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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 243793 matches for " B?rd O Karlsen "
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Halibut mitochondrial genomes contain extensive heteroplasmic tandem repeat arrays involved in DNA recombination
Kenneth A Mjelle, Brd O Karlsen, Tor E J?rgensen, Truls Moum, Steinar D Johansen
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-10
Abstract: About 100 variable positions were identified within the four specimens in each halibut species, with the control regions as the most variable parts of the genomes (10 times that of the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA). Due to tandem repeat arrays, the control regions have unusually large sizes compared to most vertebrate mtDNAs. The arrays are highly heteroplasmic in size and consist mainly of different variants of a 61-bp motif. Halibut mitochondrial genomes lacking arrays were also detected.The complexity, distribution, and biological role of the heteroplasmic tandem repeat arrays in halibut mitochondrial control regions are discussed. We conclude that the most plausible explanation for array maintenance includes both the slipped-strand mispairing and DNA recombination mechanisms.Halibuts (family Pleuronectidae) represent the largest of the flatfish species. Whereas Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) are endemic species confined to the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans, respectively, the Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) has an Arctic-boreal distribution in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. All three species are commercially important flatfishes with extensive annual catch volumes, and the Atlantic halibut has further become increasingly popular in North European aquaculture [1]. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences supports a sister taxa affiliation of the Hippoglossus and Reinhardtius halibuts among the Pleuronectidae [2].Genetic markers have been developed to investigate and assess genetic issues within e.g. taxonomy, systematics, conservation biology, population structuring, or breeding programs. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has become one of the most popular genetic markers [3,4] due to its small size and stable organization, its simple inheritance pattern (maternal without apparent DNA recombination), high copy number, and elevated mutation rate co
Differential expression patterns of conserved miRNAs and isomiRs during Atlantic halibut development
Teshome T Bizuayehu, Carlos FC Lanes, Tomasz Furmanek, Brd O Karlsen, Jorge MO Fernandes, Steinar D Johansen, Igor Babiak
BMC Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-11
Abstract: miRNA profiling using SOLiD deep sequencing technology revealed a total of 199 conserved, one novel antisense, and one miRNA* mature form. Digital expression profiles of selected miRNAs were validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. We found developmental transition-specific miRNA expression. Expression of some miRNA* exceeded the guide strand miRNA. We revealed that nucleotide truncations and/or additions at the 3' end of mature miRNAs resulted in size variants showing differential expression patterns during the development in a number of miRNA families. We confirmed the presence of isomiRs by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Also, we found inverse relationship between expression levels of sense/antisense miRNAs during halibut development.Developmental transitions during early development of Atlantic halibut are associated with expression of certain miRNA types. IsomiRs are abundant and often show differential expression during the development.Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L., the largest flatfish of Atlantic Ocean, is a species of commercial interest to the aquaculture industry. Halibut's early developmental stages are prolonged and morphologically defined [1,2]. The critical developmental stages, when dramatic changes in signaling, physiology and morphology occur, include: (i) maternal to zygote transition (MZT), when maternally stocked transcripts are degraded and zygote transcripts take control over the development; (ii) organogenesis, when the germ layers are formed; (iii) hatching, when the embryo becomes a free-swimming larva; (iv) first feeding, when active movement, visualization, recognition of prey, and exogenous feeding begin; and (v) metamorphosis, the most dramatic morphological and behavioral change in a flatfish during the transition from a symmetric post-larval to an asymmetric juvenile stage, when migration of one eye towards the other one occurs across the skull [1].MiRNAs are small (18 - 26 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs
A Novel Beta-Defensin Antimicrobial Peptide in Atlantic Cod with Stimulatory Effect on Phagocytic Activity
Jareeporn Ruangsri, Yoichiro Kitani, Viswanath Kiron, Jep Lokesh, Monica F. Brinchmann, Brd Ove Karlsen, Jorge M. O. Fernandes
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062302
Abstract: A novel defensin antimicrobial peptide gene was identified in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. This three exon/two intron defensin gene codes for a peptide precursor consisting of two domains: a signal peptide of 26 amino acids and a mature peptide of 40 residues. The mature cod defensin has six conserved cysteine residues that form 1–5, 2–4 and 3–6 disulphide bridges. This pattern is typical of beta-defensins and this gene was therefore named cod beta-defensin (defb). The tertiary structure of Defb exhibits an α/β fold with one α helix and β1β2β3 sheets. RT-PCR analysis indicated that defb transcripts were present mainly in the swim bladder and peritoneum wall but could also be detected at moderate to low levels in skin, head- and excretory kidneys. In situ hybridisation revealed that defb was specifically expressed by cells located in the swim bladder submucosa and the oocytes. During embryonic development, defb gene transcripts were detectable from the golden eye stage onwards and their expression was restricted to the swim bladder and retina. Defb was differentially expressed in several tissues following antigenic challenge with Vibrio anguillarum, being up-regulated up to 25-fold in head kidney. Recombinant Defb displayed antibacterial activity, with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.4–0.8 μM and 25–50 μM against the Gram-(+) bacteria Planococcus citreus and Micrococcus luteus, respectively. In addition, Defb stimulated phagocytic activity of cod head kidney leucocytes in vitro. These findings imply that beta-defensins may play an important role in the innate immune response of Atlantic cod.
Digital Marine Bioprospecting: Mining New Neurotoxin Drug Candidates from the Transcriptomes of Cold-Water Sea Anemones
Ilona Urbarova,Brd Ove Karlsen,Siri Okkenhaug,Ole Morten Seternes,Steinar D. Johansen,?se Emblem
Marine Drugs , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/md10102265
Abstract: Marine bioprospecting is the search for new marine bioactive compounds and large-scale screening in extracts represents the traditional approach. Here, we report an alternative complementary protocol, called digital marine bioprospecting, based on deep sequencing of transcriptomes. We sequenced the transcriptomes from the adult polyp stage of two cold-water sea anemones, Bolocera tuediae and Hormathia digitata. We generated approximately 1.1 million quality-filtered sequencing reads by 454 pyrosequencing, which were assembled into approximately 120,000 contigs and 220,000 single reads. Based on annotation and gene ontology analysis we profiled the expressed mRNA transcripts according to known biological processes. As a proof-of-concept we identified polypeptide toxins with a potential blocking activity on sodium and potassium voltage-gated channels from digital transcriptome libraries.
Health Consequences of Acid Rain in South West Sweden  [PDF]
I. Rosborg, B. Nihlg?rd
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.62009
Abstract: Acid rain leads to loss of essential elements from soils and bedrock, causing an imbalance in especially dug well waters, as essential element concentrations decrease and potentially toxic element concentrations increase. In this study 72 private dug wells from acid regions (pH < 6) were compared with 68 wells from an alkaline area on limestone bedrock (pH > 7.0) in South-western Sweden. Women, drinking the water for at least 5 years, were interviewed about their health and water and hair samples were collected. The concentrations of about 40 elements in water and hair were analysed, mostly by ICP-MS. The concentrations of essential elements such as Ca, Cr, Mo, Se, K, and SO4 as well as the body’s buffering agent HCO3 were significantly lower in acid than in alkaline water. The median Ca concentration was 6 times lower in acid waters, and also in hair compared to alkaline. Median HCO3 was 14 times lower in acid waters. Mg was similar in both populations, since the Swedish bedrock in general has low Mg content, even so limestone in the alkaline area. The concentrations of especially Ca, Cr, HCO3 and SO4, peaked at pH 7.0 - 8.0, due to precipitation of carbonates and sulphates in alkaline soils and leaching from acid soils. The levels of toxic metals such as Cd and Pb were significantly higher in acid well water. High Cu concentration from pipes, causing especially diarrhoea, is a serious acidification problem. The contribution of essential elements to the daily intake from these well waters, 2 Litres consumption per day, was from 0% to above 30% for some elements, clearly showing that 10%, which is generally predicted, can be exceeded for people with private well waters, as well as provide 0%, which is the case for many acid well waters. Water elements were mirrored in hair, e.g. Ca and Mo. The loss of essential minerals, and increased concentration of toxic elements in acid well water, caused mineral imbalances in the body, as mirrored in hair. Women living in the acid area reported more negative health changes than women in the alkaline district, during the time they had been drinking their well water. The number of reported heart, intestinal, muscle, and skin problems were between 2 and 9 times higher among women drinking acid than alkaline well water.
Affinity Purification of Human Factor H on Polypeptides Derived from Streptococcal M Protein: Enrichment of the Y402 Variant
O. Rickard Nilsson, Jonas Lannerg?rd, B. Paul Morgan, Gunnar Lindahl, Mattias C. U. Gustafsson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081303
Abstract: Recent studies indicate that defective activity of complement factor H (FH) is associated with several human diseases, suggesting that pure FH may be used for therapy. Here, we describe a simple method to isolate human FH, based on the specific interaction between FH and the hypervariable region (HVR) of certain Streptococcus pyogenes M proteins. Special interest was focused on the FH polymorphism Y402H, which is associated with the common eye disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and has also been implicated in the binding to M protein. Using a fusion protein containing two copies of the M5-HVR, we found that the Y402 and H402 variants of FH could be efficiently purified by single-step affinity chromatography from human serum containing the corresponding protein. Different M proteins vary in their binding properties, and the M6 and M5 proteins, but not the M18 protein, showed selective binding of the FH Y402 variant. Accordingly, chromatography on a fusion protein derived from the M6-HVR allowed enrichment of the Y402 protein from serum containing both variants. Thus, the exquisite binding specificity of a bacterial protein can be exploited to develop a simple and robust procedure to purify FH and to enrich for the FH variant that protects against AMD.
Linnebjer—A South Swedish Oak Forest and Meadow Area—Revisited after Half a Century  [PDF]
Folke O. Andersson, Bengt Nihlg?rd
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2016.62008
Abstract: An oak forest and three wet meadows/fens were reinvestigated after 50 years concerning tree vitality, biomass and productivity, and soil chemistry. Sulphur and nitrogen deposition has changed dramatically during these years, and the aim was to analyse the differences in both the oak forest and the open field ecosystems. Trees were re-measured and soil profiles were resampled. Important visible changes in the oak forest were stated concerning the vitality of oaks. Aboveground there was a decrease in tree biomass, production and litter fall, but a huge increase in standing dead logs. During the years, the deposition of sulphur had decreased drastically, but nitrogen deposition was still high. Soil acidification in the forest had decreased, reflected in an increased base saturation in the forest, in spite of slightly lowered pH-values. Strongly increased amounts of exchangeable Ca and Mg now appeared in the forest soil, and a substantial transport of calcium and magnesium had obviously taken place from the forest soil to the meadow and fens during the years. However, the most important soil change was the accumulation of organic matter. The increased accumulation of organic matter in turn meant increased amounts of colloid particles and microsites for ion exchange in the soil. This favoured 2-valence base cations, and especially Ca and Mg that increased very much in all the studied ecosystems. Carbon as well as nitrogen had strongly increased in the forest, meadow and fen soils. This was interpreted as a natural result of increased vegetation growth due to high nitrogen deposition, increased global annual temperature and increased carbon dioxide concentration in air. It was concluded that the decreased deposition of sulphur had had a positive effect on soil chemistry, and that the deposition of nitrogen probably had stimulated vegetation growth in general, and contributed to increased amount of organic matter in the soils. However, in this studied oak forest, the decreased vitality and many killed trees were also suspected to be a result of high nitrogen deposition. Obviously increased tree growth was counteracted by decreased stress resistance, and increased appearance of pathogens in the oak trees.
Towards a “Sample-In, Answer-Out” Point-of-Care Platform for Nucleic Acid Extraction and Amplification: Using an HPV E6/E7 mRNA Model System
Anja Gulliksen,Helen Keegan,Cara Martin,John O'Leary,Lars A. Solli,Inger Marie Falang,Petter Gr nn,Aina Karlg rd,Michal M. Mielnik,Ib-Rune Johansen,Terje R. Tofteberg,Tobias Baier,Rainer Gransee,Klaus Drese,Thomas Hansen-Hagge,Lutz Riegger,Peter Koltay,Roland Zengerle,Frank Karlsen,Dag Ausen,Liv Furuberg
Journal of Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/905024
Abstract: The paper presents the development of a “proof-of-principle” hands-free and self-contained diagnostic platform for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA in clinical specimens. The automated platform performs chip-based sample preconcentration, nucleic acid extraction, amplification, and real-time fluorescent detection with minimal user interfacing. It consists of two modular prototypes, one for sample preparation and one for amplification and detection; however, a common interface is available to facilitate later integration into one single module. Nucleic acid extracts (=28) from cervical cytology specimens extracted on the sample preparation chip were tested using the PreTect HPV-Proofer and achieved an overall detection rate for HPV across all dilutions of 50%–85.7%. A subset of 6 clinical samples extracted on the sample preparation chip module was chosen for complete validation on the NASBA chip module. For 4 of the samples, a 100% amplification for HPV 16 or 33 was obtained at the 1 : 10 dilution for microfluidic channels that filled correctly. The modules of a “sample-in, answer-out” diagnostic platform have been demonstrated from clinical sample input through sample preparation, amplification and final detection.
A collaborative chain out of phase: the organization of tasks and information needed in the process of discharging a care-needing older patient from hospital to municipal care
Brd Paulsen
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2009,
Adherence to treatment: what is done in Sweden? Practice, education and research
S?derg?rd B
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this review was to identify the practice, education and research of pharmacists in Sweden in regard to adherence to treatment.Methods: Medline was searched up to the end of February 2008. In addition to the Medline search performed, other available sources were also used to identify relevant articles.Results: No adherence-specific programs have been implemented in Swedish pharmacies. No adherence-specific courses are provided in Swedish Universities educating pharmacists. The adherence-related research has so far mainly focused on refill non-adherence, primary non-adherence and patient reported non-adherence and readiness to treatment. Conclusions: Adherence-related practice and education of pharmacists will probably change due to the deregulation of the pharmacy market that will take place in the near future in Sweden. Research on adherence will need to be strengthened in the sense that it has so far not been guided by adherence-related theoretical frameworks, despite the fact that there are several theories to hand that try to explain adherence.
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