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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 202053 matches for " Baker P "
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5th International Conference "L'Homme et l'Animal" Société de Recherche Interdisciplinaire. Antibes. 15th-17th October 1992
P. Baker
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 1993, DOI: 10.5334/pia.43
Abstract:
Comparing road traffic mortality rates from police-reported data and death registration data in China
Hu,Guoqing; Baker,Timothy; Baker,Susan P;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2011, DOI: 10.2471/BLT.10.080317
Abstract: objective: to compare death rates from road traffic injuries in china in 2002-2007 when derived from police-reported data versus death registration data. methods: in china, police-recorded data are obtained from police records by means of a standardized, closed-ended data collection form; these data are published in the china statistical yearbook of communication and transportation. official death registration data, on the other hand, are obtained from death certificates completed by physicians and are published in the china health statistics yearbook. we searched both sources for data on road traffic deaths in 2002-2007, used the χ2 test to compare the mortality rates obtained, and performed linear regression to look for statistically significant trends in road traffic mortality over the period. findings: for 2002-2007, the rate of death from road traffic injuries based on death registration data was about twice as high as the rate reported by the police. linear regression showed a significant decrease of 27% (95% confidence interval, ci: 35-19) in the death rate over the period according to police sources but no significant change according to death registration data. conclusion: the widely-cited recent drop in road traffic mortality in china, based on police-reported data, may not reflect a genuine decrease. the quality of the data obtained from police reports, which drives decision-making by the government of china and international organizations, needs to be investigated, monitored and improved.
Two Plasmodium Rhomboid Proteases Preferentially Cleave Different Adhesins Implicated in All Invasive Stages of Malaria
Rosanna P Baker,Ruvini Wijetilaka,Sinisa Urban
PLOS Pathogens , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020113
Abstract: Invasion of host cells by the malaria pathogen Plasmodium relies on parasite transmembrane adhesins that engage host-cell receptors. Adhesins must be released by cleavage before the parasite can enter the cell, but the processing enzymes have remained elusive. Recent work indicates that the Toxoplasma rhomboid intramembrane protease TgROM5 catalyzes this essential cleavage. However, Plasmodium does not encode a direct TgROM5 homolog. We examined processing of the 14 Plasmodium falciparum adhesins currently thought to be involved in invasion by both model and Plasmodium rhomboid proteases in a heterologous assay. While most adhesins contain aromatic transmembrane residues and could not be cleaved by nonparasite rhomboid proteins, including Drosophila Rhomboid-1, Plasmodium falciparum rhomboid protein (PfROM)4 (PFE0340c) was able to process these adhesins efficiently and displayed novel substrate specificity. Conversely, PfROM1 (PF11_0150) shared specificity with rhomboid proteases from other organisms and was the only PfROM able to cleave apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). PfROM 1 and/or 4 was thus able to cleave diverse adhesins including TRAP, CTRP, MTRAP, PFF0800c, EBA-175, BAEBL, JESEBL, MAEBL, AMA1, Rh1, Rh2a, Rh2b, and Rh4, but not PTRAMP, and cleavage relied on the adhesin transmembrane domains. Swapping transmembrane regions between BAEBL and AMA1 switched the relative preferences of PfROMs 1 and 4 for these two substrates. Our analysis indicates that PfROMs 1 and 4 function with different substrate specificities that together constitute the specificity of TgROM5 to cleave diverse adhesins. This is the first enzymatic analysis of Plasmodium rhomboid proteases and suggests an involvement of PfROMs in all invasive stages of the malaria lifecycle, in both the vertebrate host and the mosquito vector.
Human factors perspective on the prescribing behavior of recent medical graduates: implications for educators
Gordon M, Catchpole K, Baker P
Advances in Medical Education and Practice , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S40487
Abstract: man factors perspective on the prescribing behavior of recent medical graduates: implications for educators Original Research (789) Total Article Views Authors: Gordon M, Catchpole K, Baker P Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:4 Pages 1 - 9 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S40487 Received: 19 November 2012 Accepted: 11 December 2012 Published: 10 January 2013 Morris Gordon,1,2 Ken Catchpole,3 Paul Baker1,4 1Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Salford, Salford, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Fairfield General Hospital, Bury, UK; 3Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4North Western Deanery, Manchester, UK Background: Junior doctors are at high risk of involvement in medication errors. Educational interventions to enhance human factors and specifically nontechnical skills in health care are increasingly reported, but there is no work in the context of prescribing improvement to guide such education. We set out to determine the elements that influence prescribing from a human factors perspective by recent medical graduates and use this to guide education in this area. Methods: A total of 206 recent medical graduates of the North Western Foundation School were asked to describe their views on safety practices and behaviors. Free text data regarding prescribing behaviors were collected 1, 2, and 4 months after starting their posts. A 94.1% response rate was achieved. Qualitative analysis of data was completed using the constant comparison method. Five initial categories were developed, and the researchers subsequently developed thematic indices according to their understanding of the emerging content of the data. Further data were collected through group interviews 8–9 months into the placement to ensure thematic saturation. Results: Six themes were established at the axial coding level, ie, contributors to inappropriate prescribing, contributors to appropriate prescribing, professional responsibility, prescribing error, current practices, and methods for improvement of prescribing. Utilizing appropriate theoretical elements, we describe how recent medical graduates employ situational and error awareness to guide risk assessment. Conclusion: We have modeled the human factors of prescribing behavior by recent medical graduates. As these factors are related to a number of recognized elements of nontechnical skills training within health care, educators should consider design elements from such existing interventions to support prescribing improvement programs. Future research should seek to assess the effectiveness of prescribing focused nontechnical skills training.
Human factors perspective on the prescribing behavior of recent medical graduates: implications for educators
Gordon M,Catchpole K,Baker P
Advances in Medical Education and Practice , 2013,
Abstract: Morris Gordon,1,2 Ken Catchpole,3 Paul Baker1,41Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Salford, Salford, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Fairfield General Hospital, Bury, UK; 3Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4North Western Deanery, Manchester, UKBackground: Junior doctors are at high risk of involvement in medication errors. Educational interventions to enhance human factors and specifically nontechnical skills in health care are increasingly reported, but there is no work in the context of prescribing improvement to guide such education. We set out to determine the elements that influence prescribing from a human factors perspective by recent medical graduates and use this to guide education in this area.Methods: A total of 206 recent medical graduates of the North Western Foundation School were asked to describe their views on safety practices and behaviors. Free text data regarding prescribing behaviors were collected 1, 2, and 4 months after starting their posts. A 94.1% response rate was achieved. Qualitative analysis of data was completed using the constant comparison method. Five initial categories were developed, and the researchers subsequently developed thematic indices according to their understanding of the emerging content of the data. Further data were collected through group interviews 8–9 months into the placement to ensure thematic saturation.Results: Six themes were established at the axial coding level, ie, contributors to inappropriate prescribing, contributors to appropriate prescribing, professional responsibility, prescribing error, current practices, and methods for improvement of prescribing. Utilizing appropriate theoretical elements, we describe how recent medical graduates employ situational and error awareness to guide risk assessment.Conclusion: We have modeled the human factors of prescribing behavior by recent medical graduates. As these factors are related to a number of recognized elements of nontechnical skills training within health care, educators should consider design elements from such existing interventions to support prescribing improvement programs. Future research should seek to assess the effectiveness of prescribing focused nontechnical skills training.Keywords: medication error, patient safety, nontechnical skills
Germinación, emergencia y crecimiento temprano de arroz rojo y cuatro variedades de arroz Germination, emergence and early seedling growth of red rice and four rice cultivars
Clavijo P. Jairo,Baker John B.
Agronomía Colombiana , 1988,
Abstract: Varios experimentos fueron realizados con el objeto de estudiar la qerrninación, emergencia y crecimiento temprano del arroz rojo y cuatro variedades de arroz: Mars, Saturn, Lemont y Bellemont. El arroz rojo presentó un alto porcentaje de germina ción y fue mayor que el de Lemont, Mars y Saturno Sin embargo, cuando se midió el indice de la tasa de germinación (ITG), Saturn fue el más rápido seguido por arroz rojo. Aunque no se presentaron diferencias en el porcentaje de emergencia entre arroz rojo y las variedades, el índice de la tasa de ernergencia (ITE) mostró que el arroz rojo ernergió primero que las variedades. La longitud de la rad ícula en el momento de la germinación y la longitud y peso seco de las raíces y tallos a los 10 días después de la emergencia fueron consideradas como caracter ísticas de crecimiento temprano. En todos estos parémetros, el arroz rojo obtuvo los más altos valores y fueron diferentes a los de las variédades. También se calculó la relación tallo/raíz con base en peso seco y se encontró que Saturn reportó la más alta relación seguido por arroz rojo. Estos resultados sugieren que la capacidad de interferencia que tiene el arroz rojo se debe principalmente a la alta velocidad con que germina, emerge y crece en los primeros estados de desarrollo de la planta. Germination, emergence and early seedling growth were analyzed for red rice and rice cultivars Mars, Saturn, Lemont and Bellemont. The red rice germination percentage was higher than that of Lemont, Mars and Saturno However, when the germination rate index (GRI) was analyzed, Saturn had the quickest germination followed by red rice. There were no significant differences between varietal emergence percentages, but differences in the emergence rate index (ERI) of red rice and the four cultivars were significant, indicating that the red rice emerged more quickly. Radicle length at germination and length and dry weight of shoots and roots 10 days after emergence were recorded as characteristics of early seedling growth. In all cases, a significant difference between red rice and the four cultivars was found with red rice showing the highest value. When the shoots root ratio was calculated on a dry weight basis Saturn had the highest ratio followed by red rice. These results suggest that the rapid germination and emergence and early growth of both shoots and roots exhibited by red rice may contribute to its competitive ability by enabling it to preempt more resources at early stages of stand development.
Phylogenetic diversity (PD) and biodiversity conservation: some bioinformatics challenges
Daniel P. Faith,Andrew M. Baker
Evolutionary Bioinformatics , 2006,
Abstract: Biodiversity conservation addresses information challenges through estimations encapsulated in measures of diversity. A quantitative measure of phylogenetic diversity, “PD”, has been defined as the minimum total length of all the phylogenetic branches required to span a given set of taxa on the phylogenetic tree (Faith 1992a). While a recent paper incorrectly characterizes PD as not including information about deeper phylogenetic branches, PD applications over the past decade document the proper incorporation of shared deep branches when assessing the total PD of a set of taxa. Current PD applications to macroinvertebrate taxa in streams of New South Wales, Australia illustrate the practical importance of this definition. Phylogenetic lineages, often corresponding to new, “cryptic”, taxa, are restricted to a small number of stream localities. A recent case of human impact causing loss of taxa in one locality implies a higher PD value for another locality, because it now uniquely represents a deeper branch. This molecular-based phylogenetic pattern supports the use of DNA barcoding programs for biodiversity conservation planning. Here, PD assessments side-step the contentious use of barcoding-based “species” designations. Bio-informatics challenges include combining different phylogenetic evidence, optimization problems for conservation planning, and effective integration of phylogenetic information with environmental and socio-economic data.
Rise of the centrist: from binary to continuous opinion dynamics
George A. Baker,James P. Hague
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1142/S0129183108013023
Abstract: We propose a model that extends the binary ``united we stand, divided we fall'' opinion dynamics of Sznajd-Weron to handle continuous and multi-state discrete opinions. Disagreement dynamics are often ignored in continuous extensions of the binary rules, so we make the most symmetric continuum extension of the binary model that can treat the consequences of agreement (debate) and disagreement (confrontation) within a population of agents. We use the continuum extension as an opportunity to develop rules for persistence of opinion (memory). Rules governing the propagation of centrist views are also examined. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out. We find that both memory effects and the type of centrist significantly modify the variance of average opinions in the large timescale limits of the models. Finally, we describe the limit of applicability for Sznajd-Weron's model of binary opinions as the continuum limit is approached. By comparing Monte Carlo results and long time-step limits, we find that the opinion dynamics of binary models are significantly different to those where agents are permitted more than 3 opinions.
Finite N Fluctuation Formulas for Random Matrices
T. H. Baker,P. J. Forrester
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1007/BF02732439
Abstract: For the Gaussian and Laguerre random matrix ensembles, the probability density function (p.d.f.) for the linear statistic $\sum_{j=1}^N (x_j - )$ is computed exactly and shown to satisfy a central limit theorem as $N \to \infty$. For the circular random matrix ensemble the p.d.f.'s for the linear statistics ${1 \over 2} \sum_{j=1}^N (\theta_j - \pi)$ and $- \sum_{j=1}^N \log 2|\sin \theta_j/2|$ are calculated exactly by using a constant term identity from the theory of the Selberg integral, and are also shown to satisfy a central limit theorem as $N \to \infty$.
The Calogero-Sutherland Model and Generalized Classical Polynomials
T. H. Baker,P. J. Forrester
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1007/s002200050161
Abstract: Multivariable generalizations of the classical Hermite, Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials occur as the polynomial part of the eigenfunctions of certain Schr\"odinger operators for Calogero-Sutherland-type quantum systems. For the generalized Hermite and Laguerre polynomials the multidimensional analogues of many classical results regarding generating functions, differentiation and integration formulas, recurrence relations and summation theorems are obtained. We use this and related theory to evaluate the global limit of the ground state density, obtaining in the Hermite case the Wigner semi-circle law, and to give an explicit solution for an initial value problem in the Hermite and Laguerre case.
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