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A simple method for quantification of interferon- &alfa;2b through surface plasmon resonance technique
RN Ramanan, TC Ling, BT Tey, AB Ariff
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: A rapid and efficient immunoassay method for quantification of interferon-2b using surface plasmon resonance was developed with BIAcore 3000 as a sensor. Two different levels of anti-interferon monoclonal antibody were immobilized onto a CM5 chip using an amine coupling method. Similar binding ratio was observed for both the ligand densities. There was no steric hindrance and loss of antibody activity even at higher ligand density (> 22,000 RU). The sensitivity of the assay was increased up to 45% with the increment in ligand density from 15,400 to 22,360 RU. The binding between interferon-2b and anti-interferon monoclonal antibody was predominantly controlled by mass transfer rate and the relationship was found linear, ranged from 5 to 400 ng/mL. Total cycle time per analysis was less than 8 min and required only 5 L of sample injection.
Semi-continuous anaerobic treatment of fresh leachate from municipal solid waste transfer station
SMD Ghasimi, A Idris, TG Chuah, BT Tey
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: A semi-continuous leachate treatment process was developed in the present study. The fresh leachate was obtained from a municipal solid waste transfer station and palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge was used as sources of anaerobic microbial complex. The semi-continuous treatment of leachate was operated in two phases; in Phase 1, the pH of the bioreactor was not adjusted, and in Phase 2, the pH of the bioreactor was adjusted by the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The initial values for both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of fresh leachate were extremely high compared with the stabilized landfill leachate. COD reduction rate for the semicontinuous process for Phase 1 and 2 were 37 and 52.7%, respectively. These results clearly showed that pH adjustment is important to enhance the COD removal in leachate treatment. In addition, we have analysed the evolution of volatile fatty acid (VFA) in the entire treatment process. The results indicated that the VFA concentration was a rapid indicator of the reactor’s stability.
Application of a high density adsorbent in expanded bed adsorption of lipase from Burkholderia pseudomallei
HS Yong, BT Tey, SL Hii, SMM Kamal, A Ariff, TC Ling
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: The application of STREAMLINE Direct HST adsorbent in expanded bed adsorption of lipase from Burkholderia pseudomallei was explored in this study. Scouting of optimum binding and elution condition was performed in batch binding mode. The addition of 0.2 M salt in acetate buffer (pH 5) during adsorption has increased the specificity and quantity of lipase binding onto the adsorbent. The addition of 0.4 M salt in phosphate buffer (pH 7) achieved the highest purification fold (2.5) in elution. The high density of the adsorbent allowed the EBA to be operated at linear velocity as high as 657 cm/h with feedstock containing 4.5% (w/v) wet biomass. The Richardson-Zaki correlation obtained for this EBA system at the presence of 4.5% (w/v) wet biomass is 5.14, a value closed to the laminar flow regime of 4.8, demonstrated that a stable bed is achieved under this operating condition. Meanwhile, a flow velocity of 343 cm/h with bed expansion of 3.2 gave highest dynamic binding capacity (4979.28 U/ml) and productivity (61.52 U/ml.min) for this EBA operation. It also demonstrated that biomass concentration up to 4.5% (w/v) wet weight showed slightly drop of sorption efficiency (0.82) compared to lower biomass concentration (0.94). Further increase of biomass concentration above 4.5% (w/v) wet weight has greatly decreased the equilibrium and dynamic capacity. Application of high density adsorbent tolerated to high density and biomass has reduced the processing time and increased the productivity.
Effect of promoter strength and signal sequence on the periplasmic expression of human interferon- b in Escherichia coli
RN Ramanan, WB Tik, HR Memari, SNA Azaman, TC Ling, BT Tey, MAM Lila, MP Abdullah, RA Rahim, AB Ariff
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Two plasmids, pFLAG-ATS and pET 26b(+), were studied for the periplasmic expression of recombinant human interferon-2b (IFN-2b) in Escherichia coli. The pFLAG-ATS contains ompA signal sequence and tac promoter while pET 26b(+) contains pelB signal sequence and T7lac promoter. It was observed that periplasmic expression of IFN-2b from pET 26b(+) was around 3000 times higher than pFLAGATS. Difference in the expression level was attributed to the difference in the promoters and the signal sequences. In silico analysis of mRNA secondary structures were analyzed using Vienna RNA package and MFOLD. The results suggested that the increase of expression would mainly due to the difference in the translation initiation associated with secondary structure of mRNA transcribed by both plasmids.
Pupillary anomaly masquerading as a glaucomatous visual field defect: a case report
Niall Patton, Adrian Tey
BMC Ophthalmology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-4-6
Abstract: We describe a patient who was found to have a superior visual field defect on routine testing by the optician. Repeat perimetry with pharmacological dilatation of the pupil revealed that the cause of the field defect was related to an eccentric inferiorly displaced pupil, secondary to trauma some years previously.Individual patient characteristics, including both ocular, as well as facial, need to be considered, when interpreting any visual field defect.Ophthalmologists are commonly referred patients with visual field defects, possibly related to a potential diagnosis of glaucoma [1]. However, other causes for visual field defects need to be considered. We report a case of a patient with a superior visual field defect referred to a glaucoma clinic. A pupillary cause for the field defect was suspected. Repeat perimetry with pharmacogical manipulation of the pupil resulting in a normal visual field confirmed this.A 72 year old lady was referred to the glaucoma clinic by her optometrist after routine Humphrey SITA fast perimetry in both eyes revealed a superior visual field defect in her right eye. The patient was asymptomatic and was visiting the optometrist for a routine annual visit. There was no known family history of glaucoma. Past ocular history included a penetrating injury to the right eye with closure of an inferior limbal wound over 10 years ago. This had resulted in loss of iris tissue inferiorly, and an inferiorly-displaced pupil. On examination, visual acuity was 6/9 corrected in each eye. Intraocular pressure was 16 mmHg OD, and 15 mmHg OS. Examination of the anterior segment and gonioscopy of the left eye was unremarkable. Examination of the right eye revealed an inferior limbal scar due to the previous penetrating eye injury, with loss of iris tissue inferiorly and an inferiorly-displaced pupil (figure 1). Gonioscopy showed an abnormal angle over the inferior 90° but the remainder of the angle was normal. Examination of both fundi revealed healthy opti
Refining the definition of sustainable agriculture: An inclusive perspective from Malaysian vegetable sector
Yeong-Sheng Tey
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Skepticism about the longevity of conventional agriculture has resulted in the quest for sustainable agriculture. Like many developing countries, a homogenous definition of the term ‘sustainable agriculture’ is yet to be developed in Malaysia. To fill this gap, using an inclusive perspective, this study posits a refined definition of ‘sustainable agriculture’ for Malaysia.Cognizant of relevant past studies, which were built on rather narrow viewpoints, this study integrates qualitative insights from selected up-stream stakeholders in Malaysian vegetable sector. The structured results suggest that sustainable agriculture can be defined as the process by which anintegrative balanced agricultural system is realised through a dynamic set of practices that are (1) environmentally enhancing, (2) resource optimal, (3) economically viable, (4) socially justifiable and (5) functionally feasible over time. Though derived from Malaysia, this definition can be adapted to fit local nuances in other countries and sectoral emphases in agriculture. With these five inter-related operational attributes, which are capable of enhancement and/or modification periodically, this flexible definition can progressively provide potential direction towards academic understanding and development of agricultural sustainability.
Les emocions i els sentiments morals en l’educació de la ciutadania Emotions and moral sentiments in citizenship education Las emociones y los sentimientos morales en la educación de la ciudadanía
Amèlia Tey
Temps d'Educació , 2011,
Abstract: En la quotidianitat dels infants, de la mateixa manera que succeeix amb els adults, són moltes les situacions en les quals viuen i gestionen emocions, sentiments i valors. L’article proposa una atenció intencional i alhora intencionada del professorat, per tal de generar condicions favorables per a l’aprenentatge ètic de l’alumnat, amb el qual se senti més competent per a respondre a situacions moralment rellevants. Per aconseguir-ho es fa referència a la configuració moral dels infants, que pressuposa l’atenció explícita de les emocions i els sentiments morals com un valor cabdal de la seva tasca professional, i no com un valor afegit. _____________________________________________ Dans le quotidien des jeunes enfants, de la même manière que pour les adultes, nombreuses sont les situations dans lesquelles ils vivent et gèrent des émotions, des sentiments et des valeurs. L’article propose une attention intentionnelle en même temps qu’intentionnée de la part des enseignants, afin de créer les conditions favorables pour l’apprentissage éthique des élèves, avec lequel ils se sentent plus compétents pour répondre à des situations moralement pertinentes. Pour ce faire, nous faisons référence à la configuration morale des jeunes enfants, qui présuppose l’attention explicite de leurs émotions et de leurs sentiments moraux comme une valeur capitale de leur tache professionnelle, et non comme une valeur ajoutée. In the daily life of children, as in that of adults, many situations arise in which they experience and manage emotions, feelings and values. This paper proposes that teaching staff should focus intentionally and deliberately on this area, to create favourable conditions for the students’ ethical education so that they feel more capable of resolving morally important situations.To achieve this, reference is made to the way children’s morality is formed. Thus, explicit attention to emotions and moral sentiments is assumed to be an essential aspect of teachers’ work, and not just an added value. En la cotidianidad de los ni os, al igual que sucede con los adultos, son muchas las situaciones en las que viven y gestionan emociones, sentimientos y valores. El artículo propone una atención intencional y a la vez intencionada del profesorado, para generar condiciones favorables para el aprendizaje ético del alumnado, con el que se sienta más competente para responder a situaciones moralmente relevantes. Para ello, se hace referencia a la configuración moral de los ni os, lo cual presupone la atención explícita de las emociones y los sentimientos morales como un
The Effect of Task Based Language Teaching on Writing Skills of EFL Learners in Malaysia  [PDF]
Rai Zahoor Ahmed, Siti Jamilah Bt Bidin
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2016.63022
Abstract: This quasi experimental study has validated the effectiveness of Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) in promoting writing skills of EFL learners enrolled in undergraduate programs at public sector Malaysian universities. TBLT is emerging as an essential part of curricula in language pedagogies in several countries around the globe and advocated by prominent SLA researchers along with ELT practitioners. In current study research participants were divided into an experimental and a control group. The data were collected following a Mixed Method Research paradigm during pretest and posttest. A Paired Samples T-test was used to determine the statistical significance of the learners’ scores in pretest as compared to the posttest. The vast majority of the learners opined in their reflective journal that TBLT was the most interesting and a learner centered approach enabling learners to use their existing linguistic resources. The use of existing linguistic resources is a fundamental principle of TBLT as it leads the EFL learners to be fluent and confident users of English language both inside and outside the classroom in real life situations.
The association of psychological stress and health related quality of life among patients with stroke and hypertension in Gaza Strip
BT Baune, Y Aljeesh
Annals of General Psychiatry , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1744-859x-5-6
Abstract: The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was applied to 112 hypertensive patients with hypertension plus stroke and 224 hypertensive patients without stroke. Psychological stress was assessed with SCL-90. Means scale scores were compared using student-t-test and predictors of QOL were calculated with covariance analysis.Patients with stroke had a significant lower QOL than patients without stroke and a significantly higher level of stress (p < 0.01). In analyses of covariance psychological stress was significantly correlated to all domains of QOL among non-stroke patients. The same psychological and sociodemographic factors showed little impact on the stroke patients in these multivariable analyses. In these models psychological stress had a significant impact on the global domain of QOL among stroke patients. Income and gender were the only sociodemographic factors being significantly associated with the physical (education) and social (gender) domains of QOL in stroke patients.Psychological stress was strongly correlated with all domains of QOL in patients without stroke and was only partly associated with QOL among patients with stroke. Future studies should investigate if psychological stress is a factor suitable for educational and psychological interventions aiming at stress reduction in CVD patients which might substantially contribute to better health related quality of life in these patients.Quality of life (QOL) is a phrase often used in health care settings at policy and administration levels, in clinical assessments of therapies, and in clinical management of individual cases. While QOL is a broad concept that covers such areas as social, environmental, economic, and health satisfaction, health-related quality of life (HRQL) is less wide ranging, including mental and physical health and their consequences. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is considered as one of the key concepts in contemporary practice of medicine and delivery of health care [1-4]. Quality of
The effect of seed size on yield and yield components of chickpea and lentil
BT Bi er
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: This study was carried out in order to determine the effect of seed size on the yield and yield components of chickpea and lentil. Two field experiments, composed of three chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties, four lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and two seed sizes, were conducted in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey in 2005 and 2006 in randomized complete block designs. The seeds of the three grading sizes used in this study were evaluated for yield and its components in chickpea and lentil. For chickpea, effect of seed size on yield and 100 seed weight were significant, but no difference in seed size affects other yield components, and correlations between seed size and seed yield and 100 seed weight were positive. For lentil, effect of seed size on yield and yield components was not significant.
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