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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144195 matches for " B Nigatu "
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Analyzing and Modeling of Geo Spatial Effect on Radio Wave Propagation System Using Geospatial Technologies  [PDF]
Nigatu Bekele, Biadgilgn Demissie
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2017.96048
Abstract: The research presented in this thesis reveals the level of rightness of the recurrence Prediction systems by correlated with geospatial effect. The Geospatial technology elements split up: Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) consolidated into this technique in light of the fact that the vast majority of the components in radio wave propagation are geographic highlights. In this exploration, ICEPAC remote arranging programming is tried in a field test completed in Tigray and Afar district. The consequence show that, the Prediction programming doesn’t put, day by day, regular and month to month topographical marvels into thought. Moreover, it doesn’t demonstrate the correct area of the radio stations. Furthermore, the new proposed ICEPAC Calibration algorithm anticipates a good Signal quality for frequencies in the vicinity of 1.5 MHz up to 30 MHz. The total result showed that Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are getting to be noticeably valuable apparatuses in accumulation, stockpiling, control and portrayal of Geo spatial information and also the RS and GIS situated Signal quality forecast can essentially enhance forecast quality contrasted with the hypothetical free space demonstration which does not consider any Geo spatial and neighborhood landscape highlights impacts.
X-ray film reject rate analysis at eight selected government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2010
S Teferi, D Zewdneh, D Admassie, B Nigatu, K Kebeta
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Improper practices in radiography that lead to possible repeating of procedures predispose patients for additional cost, more waiting time, and excess dose of ionizing radiation, leading to various dose dependent and dose independent health problems including cancer. In the face of such problems and the scarcity of resources, improving the quality and efficiency of radiology services is imperative. Objective: The purpose of this research was to identify the main causes of film faults as well as the pattern and magnitude of film rejection. Methods: Using a prospective cross-sectional hospital based approach; eight public hospitals were selected in Addis Ababa through convenience sampling. Adult and pediatrics radiographs with film faults were reviewed using a standardized checklist of common causes of reject. The collected data were then entered into a database for analysis using descriptive statistics. Results: Reject rate was calculated in eight governmental hospitals across all plain film examinations. The overall reject rate was 374 (3.1 %) in 12,165 x-ray exposures. Total reject rate by hospital showed 10.5% for Zewditu and 1.53% and 1.87% for Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) and the Police Hospital, respectively. Conclusions: Rejected films were found to have been caused by numerous factors including poor technical judgment, patient motion, and poor supervision of staff. Hence, strategies need to be developed within medical imaging departments to improve the situation. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2012;26(1):54-59]
Solutions of Seventh Order Boundary Value Problems Using Ninth Degree Spline Functions and Comparison with Eighth Degree Spline Solutions  [PDF]
Parcha Kalyani, Mihretu Nigatu Lemma
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.42032
Abstract: In this article, we develop numerical method by constructing ninth degree spline function using extended cubic spline Bickley’s method to find the approximate solution of seventh order linear boundary value problems at different step lengths. The approximate solution is compared with the solution obtained by eighth degree splines and exact solution. It has been observed that the approximate solution is an excellent agreement with exact solution. Low absolute error indicates that our numerical method is effective for solving high order linear boundary value problems.
Analysis of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Service utilization in Ethiopia: 2006-2010
Tilahun Nigatu, Yoseph Woldegebriel
Reproductive Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-8-6
Abstract: To examine the progresses and unaddressed needs in access and utilization of PMTCT services in Ethiopia from 2006 to 2010 thereby developing best-fit regression models to predict the values of key PMTCT indicators at critical future points.Five-year national level PMTCT data were analyzed in a cascaded manner. Five levels of analysis were used for ten major PMTCT indicators. These included description of progress made, assessment of unaddressed needs, developing best-fit models, prediction for future points and estimation using constant prevalence. Findings were presented using numerical and graphic summaries.Based on the current trend, Ethiopia could achieve universal ANC coverage by 2015. The prevalence of HIV at PMTCT sites has shown a four-fold decrease during the five-year period. This study has found that only 53% of known HIV-positive mothers and 48% of known HIV-exposed infants have received ARV prophylaxis. Based on assumption of constant HIV prevalence, the estimated ARV coverage was found to be 11.6% for HIV positive mothers and 8.4% for their babies.There has been a remarkable improvement in the potential coverage of PMTCT services due to rapid increase in the number of PMTCT service outlets. However, the actual coverage remained low. Integration of PMTCT services with grassroots level health systems could unravel the problem.According to the latest data, significant progress has been made in delivering prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in low and middle income countries. However, much work remains to be done. An estimated 430,000 children were newly infected with HIV in 2008, the vast majority of them through mother-to-child transmission [1].According to the 2010 report, Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector by the World Health Organization (WHO), significant progress in the area of PMTCT has been made during the past several years. In 2009, 53% [40-79%] of the estimated HIV-in
Hydrological Impact Assessment of Climate Change on Lake Tana’s Water Balance, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Zemede Mulushewa Nigatu, Tom Rientjes, Alemseged Tamiru Haile
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2016.51005
Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydrological impacts of climate change on the water balance of Lake Tana in Ethiopia. Impact assessments are by downscaled General Circulation Model (GCM) output and hydrological modeling. For A2 and B2 emission scenarios, precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature estimates from the HadCM3 GCM were used. GCM output was downscaled using the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM 4.2). Impact analyses were applied for three future time periods: early, mid and late 21st century. Over-lake evaporation is estimated by Hardgrave’s method, and over-lake precipitation is estimated by inverse distance weighing interpolation, whereas inflows from gauged and ungauged catchments are simulated by the HBV hydrological model. Findings indicate increases in maximum and minimum temperature on annual base for both emission scenarios. The projection of mean annual over lake precipitation for both A2 and B2 emission scenarios shows increasing pattern for 21st century in comparison to the baseline period. The increase of mean annual precipitation for A2 emission scenario is 9% (112 mm/year), 10% (125 mm/year) and 11% (137 mm/year) for the three future periods respectively. B2 emission scenario mean annual precipitation shows increase by 9% (111 mm/year), 10% (122 mm/year) and 10% (130 mm/year) respectively for the three future periods. Findings indicate consistent increases of lake storage for all three future periods for both A2 and B2 emission scenarios.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinical specialist outreach as compared to referral system in Ethiopia: an economic evaluation
Yibeltal A Kifle, Tilahun H Nigatu
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7547-8-13
Abstract: A cross-sectional study on four purposively selected regional hospitals and three central referral hospitals was conducted from Feb 4-24, 2009. The perspective of analysis was societal covering analytic horizon and time frame from 1 April 2007 to 31 Dec 2008. Data were collected using interview of specialists, project focal persons, patients and review of records. To ensure the propriety standards of evaluation, Ethical clearance was obtained from Jimma University.It was found that 532 patients were operated at outreach hospitals in 125 specialist days. The unit cost of surgical procedures was found to be ETB 4,499.43. On the other hand, if the 125 clinical specialist days were spent to serve patients referred from zonal and regional hospitals at central referral hospitals, 438 patients could have been served. And the unit cost of surgical procedures through referral would have been ETB 6,523.27 per patient. This makes clinical specialist outreach 1.45 times more cost effective way of using scarce clinical specialists' time as compared to referral system.Clinical specialist outreach is a cost effective and cost saving way of spending clinical specialists' time as compared to provision of similar services through referral system.With the purpose of contributing to the effort of the Ministry of Health to reduce the critical shortage of specialized human resource for health, AMREF in Ethiopia has been implementing a Clinical Specialist Outreach Project (CSOP) to provide clinical specialist services in regional and zonal hospitals of the country for patients who could have been referred to central referral hospitals. The objective of the project was to provide service to patients and strengthen the capacities of ten outreach hospitals.To achieve its objective, the project used volunteer sub-specialists and specialists with special skills from the relatively more populated areas to provide desperately needed clinical outreach services in the areas of general surgery, pla
Modeling trends of health and health related indicators in Ethiopia (1995-2008): a time-series study
Mulu W Abraha, Tilahun H Nigatu
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-7-29
Abstract: The overall aim of this study was to analyze trends of and develop model for prediction of Health and Health related indicators. More specifically, it described the trends of Health and Health related indicators, identified determinants of mortality and morbidity indicators and developed model for predicting future values of MDG indicators.This study was conducted on Health and Health related indicators of Ethiopia from the year 1987 E.C to 2000 E.C. Key indicators of Mortality and Morbidity, Health service coverage, Health systems resources, Demographic and socio-economic, and Risk factor indicators were extracted and analyzed. The trends in these indicators were established using trend analysis techniques. The determinants of the established trends were identified using ARIMA models in STATA. The trend-line equations were then used to predict future values of the indicators.Among the mortality indicators considered in this study, it was only Maternal Mortality Ratio that showed statistically significant decrement within the study period. The trends of Total Fertility Rate, physician per 100,000 population, skilled birth attendance and postnatal care coverage were found to have significant association with Maternal Mortality Ratio trend. There was a reversal of malaria parasite prevalence in 1999 E.C from Plasmodium Falciparum to Plasmodium Vivax. Based on the prediction from the current trend, the Millennium Development Goal target for under-five mortality rate and proportion of people having access to basic sanitation can be achieved.The current trend indicates the need to accelerate the progress of the indicators to achieve MDGs at or before 2015, particularly for Maternal Health and access to safe water supply.There is no single "standard" measurement of health status for individuals or population groups. Individual health status may be measured by an observer (e.g., a physician), who performs an examination and rates the individual along any of several dimensi
Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract
Umer Shemsu,Tekewe Alemu,Kebede Nigatu
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-21
Abstract: Background In Ethiopia, Calpurnia aurea is used for the treatment of syphilis, malaria, rabies, diabetes, hypertension, diarrhoea, leishmaniasis, trachoma, elephantiasis, fungal diseases and different swellings. However, despite its traditional usage as an antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial agent, there is limited or no information regarding its effectiveness and mode of action in diarrhoea which may be caused by Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Hence, we evaluated the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract of dried and powdered leaves of C. aurea for its antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. Methods Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into five groups (five/group): Group I served as control and received vehicle (1% Tween 80) at a dose of 10 ml/kg orally; Group II served as standard and received loperamide at the dose of 3 mg/kg orally; Groups III, IV and V served as test groups and received the 80% MeOH leaf extract of C. aurea at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally, respectively. Diarrhoea was induced by oral administration of 0.5 ml castor oil to each mouse, 1 h after the above treatments. During an observation period of 4 h, time of onset of diarrhea, total number of faecal output (frequency of defecation) and weight of faeces excreted by the animals were recorded. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post test. Antimicrobial activity test was conducted using agar well diffusion assay. Clinical isolates tested were Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results In castor oil induced diarrhea model, the 80% methanol leaf extract of C. aurea at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg and the standard drug loperamide (3 mg/kg) significantly reduced the time of onset of diarrhea, the frequency of defecation (total number of faecal output) and weight of faeces. C. aurea leaf extract also showed good antimicrobial activity against all tested organisms. Conclusions C. aurea possesses good antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity which support the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of diarrhea in Ethiopia.
Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils of Central Ethiopia: The Contribution of Land Use Types and Organic Sources to Their Variability  [PDF]
Nigatu Alemayehu Minase, Mary M. Masafu, Abule Ebro Geda, Azage Tegegne Wolde
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2016.66011
Abstract: In the present study, about 94% of the arable land had a phosphorus deficiency (available P < 10 mg·kg-1). To compensate for this deficiency, high amounts of phosphorous fertilization were applied to soils to get better crop yield. In the past two decades, soil organic matter has sharply declined from 34.8 g/kg in late 1980s’ to 12.0 g/kg in 2010. The soil has moderate to high cation exchanging capacity (CEC) in the range of 45 - 58 Meq/100 gm. The low soil organic carbon, high CEC and high phosphorus fertilization could lead to poor heavy metal availability to plants. Nevertheless, DTPA extractable concentrations were 40.5 mg/kg for copper, 35.5 mg/kg for iron, 134 mg/kg for manganese, 2.1 mg/kg for nickel, 2.6 mg/kg for lead and 53.5 mg/kg for zinc. All the available micronutrients seem to be adequate for plant growth. In terms of toxicity, the values of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni and Pb found in the present investigation were lower than those of above critical value set by the international guidelines and other researchers. Variations in heavy metal content in the soil were attributed due to differences in land use types and disparity in organic sources amongst the plant and animal composites. For better crop productivity, more organic matter should be added to the soils. The traditional nutrient cycling practices, such as manure application, allow crop residue to decay on fields, fallowing and rotational cropping has to be followed to rehabilitate the soil and buildup both macro-and micro-nutrients to their natural level.
Pre-and post-vaccine measles antibody status in infants using serum and oral-fluid testing: an evaluation of routine immunization in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Wondatir Nigatu, DJ Nokes, BJ Cohen, DWG Brown, AJ Vyse
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Despite the use of measles vaccine, measles incidence in Ethiopia remains a serious public health concern. Progress towards the control of measles requires a national capacity to measure programme effectiveness. This includes evaluation of vaccine effectiveness in infants attending the routine immunization. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the measles routine immunization activities in Addis Ababa. Methods: This study evaluated pre- and post-vaccine antibodies in children attending for routine measles immunization in Addis Ababa. Infants who presented to 3 health centres between September-November, 1998 for routine measles vaccination were enrolled in the study. In total 296 infants (median age 9 months) provided blood and oral-fluid samples, of which 230 (77%) returned to provide post vaccine samples (median interval of 15 days). Screening of sera was undertaken using commercial indirect ELISA kits, and of oral fluids using an in-house IgM-capture ELISA. Results: Pre-vaccination serology showed 1.4% IgM positive, 2.0% IgG positive, and 97.0% seronegative. Post-vaccination seroprevalence of IgM and IgG was 91.3% and 85.0%, respectively, and 92.9% overall. The seroconversion rate was 92.6% (95%CI 88.2-95.7). Based on oral fluid results, 87.3% (95% CI 82.0-91.4) of children showed specific IgM antibody conversion. Conclusion: These results are in support of the recommended age for measles vaccination in Addis Ababa, and show the merit of oral-fluid IgM screening as a non-invasive alternative to blood for assessing vaccine effectiveness. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003; 17(3): 149-155
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