward it to the individual in charge of assessment. Eleven universities responded. Results of this study indicate that assessment is going on in higher education in music. Although there were only eleven institutions involved in the study, every responding university indicated that they were doing some kind of assessment in music. The degree of assessment varied from campus to campus. Assessment training and support was limited. But, eleven music departments nationwide feel the need (and responsibility) to examine what and how they are teaching and then to come up with decisions on how to improve their teaching. Further, they feel that implementation of reviewed assessment techniques will improve students’ learning.
Delayed Thoracic Radiation Injury  [PDF]
Barry Dicicco
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.36094
Abstract: A case of delayed thoracic radiation injury occurring many years after an initial lung insult is presented. This case involves an individual who developed acute respiratory failure due to severe pleural fibrosis or fibrothorax possibly as a result of distant radiation therapy for Hodgkins disease.
Andragogy and Engagement in Online Learning: Tenets and Solutions  [PDF]
Barry Chametzky
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.510095
Abstract: In this paper, the author discusses two tenets of online learning: andragogy and learner engagement. What are the foundational principles of these educational practices? In light of the discussed foundational principles, the author examines various techniques which educators could use in order to help online learners succeed in the often-stressful environment. Ultimately, educators want learners to reach the pinnacle of Bloom’s Taxonomy pyramid; by following the suggestions presented in this paper, educators will help learners accomplish this objective. Yet, more research is needed in this area. Therefore, the recommendation is for further study in the relationship between andragogy and the varied mesh of ideas associated with meaningfulness and engagement.

Coding in Classic Grounded Theory: I’ve Done an Interview; Now What?  [PDF]
Barry Chametzky
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2016.64014
Abstract: Without a doubt, many graduate students—especially those who do not have a mentor skilled in the classic grounded theory design—are concerned about doing studies or dissertations using the classic grounded theory design for fear of doing them incorrectly. While there is extant literature in the field of classic grounded theory, a clear and simple how-to does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to give novice researchers interested in the classic grounded theory design a foothold in how to do one aspect of classic grounded theory analysis: coding. The explanation offered in this paper is based in theory and supported with practical examples.
Do Patients with Asymptomatic Congenital Complete Heart Block Require a Pacemaker for Non-Cardiac Surgery?  [PDF]
Barry Swerdlow
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2018.84014
Abstract: The appropriate preparation of the patient with asymptomatic congenital complete heart block (CCHB) and a narrow QRS complex for elective non-cardiac surgery is controversial. Prophylactic temporary pacemaker insertion is associated with well-defined risks, and less invasive techniques exist to treat transient, hemodynamically significant intraoperative brady-arrhythmias. The present case report details the performance of general anesthesia for arthroscopic knee surgery in an adult patient with this condition without a pacemaker. Documentation of preoperative chronotropic competence with isoproterenol may be of value in deciding whether to proceed without temporary pacing capability in this setting.
The Online World Languages Anxiety Scale (OWLAS)  [PDF]
Barry Chametzky
Creative Education (CE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.101005
Abstract: Sadly, anxiety and stress exist all around us. While anxiety has previously been studied in traditional foreign language environments, no information exists about anxiety in an online foreign language environment. Withouthaving a detailed understanding of potential problems in an online environment, educators, administrators, and course designers would not be able to help struggling, suffering students. Thus, the purpose of this seven-participant pilot study was to develop a more refined understanding of foreign language anxiety in the online learning environment. In some respects, the results of this?study confirm what foreign language educators already know: students prefer writing rather than speaking, interacting with the instructor rather than with peers, and keeping up with the work is sometimes a challenge. Additionally, if students don’t know basic grammatical elements in their native language,?there may be issues in the target language. Yet, researchers can now begin to understand additional components of anxiety that were not examined previously in online foreign language courses in a more nuanced manner.
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