Abstract:
Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is very challenging, due to several characteristics that distinguish them from existing communication and wireless ad-hoc networks. Data forwarding technique in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is analogous with the motion of an electric charge in an electrostatic field. Shortest path routing does not guarantee to enhance the network lifetime and power-aware routing may increase the number of hops between the source and destination node. To trade-off between these two methods, our proposed vector projection approach gives the successful delivery of packets. From the definition of electromotive force (emf) of a battery, we are calculating the projection of attraction force along the line joining between source and destination node due to nodes positioned in the forward direction of propagation. Selecting the node as the next sink node having the capability of forwarding the maximum times of successful packet forwarding.

Abstract:
Power eminence controls the suitability of electricalpower to user devices. A wireless sensor network isan arrangement collected of several computing andsensing devices distributed within an environmentto be monitored. In this network saving power is avery serious issue, since sensor nodes are typicallypowered by batteries with an inadequate capacity.Since distribution is the main cause of powerconsumption in a sensor node, broadcast orresponse of data should be limited as much aspossible. To this aim in this research paper, wepropose an en ethics of reducing powerconsumption in wireless sensor networks using softcomputing method.

Abstract:
Electronic Commerce is method of exploit businessthrough computer networks, internet and webapplication. It is possibly the most talentedapplication of information technology witnessed inrecent years.E-commerce helps to work as amediator between front end and back endwithin theInternetlike any client sitting on his computer as afront end for accessing all facilities of the internetlike selling, purchasing, on-line admission, on-lineform fill up etc and server processes theseinformation in back end and return back desiredresults to the client. Unlike in previous era ofcommerce client used to carry out all informationphysically with effort and efficient way. So e-commerce has made it easier for people to decreasephysical work and to save time.It is reformingsupply-chain management and hasimmensepotential for manufacturing, retail and serviceoperations. The remarkable importance of e-commerce has encouraged us to write this paper. Inthis paper, we propose ethics of e-commerce ininformation and communication technologies.

Abstract:
We discuss the structure of negacyclic codes of odd length over the ring $\mathbb{F}_p[u, v]/ \langle u^2, v^2, uv-vu \rangle$. We find the unique generating set, the rank and the minimum distance for these negacyclic codes.

Abstract:
In this article we consider a family $\mathcal{C}(A, B)$ of analytic and locally univalent functions on the open unit disc $\ID=\{z :|z|<1\}$ in the complex plane that properly contains the well-known Janowski class of convex univalent functions. In this article, we determine the exact set of variability of $\log(f'(z_0))$ with fixed $z_0 \in \ID$ and $f"(0)$ whenever $f$ varies over the class $\mathcal{C}(A, B)$.

Abstract:
Let $\ID$ denote the open unit disk and $f:\,\ID\TO\BAR\IC$ be meromorphic and univalent in $\ID$ with the simple pole at $p\in (0,1)$ and satisfying the standard normalization $f(0)=f'(0)-1=0$. Also, let $f$ have the expansion $$f(z)=\sum_{n=-1}^{\infty}a_n(z-p)^n,\quad |z-p|<1-p, $$ such that $f$ maps $\ID$ onto a domain whose complement with respect to $\BAR{\IC}$ is a convex set (starlike set with respect to a point $w_0\in \IC, w_0\neq 0$ resp.). We call these functions as concave (meromorphically starlike resp.) univalent functions and denote this class by $Co(p)$ $(\Sigma^s(p, w_0)$ resp.). We prove some coefficient estimates for functions in the classes where the sharpness of these estimates is also achieved.

Abstract:
Part I. Basic Principles. TB vaccines cannot prevent establishment of the infection. They can only prevent an early pulmonary tubercle from developing into clinical disease. A more effective new vaccine should optimize both cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) better than any existing vaccine. The rabbit is the only laboratory animal in which all aspects of the human disease can be reproduced: namely, the prevention of most primary tubercles, the arrestment of most primary tubercles, the formation of the tubercle’s solid caseous center, the liquefaction of this center, the formation of cavities and the bronchial spread of the disease. In liquefied caseum, virulent tubercle bacilli can multiply extracellularly, especially in the liquefied caseum next to the inner wall of a cavity where oxygen is plentiful. The bacilli in liquefied caseum cannot be reached by the increased number of activated macrophages produced by TB vaccines. Therefore, new TB vaccines will have little or no effect on the extracellular bacillary growth within liquefied caseum. TB vaccines can only increase the host’s ability to stop the development of new TB lesions that arise from the bronchial spread of tubercle bacilli from the cavity to other parts of the lung. Therefore, effective TB vaccines do not prevent the reactivation of latent TB. Such vaccines only control (or reduce) the number of metastatic lesions that result after the primary TB lesion was reactivated by the liquefaction process. (Note: the large number of tubercle bacilli growing extracellularly in liquefied caseum gives rise to mutations that enable antimicrobial resistance—which is a major reason why TB still exists today). Part II. Preclinical Testing. The counting of grossly visible tubercles in the lungs of rabbits after the inhalation of virulent human-type tubercle bacilli is the most pertinent preclinical method to assess the efficacy of new TB vaccines (because an effective vaccine will stop the growth of developing tubercles before while they are still microscopic in size). Unfortunately, rabbits are rarely used in preclinical vaccine trials, despite their relative ease of handling and human-like response to this infection. Mice do not generate an effective DTH response, and guinea pigs do not generate an effective CMI response. Only the rabbits and most humans can establish the proper amount of DTH and CMI that is necessary to contain this infection. Therefore, rabbits should be included in all pre-clinical testing of new TB vaccines. New drugs (and/or immunological

Abstract:
Let $p$ be a prime number. In this paper, we discuss the structures of cyclic codes over the ring $ \mathbb{F}_p[u, v] / \langle u^k, v^2, uv-vu\rangle$. We find a unique set of generators for these codes. We also study the rank and the Hamming distance of these codes.

Abstract:
Background The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is one of the most extensively used animal models to study infectious diseases. However, despite its tremendous contribution towards understanding the establishment, progression and control of a number of diseases in general and tuberculosis in particular, the lack of fully annotated guinea pig genome sequence as well as appropriate molecular reagents has severely hampered detailed genetic and immunological analysis in this animal model. Results By employing the cross-species hybridization technique, we have developed an oligonucleotide microarray with 44,000 features assembled from different mammalian species, which to the best of our knowledge is the first attempt to employ microarray to study the global gene expression profile in guinea pigs. To validate and demonstrate the merit of this microarray, we have studied, as an example, the expression profile of guinea pig lungs during the advanced phase of M. tuberculosis infection. A significant upregulation of 1344 genes and a marked down regulation of 1856 genes in the lungs identified a disease signature of pulmonary tuberculosis infection. Conclusion We report the development of first comprehensive microarray for studying the global gene expression profile in guinea pigs and validation of its usefulness with tuberculosis as a case study. An important gap in the area of infectious diseases has been addressed and a valuable molecular tool is provided to optimally harness the potential of guinea pig model to develop better vaccines and therapies against human diseases.

Abstract:
In this note, we consider meromorphic univalent functions $f(z)$ in the unit disc with a simple pole at $z=p\in(0,1)$ which have a $k$-quasiconformal extension to the extended complex plane $\hat{\mathbb C},$ where $0\leq k < 1$. We denote the class of such functions by $\Sigma_k(p)$. We first prove an area theorem for functions in this class. Next, we derive a sufficient condition for meromorphic functions in the unit disc with a simple pole at $z=p\in(0,1)$ to belong to the class $\Sigma_k(p)$. Finally, we give a convolution property for functions in the class $\Sigma_k(p)$.