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Escherichia coli Resistance to Ciprofloxacin in Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis  [PDF]
Emad Abu Sitta, Nour Aljariri Alhesan, Babikir Kheiri, Sunil Badami, Farah Elounais, Omar Assassa, Maneesh Gaddam, Carlos Rios-Bedoya
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104043
Background: Severe acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys that usually have an ascending route and occur in presumably healthy urinary tract. The most common pathogen involved is E. coli. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has issued an updated guideline in 2010 suggesting IV quinolones to be considered in the initial empiric antimicrobial therapy giving known resistance of less than 10%. However, E. coli resistance to quinolones has been increasing, the recent data of E. coli, causing pyelonephritis, resistance is not known in the Midwest. Local hospital antibiogram for two years showed up to 22% resistance to ciprofloxacin among E. coli isolates. Methods: We conduct a retrospective non-concurrent cohort study in one teaching hospital in the Midwest, females who were admitted with severe acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis in a three years period were included. Patients with urinary tract obstruction, pregnancy, immuno-suppression, males, and indwelling Foley’s catheters were excluded. Data collected include causative pathogens and resistance to antibiotics were collected. Percentages, frequencies, and measures of central tendency and dispersion were calculated to describe the study sample Results: 73 patients were included in the final analysis. E. coli was the most common isolated pathogen (81%), followed by other enteric gram negative. E. coli resistance to ciprofloxacin was 13.5%, 37% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 5% to ceftriaxone. Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin should be avoided initially in treating severe acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis until culture results and sensitivity is available.
Amperometric Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor Based on Horseradish Peroxidase Entrapped in Titania Sol-Gel Film on Screen-Printed Electrode  [PDF]
Reza E. Sabzi, Fereshteh Rasouli, Farshad Kheiri
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.411072
Abstract: We report the fabrication of disposable and flexible Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPEs). This new type of screen-printed electrochemical platform consists of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) and graphite composite. For this purpose, silver nanoparticles were first synthesized by a chemical reduction method. The morphology and structure of the AgNPs were analyzed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Graphite was chosen as the working electrode material for the fabrication of a thick-film. The fabrication of a screen-printed hydrogen peroxide biosensor consisting of three electrodes on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was performed with a spraying approach (working, counter and reference: enzyme electrode, graphite, pseudo reference: Ag/AgCl). This biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in a Titania sol-gel membrane which was obtained through a vapor deposition method. The biosensor had electrocatalytic activity in the reduction of H2O2 with linear dependence on H2O2 concentration in the range of 10-5 to 10-3 M; the detection limit was 4.5 × 10-6 M.

Association of Fibrinogen, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and C-Reactive Protein Levels with Rheumatoid Arthritis  [PDF]
Mohamed Babikir Omer Babikir, Nasr Eldeen Ali Mohammed Gaufri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103430
Background: Many studies were made the association between the extent of the inflammatory response, increase fibrinogen level and hypercoagulability in rheumatoid arthritis. The current study aims to the investigation and finds the association of the fibrinogen, ESR and CRP levels in Sudanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Material and Methods: This is a case-control study, conducted at Modern Medical Center, Khartoum, Sudan, during January 2016. Totally 100 participants were chosen for this study, among them 50 were known Sudanese patients professionally diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis as case group, and the other 50 participants were normal healthy subjects as control group; their age and gender coordinated with case group. 3 ml of blood was collected in Tri Sodium citrate container, and other 3 ml in plain container. Platelet poor plasma prepared by centrifugation of tri sodium citrate container, and then plasma separated to estimate fibrinogen. Serum was prepared form clotted blood to measure CRP. The ESR was done by Westergren tube from citrated blood in one hour .The data were collected by structured interview and questionnaire, and then analyzed by using a computer program statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results: Significant elevated of the plasma fibrinogen, CRP levels and ESR were observed in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis in comparison with that normal control group with (p value 0.000). Conclusion: This study has shown that rheumatoid arthritis lead to increase level of fibrinogen, ESR and CRP. This abnormality could be contributed to the hypercoagulability phenomenon.
Effect of Different Levels of Inorganic Chromium on Performance and Immunity of Broiler Chicks
Farshid Kheiri,Majid Toghyani
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of chromium chloride on performance and immune responses of broiler chicks. Three hundred and one days old broilers (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. Treatments supplemented with 0 (control), 400, 800, 1200 or 1600 μg kg-1 chromium in the form of chromium chloride. Body weight, feed intake and feed conversion were measured in different periods. At 18 and 28 days serum antibody titres against newcastle and influenza virus were determined. At 42 days, heterophil to lymphocyte and albumin to globulin ratios were measured. Lymphoid organs and carcass traits were measured at 42 days. Body weight improved significantly (p<0.05) in broilers fed 1600 μg kg-1 supplemental chromium. Feed intake, feed conversion, lymphoid organs and carcass traits (except of carcass yield) were not affected by supplemental chromium (p>0.05). Antibody titres against newcastle virus in broilers received 1600 μg kg-1 chromium supplementation were elevated (p<0.05). Heterophil to lymphocyte and albumin to globulin ratios were not affected by dietary chromium (p>0.05). The results of this experiment indicated that chromium supplementation improved body weight, carcass yield and antibody titre against Newcastle virus in broiler chicks.
Effects of Diabetes Mellitus, Age, and Duration of Dialysis on Parathormone in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients
Nasri Hamid,Kheiri Soleiman
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2008,
Abstract: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPTH) can develop early in the course of chronic renal failure and becomes more prominent as kidney function declines. We studied the effect of diabetes, age, and dialysis on parathyroid function in 60 (21 women, 39 males; 44 non-diabetic, 16 diabetic) hemodialysis (HD) patients. Serum intact PTH (iPTH), calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and magnesium (Mg) were measured. Adequacy of HD was evaluated by calculating the urea reduction rate (URR). There were significantly lower values of serum iPTH, ALP, and dialysis adequacy among diabetic than non-diabetes HD patients. In addition, there were an inverse correlation of age and serum iPTH (r= -0.27, p= 0.034) as well as age and serum phosphorus (r= -0.28, p= 0.031). There was also a positive correlation between serum iPTH with the duration (r= 0.001, p=0.42) and doses of dialysis treatment (r= 0.38, p= 0.002). We conclude that a significant negative correlation between age and serum phosphorus and lower parathyroid activity in diabetic HD patients, which implies more prevalence of bone disease in elderly diabetic HD patients. Further study of bone disease in this group of patients is required to evaluate its effect on outcome and different therapeutic interventions.
Increasing Amino Acids Density Improves Broiler Live Weight
J. Nasr,F. Kheiri
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: This research evaluates amino acid density in two phases throughout life in Arian male broilers to better understand the impact of increase and decrease dietary amino acids density in live weight performance. Four diets with different levels of amino acids density, High (H), Medium (M), Standard (S) and Low (L) were used in a completely randomized experimental design. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers fed H diet, body weight in 42 d was increased by 202 g compared with standard group (p<0.05). Levels of amino acids density had a significant effect on body weight in weeks 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6. Feeding broilers with H diet was significant highest in body weight in weeks 4, 5 and 6. H treatment was significant highest daily body weight gain from 22 to 42 (grower phase) and 1 to 42 day of age compared with S treatment (p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that high amino acids density throughout life optimized live weight and growth, whereas reductions in amino acids density reduced growth and live weight.
Effect of different lysine levels on Arian broiler performances
Javad Nasr,Farshid Kheiri
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2011.e32
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and carcass yield of Arian male broilers fed diets (starter and grower) with different levels of lysine requirements, high lysine (120% National Research Council, NRC), medium lysine (110% NRC), standard (100% NRC) and low lysine (90% NRC) in a completely randomized experimental design. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In broilers receiving 120% of NRC Lysine, body weight in 42 d significantly increased by 248 g compared with standard lysine diet. Feeding broilers with high lysine diets (120% NRC) significantly increased feed intake and body weight gain (22-42 and 0-42 day of age) compared with standard group (P<0.05). Body weight was significantly difference in all of weeks of trail (P<0.05). Lysine levels had no effect on feed conversion ratio. This study showed that increasing lysine level (120% NRC) in diet significantly increased abdominal fat pad, gizzard and heart weight compared with standard group (P<0.05).The results of this study suggest that additional lysine at the level of 120% of NRC in starter and grower diets optimized body weight gain in Arian broiler, whereas reductions in lysine level reduced growth and live weight.
Effects of Cigarette Smoking on White Blood Cells Count and von Willebrand Factor Levels in Male Smokers in Khartoum State  [PDF]
Roaa Babikir Ahmed, Mahdi H. A. Abdalla
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103506
Background: Tobacco cigarette smoking is one of the major leading causes of death and essential public health challenge in world over. Elevated von Willebrand factor (vWF) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease. High total leukocyte count can promote cardiovascular diseases through multiple pathologic mechanisms, and has been considered as an independent predictor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Objective: To assess the effects of cigarette smoking on White blood cells and von Willebrand factor levels in apparently healthy male smokers. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects were included in this study: 50 were Sudanese male smokers, and the other 50 were controls. All subjects were evaluated to determine the effects of cigarette smoking on White blood cells and von Willebrand factor levels. The TWBCs was determined using Sysmex Kx21-N Analyzer. vWF level was measured using ELISA method. Results: vWF was significantly higher in male smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.000). Total White Blood cell (TWBC) count was also higher among smoker than nonsmokers (P = 0.000). There were significant correlations between TWBC count and vWF levels with cigarette consumption/day and the duration of smoking. Conclusion: Our results concluded that smoking increases the white blood cell count and von Willebrand factor levels in males.
Estimation of Direct Solar Radiation of Chad  [PDF]
Mahamat Hassane Babikir, Donatien Njomo, Mahmoud Y. Khayal, Hermann D. Temene, Djampou T. Joel
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2018.105015
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to estimate the direct solar radiation on a horizontal plane in five regions of Chad using the Liu and Jordan’s model in view of the installation of a thermo-solar power plant. For this purpose, the HelioClim-3 Data Base of Solar Irradiance V5’s is used. All the results presented in this paper were obtained using Microsoft Excel software 2015. These results show that compared to the other regions considered for this study, the direct solar radiation on a horizontal plane in Moundou is less.
Th(IV)-hexacyanoferrate modified carbon paste electrode as a new electrocatalytic probe for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and dopamine from acidic media
Farhadi, Khalil;Kheiri, Farshad;Golzan, Mirmaqsoud;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532008000700026
Abstract: a stable carbon paste electrode (cpe) was prepared with th(iv)-hexacyanoferrate (th-hcf) ion pair and its electrochemical behavior was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. the apparent heterogeneous rate constant, ks, and transfer coefficient, a, for electron transfer between th-hcf ion-pair and cpe were calculated as 3.1 ± 0.1 s-1 and 0.47, respectively. the surface coverage (γ) of the proposed electrode was calculated as 7.06 × 10-10 mol cm-2. the proposed th-hcf modified carbon paste electrode (thmcpe) showed a good electrocatalytic behavior with a significant shift toward negative potentials in oxidation of ascorbic acid (aa) and dopamine (da) in acidic media (phosphate buffer solution, ph 3). the thmcpe exhibited excellent characteristics for simultaneous determination of aa and da. amperometric curves using the catalytic currents are linear for da and aa concentrations in the ranges 8 × 10-6 - 2 × 10-3 and 1 × 10-5 - 2 × 10-3 mol l-1 with detection limits 5.6 × 10-6 mol l-1 and 4.7 × 10-6 mol l-1, respectively. diffusion coefficients of aa and da in electrocatalaytic oxidation were calculated from chronoamperometric data.
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