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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144378 matches for " B. Moctar "
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Abdominal Trauma: Five Years Experience in National Centre Hospital, Mauritania  [PDF]
A. Moulaye Idriss, Y. Tfeil, J. S. Baba, S. M. Boukhary, B. Hamad, M. Abdllatif, T. A. Kane, M. Abdllahi, B. Moctar, B. Taleb
Open Journal of Emergency Medicine (OJEM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojem.2018.61002
Trauma care including abdominal trauma is a big challenge. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality and continues to be a public health problem worldwide. The main aims of our study were to assess the patterns and outcomes of our patients, and to describe our experience in management of abdominal trauma. This descriptive retrospective study was conducted in general surgery department at National Centre Hospital of Nouakchott in Mauritania. We recruited patients presented at our department with abdominal trauma (2012-2016). Out of 100 cases, 92% were men. Mean age: 22.78 years (5 - 70 years). Eighty percent of patients suffered of penetrating abdominal trauma. Stab injuries were the most frequent mechanism (60%). The commonest organ injury was small intestine (16%). Mortality has been strongly related to road traffic accidents. Cares of severe abdominal traumas are not common in our hospital, due to lack of required overall data. Emergency health system is needed to better care of trauma patients in Mauritania.
Benefit of Targeted Therapies in Metastatic Colon Cancer in the Ivorian Context  [PDF]
Touré Moctar, Kouassi Kouamé K. Yvon, Séka E. Narcisse, Traoré Kady, Kimso Oumou, Niang D. Rokhaya, Odo B. Adde, Oseni Jelili, Adoubi Innocent
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2017.88068
Abstract: In our daily practice, the use of targeted therapies (Bevacizumab and rarely Cetuximab) in metastatic colic cancers is recent. Very few patients benefit from these therapies because of their high cost. In a cohort of 68 patients who received these therapies, a retrospective and prospective study was conducted over three years period (1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015) to evaluate their benefit in terms of quality of life, tolerance and overall survival. These targeted therapies provided a significant clinical and biological gain with acceptable toxicities (most often resolving spontaneously). Moreover, they have allowed a significant improvement in overall survival in first line metastatic treatment. The limiting factor remains their extremely high cost and therefore inaccessibility to the majority of our patients.
Spatial Distribution of Cordex Regional Climate Models Biases over West Africa  [PDF]
Alioune Badara Sarr, Moctar Camara, Ibrahima Diba
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.69081
Abstract: The objective of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution of biases of nine (9) regional climate models (RCMs) and their ensemble average used under the framework of COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) project over West Africa during the summer period. We assessed the ability of RCMs to represent adequately West African summer rainfall by analyzing some statistical parameters such as the relative bias, the standard deviation, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the correlation coefficient between observation data (GPCP used as reference) and regional climate models outputs. We first analyzed the relative bias between GPCP climatology and the other available observed data (CRU, CMAP, UDEL, GPCC, TRMM and their ensemble mean). This analysis highlights the big uncertainty on the quality of these observed rainfall data over West Africa which may be largely due to the rarity ofin situmeasurement data over this region. The statistical analysis with respect to GPCP rainfall shows the presence of large relative bias values over most part of West Africa for engaged RCMs. However their ensemble mean outperforms individual RCMs by exhibiting the weakest relative change. The RMSE values are weak over West Africa except over and off the Guinea highlands for RCMs and the Era-interim reanalysis. The spatial distribution of the coefficient of correlation between the observation data and RCMs shows that all models (except HIRHAM) present positive values over the Northern Sahel and the Gulf of Guinea. The model of the DMI exhibits the weakest values of correlation coefficient. This study shows that RCMs simulate West African climate in a satisfactory way despite the fact that they exhibit systematic biases.
Impacts of the Sahel-Sahara Interface Reforestation on West African Climate: Intra-Annual Variability and Extreme Temperature Events  [PDF]
Ibrahima Diba, Moctar Camara, Arona Diedhiou
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2019.91003
Abstract: The impacts of the reforestation of the Sahel-Sahara interface on the seasonal distribution of the surface temperature and thermal extremes are studied in the Sahel (West African region lying between 11°N and 18°N). We performed a simulation with the standard version of the RegCM4 model followed by another one using the altered version of the same model taking into account an incorporated forest. The impacts of the vegetation change are assessed by analyzing the difference between the two runs. The reforestation may influence strongly the frequency of warm days (TG90P) and very warm days (TX90P) by decreasing it over the reforested zone from March to May (MAM) and the entire Sahel during the June-August (JJA) period. These TG90P and TX90P indices decrease may be due to the strengthening of the atmospheric moisture content over the whole Sahel region and the weakening of the sensible heat flux over the reforested zone. The analysis also shows a decrease of the TN90P indice (warm nights) over the Sahel during the wet season (JJA) which could be partly associated with the strengthening of the evapotranspiration over the whole Sahel domain. The analysis of additional thermal indices shows an increase of the tropical nights over the entire Sahel from December to February (DJF) and during the warm season (MAM). The strengthening of the tropical night is partly associated with an increase of the surface net downward shortwave flux over the reforested zone. When considering the heat waves, an increase (a decrease) of these events is recorded over the southern Sahel during JJA and SON periods (over the whole Sahelian region during DJF), respectively. Changes in latent heat flux appear to be largely responsible for these extreme temperatures change. This work shows that the vegetation change may impact positively some regions like the reforested area by reducing the occurrence of thermal extremes; while other Sahel regions (eastern part of the central Sahel) could suffer from it because of the strengthening of thermal extremes.
Low coverage but few inclusion errors in Burkina Faso: a community-based targeting approach to exempt the indigent from user fees
Valéry Ridde, Slim Haddad, Béatrice Nikiema, Moctar Ouedraogo, Yamba Kafando, Abel Bicaba
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-631
Abstract: An indigent-selection process is judged effective if it minimizes inclusion biases and exclusion biases. The study compares the levels of poverty and of vulnerability of indigents selected by the management committees (n = 184) with: 1) indigents selected in the villages but not retained by these committees (n = 48); ii) indigents selected by the health centre nurses (n = 82); and iii) a sample of the rural population (n = 5,900).The households in which the three groups of indigents lived appeared to be more vulnerable and poorer than the reference rural households. Indigents selected by the management committees and the nurses were very comparable in terms of levels of vulnerability, but the former were more vulnerable socially. The majority of indigents proposed by the village committees who lived in extremely poor households were retained by the management committees. Only 0.36% of the population living below the poverty threshold and less than 1% of the extremely poor population were selected.The community-based process minimized inclusion biases, as the people selected were poorer and more vulnerable than the rest of the population. However, there were significant exclusion biases; the selection was very restrictive because the exemption had to be endogenously funded.Requiring payment for healthcare services limits access to care for the worst-off [1,2]. Given that countries are not about to stop charging for services, and in the absence of social insurance, some countries propose to exempt the worst-off from user fees [3-5]. The first targets of such exemption measures are the indigent, i.e., those with a "sustained incapacity to pay for minimum health care" [6]. While this idea may seem simple enough, its implementation is confronted with enormous challenges in practice [6-8]. A key challenge is the selection of indigents, about whom very little is known in Africa, since there have been few studies [8]. The ideal selection process has to be feasible, reproduc
Uniform radius for a class of univalent functions
El Moctar Ould Beiba
International Journal of Mathematical Analysis , 2012,
On the use of continued fractions for electronic cash
Amadou Moctar Kane
International Journal of Computer Science and Security , 2010,
Abstract: This paper presents an electronic cash scheme using the theory of continuedfractions. Continued fractions have already some utilities in cryptography such asin the cryptanalysis of RSA [17] or in the design of some stream ciphers [9]. Inorder to achieve our prepaid e-cash scheme, we will use the continued fractionexpansion of some irrationals numbers, although the same scheme can beobtain with a block cipher algorithm like AES or with some pseudo-randomgenerators. Our e-cash scheme has two aims: the first one is to create apayment system independent of current constraints such as the revocation ofanonymity (in the double spending case) or the obligation for those who want touse the e-cash, to have a bank account.The second aim is to propose here a solution which prevents the copy of our ecoinsand allows if necessary the reimbursement of the user with e-cash.
Intra-Seasonal Variability of Aerosols and Their Radiative Impacts on Sahel Climate during the Period 2000-2010 Using AERONET Data  [PDF]
Mamadou Simina Drame, Moctar Camara, Amadou T. Gaye
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2013.41A024

This paper presents a study using in situ measurements (AERONET data) to characterize the intra-seasonal variability of aerosols and their shortwave radiative impacts on Sahel (11\"\"N - 18\"\"N and 20\"\"W - 15\"\"E) climate using a long time series (2000 to 2010) from AERONET data. We first used the MISR aerosol optical depth (AOD) averaged between 2000 and 2010 to identify dust maxima regions. They are mainly located over Eastern Mauritania-Northern Mali and Eastern Niger-Western Tchad (near the Bodele depression). Moreover the aerosol loading is stronger during the spring (MAM) and particularly during the summer (JJA). The analysis of AERONET data at 4 Sahelian stations (Dakar, Agoufou, Banizoumbou and Ouagadougou) shows that Sahel is under dust influence all year long. The dust season is mainly located between March and October, with two peaks of AOD recorded in March and June; while the maximum of biomass burning activity is recorded in winter (December to February). The radiative forcing of aerosols on the Sahelian climate results mainly in a cooling as well as at the surface than at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) but the forcing is stronger at the surface and particularly during the summer (JJA) and spring (MAM) periods. Although there is not a sharp difference between DJF and SON periods from a station to another one when considering the aerosol loading (AOD), the radiative forcing is stronger at the surface and weaker at the TOA during DJF for most stations. The analysis of the force effectiveness (ratio between AOD and the radiative forcing) suggests that the BOA radiative forcing is mainly influenced by the nature of aerosols.

Physico-Chemical Features of the Kpassa Reservoir, Northern Benin, with Emphasis on Its Trophic State: A Preliminary Study  [PDF]
Ousmane Touré Boukari, Daouda Mama, Youssouf Abou, Moctar Limam Bawa
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.713161
Abstract: This work presents recent data on the physico-chemical properties and the trophic status of Kpassa reservoir at eighteen locations from August 2014 to February 2015. Seventeen physico-chemical parameters were measured and data obtained were statistically analyzed. The descriptive statistics showed their variations (minima-maxima) as follows: pH (4.65 - 7.30), temperature (25.1°C - 29.9°C), dissolved oxygen (1 - 5.79 mg/L), oxydability (0.32 - 10.88 mg O2/L), electrical conductivity (55 - 77 μS/cm1), TDS (76 - 94 mg/L), turbidity (15.70 - 274.40 NTU), transparency (0.24 - 1.55 m), suspended matter (3 - 92 mg/L), total phosphorus (0.25 - 1.90 mg/L), orthophosphate (0.08 - 0.61 mg/L), nitrate (undetected 5.50 mg/L), nitrite (undetected 0.79 mg/L), ammonia (undetected 0.36 mg/L), chlorophyll a (7.20 - 2334.6 μg/L), silica (4.34 - 15.67 mg/L) and N/P ratio (0.08 - 42.62). These parameters were mainly influenced by agricultural activities and climatic conditions. The restriction or the removal of the use of chemical fertilizers
African Easterly Waves and Cyclonic Activity over the Eastern Atlantic: Composite and Case Studies
Moctar Camara,Arona Diedhiou,Amadou Gaye
International Journal of Geophysics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/874292
Abstract: This study aims to understand the main differences over the African continent and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean between African Easterly Waves (AEWs) associated with Atlantic cyclones (developing AEWs) and non-developing AEWs. A statistical study showed that most of the named cyclones generated near the West African coast have a long lifecycle and all are associated with intense AEWs. Using NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, a composite study of the characteristics of developing AEWs is carried out and compared to those of non-developing AEWs. Developing AEWs exhibit the greatest baroclinic and barotropic conversions which are known to be the main processes involved in AEWs growth suggesting that these AEWs are stronger than the non-developing ones. Moreover, the developing AEWs are characterized by the existence of a relatively more unstable environment over West Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. A case study using rawinsonde data showed that the developing AEW is associated with dynamic and thermodynamic conditions conducive for deep convection and subsequent cyclogenesis compared to the non-developing AEW case.
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