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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 147816 matches for " B. Schneider "
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Clinical Outcome of Topical Interferon Alpha-2b Cream in Phase II Trial for LSIL/CIN 1 Patients  [PDF]
Roberto Kurzeja, Gerd B?hmer, Achim Schneider
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.22026
Abstract: Objectives: Interferon alpha-2b possesses variable activity against human papillomavirus (HPV) associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). No topical therapy is currently available for treatment of early stage CIN. We evaluated a new patented drug delivery technology in order to achieve topical efficacy. Methods: Two separate studies were conducted in parallel. IFN002 (treatment group) was an open label study. Twenty patients with Pap IIW, III and IIID (CIN1) were treated with intravaginal application of Interferon alpha-2b cream (5 g, 2 MIU/g) three times a week (alternate days) for 6 weeks with 6 weeks of follow up to determine its effect on cytologic and colposcopic assessment. HPV001 (control group) was a 12 week observational study. Both studies had similar inclusion/exclusion criteria and patient population. Results: In IFN002, 8 of 20 patients (40%) in the ITT population showed resolution of abnormal Pap smear during the 12 weeks following start of treatment (responders). In HPV001, 7 of 21 patients (33.3%) were regressors (p = 0.45, one-sided FET). In the PP population, 7 of 12 (58.3%) patients in IFN002 were regressors com-pared to 7 regressors of 19 patients (36.8%) in HPV001 patients (p = 0.21, one-sided FET). Among patients with Pap IIID, 8 of 14 patients in IFN002 showed resolution of abnormal Pap smear, while 4 of 14 patients resolved in HPV001 (one-sided FET, p = 0.13). Conclusions: Interferon alpha-2b cream (5 g, 2 MIU/g) may be an effective treatment for CIN 1 patients, and future investigation is warranted.
How age affects auditory-cognitive interactions in speech comprehension
B.A. Schneider
Audiology Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/audiores.2011.e10
Abstract: To participate effectively in multi-talker conversations, listeners need to do more than simply recognize and repeat speech. They have to keep track of who said what, extract the meaning of each utterance, store it in memory for future use, integrate the incoming information with what each conversational participant has said in the past, and draw on the listener’s own knowledge of the topic under consideration to extract general themes and formulate responses. In other words, to acquire and use the information contained in spoken language requires the smooth and rapid functioning of an integrated system of perceptual and cognitive processes. Here we review evidence indicating that the operation of this integrated system of perceptual and cognitive processes is more easily disrupted in older than in younger adults, especially when there are competing sounds in the auditory scene.
The removal of shear-ellipticity correlations from the cosmic shear signal: Influence of photometric redshift errors on the nulling technique
B. Joachimi,P. Schneider
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912420
Abstract: Cosmic shear is regarded one of the most powerful probes to reveal the properties of dark matter and dark energy. To fully utilize its potential, one has to be able to control systematic effects down to below the level of the statistical parameter errors. Particularly worrisome in this respect is intrinsic alignment, causing considerable parameter biases via correlations between the intrinsic ellipticities of galaxies and the gravitational shear, which mimic lensing. In an earlier work we have proposed a nulling technique that downweights this systematic, only making use of its well-known redshift dependence. We assess the practicability of nulling, given realistic conditions on photometric redshift information. For several simplified intrinsic alignment models and a wide range of photometric redshift characteristics we calculate an average bias before and after nulling. Modifications of the technique are introduced to optimize the bias removal and minimize the information loss by nulling. We demonstrate that one of the presented versions is close to optimal in terms of bias removal, given high quality of photometric redshifts. For excellent photometric redshift information, i.e. at least 10 bins with a small dispersion, a negligible fraction of catastrophic outliers, and precise knowledge about the redshift distributions, one version of nulling is capable of reducing the shear-intrinsic ellipticity contamination by at least a factor of 100. Alternatively, we describe a robust nulling variant which suppresses the systematic signal by about 10 for a very broad range of photometric redshift configurations. Irrespective of the photometric redshift quality, a loss of statistical power is inherent to nulling, which amounts to a decrease of the order 50% in terms of our figure of merit.
Intrinsic alignment boosting: Direct measurement of intrinsic alignments in cosmic shear data
B. Joachimi,P. Schneider
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014482
Abstract: Intrinsic alignments constitute the major astrophysical systematic for cosmological weak lensing surveys. We present a purely geometrical method with which one can study gravitational shear-intrinsic ellipticity correlations directly in weak lensing data. Linear combinations of second-order cosmic shear measures are constructed such that the intrinsic alignment signal is boosted while suppressing the contribution by gravitational lensing. We then assess the performance of a specific parametrisation of the weights entering these linear combinations for three representative survey models. Moreover a relation between this boosting technique and the intrinsic alignment removal via nulling is derived. For future all-sky weak lensing surveys with photometric redshift information the boosting technique yields statistical errors on model parameters of intrinsic alignments whose order of magnitude is compatible with current constraints determined from indirect measurements. Parameter biases due to a residual cosmic shear signal are negligible in case of quasi-spectroscopic redshifts and remain sub-dominant for typical values of the photometric redshift scatter. We find good agreement between the performance of the intrinsic alignment removal based on the boosting technique and standard nulling methods, possibly indicating a fundamental limit in the separation of lensing and intrinsic alignment signals.
Controlling intrinsic alignments in weak lensing statistics: The nulling and boosting techniques
B. Joachimi,P. Schneider
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: The intrinsic alignment of galaxies constitutes the major astrophysical source of systematic errors in surveys of weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure. We discuss the principles, summarise the implementation, and highlight the performance of two model-independent methods that control intrinsic alignment signals in weak lensing data: the nulling technique which eliminates intrinsic alignments to ensure unbiased constraints on cosmology, and the boosting technique which extracts intrinsic alignments and hence allows one to further study this contribution. Making only use of the characteristic dependence on redshift of the signals, both approaches are robust, but reduce the statistical power due to the similar redshift scaling of intrinsic alignment and lensing signals.
Novel Suture-Less Vascular Anastomotic Device (BYFix) in Femoro-Popliteal Surgery, Early Clinical Experience  [PDF]
M. Schneider, V. Shapira, V. Chernyavskiy, B. Yoffe
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.29096
Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the early experience of using the BYFix-innovative anastomotic device for creating suture-less vascular anastomosis in major and peripheral arteries surgery. Design: Uncontrolled prospective study. Materials: The BYFix anastomotic device for suture-less vascular anastomosis with surgical tools and standard vascular grafts. Methods: 7 patients, age 63.6 ± 9.2 years, with peripheral vascular occlusion above the knee scheduled for surgical repair were operared. They underwent the surgical procedure using the BYFix anastomotic device for creating proximal anastomosis and the conventional manual suturing for creating the distal anastomosis of the implantable vascular graft. Results: The anastomoses by using BYFix anastomotic device were successfully created in all patients. The duration of anastomosis creation was significantly shorter by using BYFix device, compared to conventional manual suturing, 5:10 ± 1:50 minutes compared to 33 ± 17:40 minutes respectively. No adverse events related to BYFix anastomotic device were observed, during the surgical procedure or recovery period. One year follow up revealed no complications related to BYFix anastomotic device. Conclusions: The BYFix anastomotic device enables the creation of efficient vascular anastomosis in peripheral vascular occlusions. It shortens the time needed for creating vascular anastomosis and thus reducing the operation time and might reduce distal complications related to the vascular procedure. Further clinical trials are needed to establish the results.
Mehr als nur diskursive Praxis? – Konzeptionelle Grundlagen und methodische Aspekte der Dispositivanalyse More Than Just a Discursive Practice? Conceptual Principles and Methodological Aspects of Dispositif Analysis Mucho más que una práctica discursiva? Principios conceptuales y aspectos metodológicos del análisis de dispositivos
Andrea D. Bührmann,Werner Schneider
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2007,
Abstract: Der Beitrag gibt einen Einstieg in das sowohl konzeptionell als auch forschungspraktisch bisher kaum erschlossene Feld der Dispositivanalyse. Dazu werden erstens die Begriffe Diskurs und Dispositiv als analytische Konzepte erl utert und aufeinander bezogen. Zweitens erfolgt eine Sichtung des konzeptionellen Instrumentariums und analytischen Vorgehens der Dispositivanalyse. Davon ausgehend werden drittens die machtanalytischen Verh ltnisbestimmungen zwischen (a) diskursiven/nicht-diskursiven Praxen, (b) Subjektivation/Subjektivierung, (c) alltagsweltlichen Wissensordnungen und (d) gesellschaftlichem Wandel als Leitfragen der Dispositivanalyse entfaltet. Mit Blick auf aktuelle dispositivanalytische Forschungsfelder werden abschlie end die methodologischen wie methodischen M glichkeiten und Grenzen der Dispositivanalyse beispielhaft skizziert. Generell zielt der Beitrag auf eine systematische Weiterung diskurstheoretischer Forschungsperspektiven und diskursanalytischer Forschungspraxis, indem der Wechselbezug zwischen normierenden Wissensordnungen, ihren konkreten handlungspraktischen Wirksamkeiten im sozialen Austausch von Menschen und die damit einhergehenden Selbst-Bezüge als Subjektivit ten empirisch in den Blick zu nehmen sind. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702281 This article gives an introduction into the conceptual and practical field of dispositf analysis—a field that is of great importance but that is as yet underdeveloped. In order to render this introduction, we first explain the terms discourse and dispositif. Then we examine the conceptual instruments and methodological procedures of dispositf analysis. In this way, we define the relations between discourse and (a) non discoursive practices (b) subjectification, (c) everyday orders of knowledge and (d) institutional practices like societal changes as central issues of dispositif analysis. Furthermore, we point out the methodological possibilities and limitations of dispositif analysis. We demonstrate these possibilities and limitations with some practical examples. In general, this article aims to provide an extension of the perspectives of discourse theory and research by stressing the relations between normative orders of knowledge, their effects on interactions and individual self–reflections connected with them. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702281 Este artículo ofrece una introducción a los aspectos conceptuales y prácticos del análisis de dispositivos – un campo de gran relevancia que se encuentra todavía bastante subdesarrollado. La estructura de nuestra introducción será la siguiente: Primero ex
Feedbacks of CO2 dependent dissolved organic carbon production on atmospheric CO2 in an ocean biogeochemical model
L. A. Bordelon-Katrynski,B. Schneider
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-9-7983-2012
Abstract: We use an ocean biogeochemical model to test whether a potential CO2 dependence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production may have an influence on marine carbon sequestration via particle aggregation and so may represent a potentially larger ocean sink for anthropogenic CO2. The hypothesis is based on mesocosm experiments that have shown enhanced carbon uptake by phytoplankton when more CO2 is available, and where the extra carbon was probably directly routed into DOC instead of the particulate phase. Sensitivity experiments are carried out where phytoplankton exudation of DOC is systematically increased with and without a parallel rise in atmospheric CO2. We find that under a fourfold increase of the DOC formation rate, there is a slight reduction of global particle export, which results in a shallower turnover of nutrients and carbon. As a consequence, a positive feedback loop develops, such that the ocean becomes a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere. The effect is amplified under high CO2 conditions due to the decreased CO2 buffer capacity of the ocean, however, it is rather low compared to the total anthropogenic perturbation. The positive feedback is in contrast to a very similar study, where a slight stimulation of particle export was found. Therefore, we conclude that the sign of the feedback depends on the actual pathway the extra carbon is taking and on the overall background conditions of marine primary production and ocean circulation.
The role of N2-fixation to simulate the pCO2 observations from the Baltic Sea
A. Leinweber,T. Neumann,B. Schneider
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: Measurements in the central Baltic Sea have shown that dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in the upper water column continue to decrease even after complete depletion of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). To explain this observation, a new external supply of nitrogen is required without a concomitant supply of inorganic carbon. The primary proposed candidate process is N2-fixation. In order to address this question in the eastern Gotland Sea, a biogeochemical model containing nine state variables including diatoms, flagellates, and nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, was coupled to a 1D physical model. The results from the winter period until the onset of the spring bloom of 1997 gave reasonable surface water values for partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) compared with measurements of the pCO2. However, the model failed to simulate the observed pCO2 drawdown for the period from the end of the spring bloom until late summer. Even after introducing a seasonal dissolved organic carbon (DOC) excess production and varying different process parameterization the simulated pCO2 values did not improve. Only the shift from a sharp to a moderate temperature dependency in addition to an increase in the C:P ratio of the nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria made it possible for the model to match the pCO2 observations. The resulting total nitrogen fixation (167 mmol m-2 a-1) exceeds previous measurement-based estimates but is in good agreement with recent rate measurement based estimates.
sterreichische Anwendungsbeobachtung mit einer phytosterinangereicherten Di t-Halbfettmargarine (becel "pro-activ") bei Personen mit erh htem Cholesterinspiegel
Fasching P,Bernecker PM,Schneider B
Journal für Ern?hrungsmedizin , 2001,
Abstract: Seit September 2000 steht in sterreich mit "becel pro-activ" der erste Vertreter der neuen Lebensmittelklasse "Novel food" ("Neuartiges Lebensmittel") im Handel zur Verfügung. Das Produkt, eine pflanzliche Di t-Halbfettmargarine (Brotaufstrich), ist mit natürlich vorkommenden Phytosterinen angereichert. Diese dem Cholesterin chemisch hnlichen Steroidmoleküle in veresterter Form hemmen im Darm kompetitiv die Cholesterinaufnahme. Das Projektziel war die Untersuchung der Wirkung der t glichen Einnahme von etwa 20 g becel pro-activ, entsprechend 1,6 g Phytosterinen, auf Blutfettparameter (Gesamtcholesterin, LDL-Cholesterin, HDL-Cholesterin und Triglyzeride) bei 15 ansonsten gesunden Personen (4 m, 11 f) mit erh htem Gesamtcholesterinspiegel über 200 mg/dl, die bereits seit mehr als drei Monaten eine cholesterinsenkende Ern hrungs- und Lebensweise eingehalten hatten. Nach 4 Wochen t glichen Verzehrs des Produktes konnte eine Senkung (statistisch signifikant nach deskripitiver Analyse) der Gesamtcholesterinkonzentration um 8,4 %, der LDL-Cholesterinkonzentration um 11 % und des Quotienten LDL/HDL um 9,6 % bei sonst unver nderten Ern hrungs- und Verhaltensweisen beobachtet werden. Diese Befunde der sterreichischen Anwendungsbeobachtung entsprechen somit den internationalen Resultaten randomisierter, kontrollierter Doppelblindstudien bei mild bis m ig hypercholesterin mischen Patienten, die zeigen, da mittels t glicher Zufuhr von 20 g becel pro-activ die Konzentration des Gesamtcholesterins um 8 bis 12 % und des LDL-Cholesterins um 10 bis 15 % innerhalb von 3 Wochen zu senken ist.
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