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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6066 matches for " Bala Mohammed Audu "
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Haematological Assessment of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Exposed to Sublethal Concentrations of Portland Cement Powder in Solution
Adamu Kabir Mohammed,Audu Bala Sambo
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2008,
Abstract: The effects of sub lethal concentrations of Portland cement powder in solution on some haematological parameters of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (L.)) mean weight 8.20 0.25 g was investigated using static bioassay system for 70 days. The sub lethal concentrations used were 19.60, 9.80, 4.90, 2.45, 1.23 and 0.00 (control) mg L-1. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the water quality parameters monitored. However, temperature did not show any significant variation (p>0.05) in both test tanks and the control. Haematological parameters examined include: Pack Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hgb), Total Erythrocytes Count (TEC), Total Leucocytes Count (TLC) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) which all decreased significantly (p<0.05), the decrease being proportional to the increase in the Portland cement powder in solution.
Trends in maternal mortality in a tertiary institution in Northern Nigeria
Kullima Abubakar,Kawuwa Mohammed,Audu Bala,Geidam Ado
Annals of African Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: To look at the trends in maternal mortality in our institution over 5 years. Methods: Records of 112 maternal deaths were retrospectively reviewed to determine the trends and the likely direct cause of each death over the study period. Results: There were a total of 112 maternal deaths, while 3931 deliveries were conducted over the 5-year period. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was 2849/100,000 deliveries. The highest MMR of 6234/100,000 was observed in 2003, with remarkable decline to 1837/100,000 in 2007. Eclampsia consistently remained the leading cause, accounting for 46.4% of the maternal deaths, followed by sepsis and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) contributing 17% and 14.3%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the corresponding percentages of maternal deaths between various age groups (χ2=6.68; P =0.083). Grandmultiparas accounted for a significant proportion of maternal deaths as compared to low parity, with χ2=10.43; P =0.00054. Lack of seeking antenatal care (unbooked) and illiteracy were observed to be significant determinants of maternal mortality (χ2=64.69, P =0.00000; and χ2=18.52, P =0.0000168, respectively). Conclusion: In spite of decrease in the maternal mortality ratio over the years, it still remains high, with eclampsia persistently contributing most significantly. Community enlightenment on the need to avail of antenatal care and hospital delivery services, and improvement in the quality of skilled maternity care will, among other factors, drastically curtail these preventable causes of maternal death and reduce MMR.
A 5-year review of maternal mortality associated with eclampsia in a tertiary institution in northern Nigeria
Kullima Abubakar,Kawuwa Mohammed,Audu Bala,Usman Hadiza
Annals of African Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Objective : To determine the incidence of maternal mortality associated with eclampsia and to determine how socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the women influence the deaths. Methodology : Records of 52 eclampsia-related mortalities from January 2003 to December 2007 were reviewed, retrospectively. Their social demography, mode and place of delivery, time of eclampsia, and fetal outcome were extracted for analysis. Results : Eclampsia accounted for 52 (46.4%) of the 112 total maternal deaths recorded within the 5-year period, with case fatality of 22.33%. Age group < 20, 20-29 and above 30 all had similar case fatality rate of 22.1%, 23.8% and 26.7%, respectively. Those who were experiencing their first deliveries have the worst deaths recording 42.5% of the case fatality in that category. As expected, unbooked had higher case fatality of 24.0% compared to 15% among booked cases, while those with no formal education also had more death (22.3% case fatality) as compared to 3.3% among those who had some form of formal education. Antepartum eclampsia was the cause in 50% of the death, 11(21.2%) of the pregnancies were not delivered before their death, while 18 (34.6%) were stillbirth. Conclusion : Eclampsia still remains the major cause of maternal mortality in this region resulting from unsupervised pregnancies and deliveries. There is need to educate and encourage the general public for antenatal care and hospital delivery.
ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF PARACETAMOL 500mg TABLETS USED IN MAIDUGURI, USING ULTRA VIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC (HPLC) METHODS
Sani Ali. Audu,Alemika Emmanuel Taiwo,Bala Fatima Mohammed,Sani Musa
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The study involves quantitative analysis of eight (8) different brands (samples) of Paracetamol 500mg tablets used in Maiduguri, using Ultra Violet Spectrophotometric and High Performance Liquid Chromatographic methods, in which the samples were dissolved in 0.1M NaOH and distilled water and their various absorbances determined at wavelength of 257nm and the HPLC method. The results obtained were compared with that of the standard. Percentage content and content in mg for each sample was calculated using the absorbances and peak areas of the samples and that of the standard, to see if it is within the specified limit by official books (90%-110% according to USP). The percentage content of the analyzed samples using HPLC method ranges from 51.04-103.84%, while using UV method it ranges from 50.19-109.1%, indicating none of the samples contains less than 50% of the active principle. It was observed that five (5) samples Neimeth, Unclu P, Palmol, Emzol, Fidson, out of the eight (8) Neimeth, Unclu P, Palmol, Emzol, Shekdol, Fidson, Nemel, Arenol, analysed meet up the USP specified limit. After the calculation of the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of the two methods used, which are 123.5 and 27.7% respectively for UV method and 82.67 and 20.4% respectively for HPLC method, it was also observed that the HPLC method is more suitable for such kind of studies than the UV method,
Suspected Malaria Outbreak Investigations in Baure LGA, Katsina State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Abdullahi Saddiq, Haruna Ismaila Adamu, Rex Mpazanje, Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105512
Abstract:
Background: Malaria, a disease that is endemic in Nigeria and contributing up to 25 per cent of infant mortality and 30 per cent of under-five mortality, is among the 17 per cent of the global burden of infectious diseases. Nigeria, which has 27 per cent malaria prevalence, is among the top eleven high-burden countries globally. In September 2018, a team headed by the World Health Or-ganisation in Nigeria investigated a suspected malaria outbreak in Baure local government area of Katsina state northwestern Nigeria. Methods: We reviewed clinical records of 30 patients who were presented to the health facility with febrile illness, investigated and treated from 10th-24th September 2018. The data used during the study included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Epicentre of the suspected outbreak to assess the knowledge of the caregivers on malaria control measures and look at the coverage of the seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) running in the area for the third year. The data were analysed using Excel. Results: Out of the 30 reported cases, 27 (90%) were tested positive for RDT and 3 (10%) were tested negative. The age range of the cases was from three months to 70 years (median: 14 years), sex distribution F 16 (59%) and M 11 (41%) and CFR 3.7% (1/27). An SMC coverage survey shows that out of 86 HHs, 79 (91.86%) had SMC cards for the last two cycles of 2018. On the knowledge of caregivers on malaria preventive measures, 80% (8/10) were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria, and 100% (10/10) had knowledge on at least one preventive measure against the disease. Conclusion: Although government commitment to malaria control is commendable, there is the need for state malaria control programme to intensify health education programmes on environmental hygiene, to strengthen awareness campaigns on the available malaria interventions and to improve access to the interventions especially for the more vulnerable members of the community.
Lots Quality Assurance Survey (LQAS) as a Strategy to Achieving Quality LLIN Campaigns: The Nigerian Experience  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Akubue Augustine Uchenna, Dr. Abdullahi Saddiq, Alemu Wondimagegnehu, Rex Mpazanje, Dr. Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104484
Abstract:
Background: Nigeria, in its quest to scale up coverage and utilization of LLINs as a strategy for malaria control, had the first long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) mass campaign across the country between 2009-2013. The NMEP with support from its RBM partners successfully distributed over 57.7 million LLINs during the period representing over 90% of the national target. In spite this, and to achieve universal coverage, the country maintained a continuous distribution through multiple channels and in particular the antenatal care outlets and the expanded programme on immunization. The Nigerian government, with support from the Global Fund and through the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP), Catholic Relief Services (CRS), and the Society for Family Health (SFH) and with technical support from the World Health Organization, once again launched the LLIN replacement campaign in some states across the country. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five states that conducted the LLIN replacement campaign using the lots quality assurance survey (LQAS) tool developed by the World Health Organization. The period of the survey across the states is between August and December 2017. The LQAS questionnaires were administered to households (HHs) by the WHO field officers trained on the use of the tool at least one week after the campaign. A total of 240 HHs were selected from 24 settlements (clusters) in 24 wards of six LGAs (lots) from each of the five (5) states that rolled out the campaign. Data collected were double entered, cleaned, crosschecked, and the results analysed using the SPSS version 24. Results: With a total of 9740 people surveyed from 1200 HHs across the five states, the average redemption rate was 95.5% (95% CI, 91.6% - 98.8%), average retention rate was 98.4% (95% CI, 97.0% - 99.8%), average hanging rate was 82.6% (95% CI, 80.0% - 85.5%), and an average card ownership of 83.5% (95% CI, 78.6% - 88.2%). While the main source of information 35.4% (95% CI, 21.8% - 49.0%) about the LLIN campaign was the health workers, the reasons for those missed out were mainly due to team performance 32.2% (95% CI, 26.8% - 37.4%) and net cards not issued 27.4% (95% CI, 23.2% - 32.0%). Similarly, the Pearson correlation (0.942, α 0.017, p < 0.05, 2-tailed test), the ANOVA test (F value of 23.751, α 0.017, p < 0.05), and Regression analysis (R-square 0.888 and Durbin-Watson 2.487), all shows significant relationships between LLIN redemption and usage with a resultant rejection of the Null Hypothesis. Conclusion: The outcome of this research underscores the need to adopt and scale up the use of the LQAS tool to assess the quality of LLIN campaigns within the shortest possible time. While the LQAS has been in use by the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization cluster during polio campaigns, this is the first time that the tool was deployed by the WHO malaria unit as a strategy to identify post LLIN campaign gaps immediately after implementation. The scaling up of this strategy would undoubtedly improve LLIN campaigns that would be conducted in the remaining states across the country so as to ensure that Nigeria achieve LLIN universal access in line with the Global Technical Strategy (GTS) framework toward malaria elimination.
Quality Assurance (QA) Tool in Public Health Campaigns: A Look at the 2017 LLIN Replacement Campaign in Nigeria  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Akubue Augustine Uchenna, Abdullahi Saddiq, Rex Mpazanje, Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104701
Abstract:
Background: Although there are various malaria intervention measures, the long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) are considered as the most cost-effective intervention measure for malaria endemic countries. In line with the Global Technical Strategies, and as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the other available malaria preventive measures to achieve malaria control and elimination in especially the malaria endemic countries include the intermittent prophylactic treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), intermittent prophylactic treatment in infants (IPTi), indoor residual spray (IRS), seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC), and recently the use of malaria vaccine. This study examines the role of quality assurance (QA) tool as deployed by WHO in the 2017 LLIN replacement campaigns in the states that implemented the campaign in Nigeria—Adamawa, Edo, Imo, Kwara, and Ondo. For the purpose of this study, the QA tool examined four components during the campaign—logistics, strategies, technical, and demand creation. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the QA checklist developed and applied by the WHO professional officers intra campaign between April and December 2017. In each of the states, a total of six LGAs were randomly selected using the EPI risk status (AFP performance indicators and the routine immunization coverage). The findings from the QA checklist tool were analyzed using the SPSS version 24 and the results discussed accordingly. Results: The results looked at general and specific issues across the five states. While the general issues are more in Kwara state in comparison to the other four states—logistics (15%), strategies (12%), technical (13%), and demand creation (7%), the specific issues are almost same across the five states; these specific issues are poor crowd control (12%), early closure of distribution sites (14%), mix-up of data at the distribution sites (15%), poor communication medium between supervisors and teams at the field (11%), safety concerns by the recipients (10%), lack of adequate knowledge on the LLIN usage (9%), inadequate LLIN storage sites (13%), and inadequate plans for LLIN movement between the distribution points (16%). In spite this; all the five states had at least 80% in the area of programme ownership. Conclusion: On the overall, the study further underscores the importance of using quality assurance checklists in public health campaigns as they help ensure that campaigns meet the minimum required standard.
Assessment of Heavy Metals, pH, Organic Matter and Organic Carbon in Roadside Soils in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Joseph Clement Akan, Stephen I. Audu, Audu, Zakari Mohammed, Victor Obioma Ogugbuaja
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.46071
Abstract:

Roadside soil samples were collected from four sites (heavy traffic area (Wurukum); industrial site (Gboko road); residential area (Federal Lowcost) and FederalMedicalCenter(Wadata) representing different activities across the Benue Metropolis. At each of the sample site, roadside soils were collected at different distance from the edge of the main road (2, 10, 30, 40 and 60 meters). In each of the distance, roadside soil were collected at three depth of 0 -1 cm, 2 -4 cmand 4 - 6 cm for the determination of pH, organic matter, organic carbon, Cu, Cd, Fe, Pb, As, Mn, Zn, Cd and Ni. pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter and organic carbon were determined using standard procedures, while heavy metals were determined using Perkin-Elmer Analyst 300 Atomic Absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Zinc was observed to show the higher levels in all the sampling sites, such higher level can be related back to the wear-and-tear of vehicle components as a result of the stop-start traffic patterns and brake pads. The concentrations of all the metals in the four sampling sites decreased exponentially with distance from the edge of the road and dropped to the minimum levels at about 60 meters. Similarly, mean concentrations of Cu, Fe, Pb, As, Mn, Zn, Cd and Ni were significantly higher around the industrial area (Gboko road) and heavy traffic (Wurunkum) areas than other sampling areas followed an increasing trend with the increase in depth. The vertical movement of all the metals, exhibited predominant association with soil pH and organic carbon. From the results of this study, the pH of the roadside soils from all the sampling points ranged from 4.56 to 7.71, which enhances increased of heavy metals down the soil profiles. Organic carbon content ranged of 0.27% to 5.44% across all the sampling points appears to increase

Energy Audit of a Brewery—A Case Study of Vitamalt Nig. Plc, Agbara  [PDF]
Olugbenga Olanrewaju Noah, Albert Imuentinyan Obanor, Mohammed Luqman Audu
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2012.43019
Abstract: The efficient use of energy is of prime importance in all sector of the economy. Energy cost is a significant factor in economic activity on par with factors of production like capital, land and labor [1]. The imperative of an energy shortage situation calls for energy conservation measure, which essentially means using less energy for the same level of activity. A comprehensive energy audit of Vitamalt Nigeria Plc, Agbara was carried out using portable thermal and electrical instruments with the objective of studying the present pattern of energy consumption and identifying the possibilities of saving energy in the plant. Collected, was a five year (2000-2004) data on energy consumption of Vitamalt Nig. Plc. The data were evaluated and analyzed to determine the present energy performance level of the firm. A complete energy balance of the factory was carried out to relate energy input, conversion efficiency with production output in order to identify areas of energy wastages/losses and savings that can be achieved. Energy performance parameters such as Energy intensity, Energy productivity and Normalized performance indicator (NPI) were used as a measure of assessing the energy performance of the plant. The NPI calculated over the span of five years gave an average of 1.2 GJ/m2 indicating a FAIR range in energy performance level classification (1.0 - 1.2) while significant savings and improvement in energy usage is achievable. Maximizing efficiency of existing system, optimizing energy input requirement and significant capital investment in procuring new energy conserving equipment must be made for the energy performance level to fall into a good range classification (less than 0.8).
Rising trend and indications of caesarean section at the university of Maiduguri teaching hospital, Nigeria
Geidam Ado,Audu Bala,Kawuwa Bello,Obed Jessy
Annals of African Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Objective : To determine the trend and indications for the use of caesarean delivery in our environment. Method : A retrospective review of the caesarean sections performed at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital from January 2000 to December 2005 inclusive. Results : During the study period, there were 10,097 deliveries and 1192 caesarean sections giving a caesarean section rate of 11.8%. The major maternal indications were cephalopelvic disproportion (15.5%), previous caesarean section (14.7%), eclampsia (7.2%), failed induction of labor (5.5%), and placenta previa (5.1%). Fetal distress (9.6%), breech presentation (4.7%), fetal macrosomia (4.3%), and pregnancy complicated by multiple fetuses (4.2%) were the major fetal indications. The caesarean section rate showed a steady increase over the years (7.20% in 2000-13.95% in 2005), but yearly analysis of the demographic characteristics, type of caesarean section, and the major indications did not reveal any consistent changes to account for the rising trend except for the increasing frequency of fetal distress as an indication of caesarean section over the years, which was also not statistically significant (c[2] =8.08; P=0.12). The overall perinatal mortality in the study population was found to be 72.7/1000 birth and despite the rising rate of caesarean section, the perinatal outcomes did not improve over the years. Conclusion : Trial of vaginal birth after caesarean section in appropriate cases and use of cardiotocography for continuous fetal heart rate monitoring in labor with confirmation of suspected fetal distress through fetal blood acid--base study are recommended. A prospective study may reveal some of the other reasons for the increasing caesarean section rate.
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