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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 139959 matches for " Bala K. Menon "
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Changes in Adenosine Metabolism in Asthma. A Study on Adenosine, 5'-NT, Adenosine Deaminase and Its Isoenzyme Levels in Serum, Lymphocytes and Erythrocytes  [PDF]
Jitender Sharma, Bala K. Menon, Vannan K. Vijayan, Surendra K. Bansal
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2015.52004
Abstract: Background: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT) play a crucial role in adenosine metabolism in healthy individuals. Adenosine is an inflammatory mediator of asthma. Changes in adenosine metabolism and role of ADA and 5'-NT in regulating adenosine level in asthmatics and correlation of these changes with severity of asthma are not clearly understood. Methods: In this study, we screened 5217 patients, of which 2416 were diagnosed with asthma. Further, of 2416 asthmatics, only 45 patients who strictly fulfilled the selection criteria were enrolled in the study. The patients were classified into mild, moderate and severe persistent groups; each group consisted of fifteen patients. Fifteen healthy subjects served as controls. Adenosine levels and activities of 5'-NT, total ADA, ADA1 and ADA2 in serum, lymphocytes and erythrocytes were determined. The data were analysed statistically and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In asthma, adenosine levels in serum, lymphocytes and erythrocytes were found to be raised significantly. A significant reciprocal correlation existed between adenosine levels in serum, lymphocytes and erythrocytes of asthmatics and FEV1%. The 5'-nucleotidase activity in serum and lymphocytes was raised in moderate and severe persistent groups and an inverse correlation existed between 5'-nucleotidase activity and FEV1% whereas in erythrocytes it was raised only in severe persistent group and FEV1% had no correlation with the 5'-nucleotidase activity. The activities of total ADA, ADA1 and ADA2 were decreased in serum and lymphocytes of moderate and severe persistent asthmatics and a positive correlation existed between total ADA and FEV1%. In erythrocytes, total ADA activity increased in mild persistent group but remained unchanged in moderate and severe persistent groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that adenosine levels tend to increase in serum, lymphocytes and erythrocytes with the severity of bronchial asthma. The balance between ADA and 5'-NT determines the levels of adenosine in serum and lymphocytes which may result in pathogenesis of asthma, or vice versa.
Proteomics and Its Applications in Diagnosis of Auto Immune Diseases  [PDF]
Gebrehiwot Gebretsadik, M. K. C. Menon
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2016.61003
Abstract: Although the proteomics and its applications in detecting autoimmune diseases are a prominently discussed issue, this review will focus particularly some prominent aspects regarding clinical utility of these techniques in prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of these diseases. The impact of immunofluorescent techniques, enzyme immunoassays and use of proteomics biomarkers in the characterization of the auto immune diseases is briefly discussed. The necessity of adopting existing technologies of protein chemistry, predisposition testing, targeted monitoring and prevention of diseases through nutrition coupled with lifestyle changes will be focused as modern diagnostic tools in realizing the changeover from isolated medicine to personalized medicine. Use of biological fluids, in order to identify low abundance proteins as biomarkers in detecting autoimmune diseases is attempted in the study of serum/plasma proteomics.
SNARE Protein in Cellular Membrane Trafficking, Its Regulation and as a Potential Target for Cancer Treatment  [PDF]
Mohammed Mehdi, M. K. C. Menon
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2016.61004
Abstract: The role of SNARE [soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) accessory protein receptor] protein in cellular trafficking, membrane fusion and vesicle release in synaptic nerve terminals is described. The purpose of this review is to highlight the role of SNAREs in vital inflammatory conditions in maturing dendritic cells in order to retain the capacity to present new antigens together with altered cytokine secretory functions. This role of SNAREs can be used as novel targets for therapy in inflammatory diseases. The essential mechanism of SNAREs proteins for regulation of tumour formation through multiple signals and transportation pathways is also discussed. Finally, this review summarizes the current knowledge of SNARE proteins in regulating endocytosis in cancer cells and the possible therapeutic applications related to the pathogenesis of tumor formation.
The Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant and Level of Oxidative Stress of Tuberculosis Patients in Selected Treatment Center in Addis Ababa Ethiopia  [PDF]
Gebrehiwot Gebretsadik, Daniel Seifu, Getnet Yimer, M. K. C. Menon
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2015.33010
Abstract: Introduction: Non-enzymatic antioxidants are good scavengers of free radicals preventing their overproduction there by reducing the level of oxidative stress. This work was undertaken at Saint Peter TB specialized hospital and TekleHaimanot health center from March 2012 to May 2013.Aim: To determine changes in Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants and level of oxidative stress of tuberculosis Patients before and after taking anti tuberculosis treatment.Materials and Methods: In this comparative cross sectional study, a total of 210 individuals including: newly diagnosed TB patients as group-I (n = 70), TB patients who completed treatment as group-II (n = 70), and healthy volunteers as group-III (n = 70) were enrolled. Different methods were used to determine the parameters; vit-C (HPLC method), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbuituric acid method), and bilirubin (Colorimetric assay). Results: Vitamin-C (Vit-C) and of group-I showed a significant reduction (p < 0.001) as compared with both group-II and group-III whereas Malondialdehyde (MDA) level was increased. However, the total and direct bilirubin was not different among the groups. In group-III, there was a positive correlation between BMI and serum Vit-C (r = -0.305, p = 0.010). Vit-C showed a negative correlation with serum MDA in all the groups with values (r = -0.265, p = 0.027), (r = -0.389, p = 0.001) and (r = -0.375, p = 0.001) for group-I, group-II and group-III respectively. In addition to this Vit-C was negatively correlated with serum UA (r = -0.285, p = 0.017) in group-I. Conclusion: The findings of the current study suggest that the amount of Vit-C in the newly diagnosed TB patients and those who finished their treatment is much lower than the healthy volunteers. In contrast to this, the MDA value was significantly higher both in the newly diagnosed TB patients and TB patients who completed treatment than in healthy volunteers suggesting higher degree of oxidative stress.
Assessment of Renal Function among HIV-Infected Patients on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Kassahun Eneyew, Daniel Seifu, Wondwossen Amogne, M. K. C. Menon
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2016.73013
Abstract: Background: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a spectrum of disease states characterized by progressive immunosuppression. Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS than any other region of the world. Renal complications are important component of advanced HIV disease, and these complications significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS patients. Aim of the Study: To assess renal function abnormalities in HIV infected patients and compare with treatment-naive and HIV-negative control groups. Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study of comparative nature was designed and samples and biochemical data were collected from July 1/2012 to February 1/2013 in patients attending the ART clinic at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Renal functions of 180 participants were assessed. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Result: A total of 180 participants grouped as HIV-negative controls (n = 60), HIV+ treatment-naive (n = 60) and HIV+ on HAART were recruited to participate in this study. Out of 180 participants included in the study, 59 (32.78%) were males and the remaining 121 (67.22%) were females. Mean serum total protein was higher in patients on HAART groups (5.78 ± 1.39) than treatment-naive (4.76 ± 2.19). There was significant reduction (p < 0.05) in serum total protein in both HIV+ groups as compared with the control groups. The mean serum creatinine level was not significantly different among three groups. The mean serum creatinine clearance in treatment-naive groups (111.05 ± 11.33) was lower than the control groups (115.05 ± 44.41) and patients on HAART (114.76 ± 28.54). There was a positive and significant correlation of glomerular filtration rate with BMI on treatment-naive groups. Conclusion: There are no statistically significant differences in the levels of Creatinine clearance and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in HIV positive patients (naive as well as treated) as compared to the negative controls. The prevalence of renal impairment as defined by CrCl < 60 mL/min (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) is higher in treatment-naive participants than those on HAART and HIV-negative control groups.
Initial Management of Head Injury: A Comprehensive Guide
Claire Williams, David K Menon
Critical Care , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/cc7104
Abstract: The book contains six parts, covering epidemiology, basic principles, evaluation and diagnosis, immediate management, definitive management and management of special subsets of head-injured patients. Chapters are consistently arranged with an introduction, main body of information, summary and a comprehensive list of references. While logical, this means there is repetition and referring backwards and forwards within the book. The figures are, on the whole, simple and clear and illustrate the points that are being made. The layout, with multiple sections and subparagraphs and a somewhat arbitrary choice of fonts, is sometimes difficult to navigate.The scope of the book extends beyond immediate management, but for a book such as this, less may be more, and future editions might benefit from judicious editing. Given the stated target readership of non-neurosurgeons, the detailed technical description of craniotomy is a bit unexpected but may be useful for the general surgeon who is forced to undertake emergency neurosurgery. The section on intracranial pressure measurement will be of more use to most emergency and intensive care unit physicians.Areas covered particularly well involved the explanation of practical procedures. For example, the section on measuring and documenting the Glasgow Coma Scale score describes not only the scoring system, but also how scoring should be practically performed. Throughout, there is an emphasis on the neurological care of the patient, an aspect of management that is sometimes lost in the emergency room and during imaging and inter-hospital transfer of the patient.However, there are problems in other areas, such as the recommendations for anaesthetic drug doses and ventilation parameters given in the section on immediate resuscitation. For example, in the chapter on 'Immediate management', the suggested tidal volumes of 15 mL/kg are wholly out of keeping with any current management recommendations (and may actually be harmful). An in
A new interpretation of superposition, entanglement, and measurement in quantum mechanics
Rajendra K Bera,Vikram Menon
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We present a new interpretation of the terms superposition, entanglement, and measurement that appear in quantum mechanics. We hypothesize that the structure of the wave function for a quantum system at the sub-Planck scale has a deterministic cyclic structure. Each cycle comprises a sequential succession of the eigenstates that comprise a given wave function. Between unitary operations or measurements on the wave function, the sequential arrangement of the current eigenstates chosen by the system is immaterial, but once chosen it remains fixed until another unitary operation or measurement changes the wave function. The probabilistic aspect of quantum mechanics is interpreted by hypothesizing a measurement mechanism which acts instantaneously but the instant of measurement is chosen randomly by the classical measuring apparatus over a small but finite interval from the time the measurement apparatus is activated. At the instant the measurement is made, the wave function irrevocably collapses to a new state (erasing some of the past quantum information) and continues from thereon in that state till changed by a unitary operation or a new measurement.
On Weak Statistical Convergence
Vinod K. Bhardwaj,Indu Bala
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/38530
Abstract: The main object of this paper is to introduce a new concept of weak statistically Cauchy sequence in a normed space. It is shown that in a reflexive space, weak statistically Cauchy sequences are the same as weakly statistically convergent sequences. Finally, weak statistical convergence has been discussed in lp spaces.
The sequence space $ F (X_{k}, f, p, s) $ on seminormed spaces
Vinod K. Bhardwaj,Indu Bala
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.5556/j.tkjm.40.2009.247-256
Abstract: The object of this paper is to introduce the vector valued sequence space $F(X_{k}, f, p, s)$ using a modulus function $f$. Various algebraic and topological properties of this space have been investigated. Our results generalize and unify the corresponding earlier results of Ghosh and Srivastava [4], Maddox [10].
Inclusions Between the Spaces of Strongly Almost Convergent Sequences Defined by An Orlicz Function in A Seminormed Space
Vinod K. Bhardwaj,Indu Bala
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract:
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