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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144168 matches for " B Ghebremedhin "
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Maraviroc in Antiretroviral-Na ve HIV-1 Patients
Beniam Ghebremedhin
Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/IDRT.S7597
Abstract: New antiretroviral agents that are better tolerated with less side effects and novel resistance patterns are needed at all lines of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapeutic strategies. The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonist maraviroc is a member of the novel class of “antiretroviral agents” that prevents the entry of HIV-1 into host cells by blocking the CCR5 coreceptor. In the MERIT (Maraviroc versus Efavirenz in Treatment-Na ve Patients) study in antiretrovial-na ve patients aged ≥16 years with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection, maraviroc showed noninferiority to efavirenz for virological endpoints. Evidences from trials suggest that maraviroc is effective at reducing HIV-1 viral load in antiretroviral-experienced and -na ve patients with CCR5-tropic virus, as well as in those with CCR5-tropic virus who have developed HIV-1 resistance to existing antiretroviral regimens. Recent in vitro study demonstrated that maraviroc was also active against CCR5-tropic HIV-2 strains.
Bacterial Infections in the Elderly Patient: Focus on Sitafloxacin
Beniam Ghebremedhin
Clinical Medicine Insights: Therapeutics , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CMT.S7435
Abstract: Sitafloxacin (DU-6859a) is a new-generation oral fluoroquinolone with in vitro activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including anaerobic bacteria, as well as against atypical bacterial pathogens. Particularly in Japan this antibiotic was approved in 2008 for treatment of a number of bacterial infections caused by Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative cocci and rods, including anaerobia atypical bacterial pathogens. As compared to oral levofloxacin sitafloxacin was non-inferior in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and non-inferior in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, according to the results of randomized, double-blind, multicentre, non-inferiority trials. Non-comparative studies demonstrated the efficacy of oral sitafloxacin in otorhinolaryngological infections, urethritis in men, cervicitis in women and odontogenic infections. Most common adverse reactions were gastrointestinal disorders and laboratory abnormalities in patients receiving oral sitafloxacin; diarrhea and liver enzyme elevations were among the common. In the Japanese population sitafloxacin covers broad spectrum of bacteria as compared to carbapenems, whereas in the Caucasians its use is currently limited due to the potential for ultraviolet A phototoxicity. Sitafloxacin is a promising therapeutic agent which merits further investigation in randomized clinical trials of elderly patients.
Maraviroc in Antiretroviral-Na ve HIV-1 Patients
Beniam Ghebremedhin
Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment , 2012,
Bacterial Infections in the Elderly Patient: Focus on Sitafloxacin
Beniam Ghebremedhin
Clinical Medicine Insights: Therapeutics , 2012,
Prevalence of the molecular marker of chloroquine resistance (pfcrt 76) in Nigeria 5 years after withdrawal of the drug as first-line antimalarial: A cross-sectional study
M Efunshile, T Runsewe-Abiodun, B Ghebremedhin, W K nig, B K nig
South African Journal of Child Health , 2011,
Abstract: Background. In line with the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline on chloroquine (CQ) resistance, CQ was withdrawn as the first-line antimalarial drug in Nigeria in 2005 as a result of widespread resistance. It was expected that its sensitivity and clinical usefulness ould be restored with time. This study therefore aimed to determine the level of CQ resistance in Nigerian children aged less than 60 months. Methods. We monitored the resistance pattern 5 years after withdrawal of CQ, using the pfcrt K76T mutation as a molecular marker for CQ resistance. Results. Of 98 Plasmodium falciparum-positive blood samples, 95 (96.9%) showed the K76T mutation. Twenty-seven (27.6%) of the children had been treated with CQ at home before presentation at the clinic, while 50 (51.0%) had taken other antimalarials. Conclusion. Our results indicate that there is an urgent need to re-evaluate antimalarial drug policy in Nigeria, especially when 27.6% of our study population still use CQ at home despite its withdrawal as first-line antimalarial. This may require effective legislation against the manufacture, importation and use of CQ in Nigeria, if the purpose behind its withdrawal is to be achieved.
Determination of Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Helicobacter pylori Isolates from South India Population  [PDF]
Khawaja Shakeel Ahmed, Anghesom Ambesajir Ghebremedhin, Aleem Ahmed Khan, Santosh K. Tiwari, J. D. Ahi, Irshad Ahmed
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.23031
Abstract: Introduction: The importance of H. pylori as an etiological agent in gastroduodenal disease had suggested antibiotic treatment as a main target for the elimination of infection. The successful eradication of H. pylori infection was shown to resolve the gastritis, dramatically accelerate ulcer healing, reduce ulcer recurrence and the prophylactic effect on the recurrence of ulcer bleeding. Materials and Methods: In the present study a total six antimicrobial agents such as Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole, Norfloxacin, Tetracyclin, Amoxycillin and Clarithromycin were used against 100 clinical isolates from patients with peptic ulcer, and non-ulcer dyspepsia. H. pylori was isolated from the gastric biopsies obtained from the clinical subjects. Results: Results of our study showed 100% resistance to Metronidazole (MIC > 256 μg/ml). 97% of the isolates were observed sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.38 μg), whereas Tetracyclin showed 96% sensitivity (MIC 0.25 μg - 0.125 μg). Resistance to amoxycillin, Norfloxacin, and Clarithromycin were 80%, 38% and 76% respectively (MIC > 256 μg/ml). Conclusion: It is observed that 96% - 97% of the clinical isolates were sensitive to Tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, where all isolates were found to be resistant to Metronidazole. Resistance to Amoxycillin and Clarithromycin were 80% and 76% respectively. Studies attributed the high level of resistance to the frequent use of the drugs to treat various other infections and ineffective drug control policy.
Studying the Importance of VacA Gene of Helicobacter pylori in Identifying the Pathogenicity of Strains by Comparing It with the Disease Status of the Subjects  [PDF]
Khawaja Shakeel Ahmed, Basheer Madompoyil, Anghesom Ambesajir Ghebremedhin, John Issac, Janak Dulari Ahi, Aleem Ahmed Khan, Santosh Kumar Tiwari
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.41A010

Introduction: H. pylori is a primary pathogen isolated by Warren and Marshall in 1983. They called it as Campylobacter Pylori and in 1989 Goodwin et al. renamed it as Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter pylorus is one of the responsible factors for causing gastritis, Peptic ulcer disease and is strongly associated with gastric carcinoma and gastric Malt lymphoma. Materials and Methods: In this study 300 biopsies were collected at Deccan College of Medical Sciences and Allied Hospitals, Hyderabad, India. Of these, 101 patients had peptic ulcer, 95 patients had gastritis and 4 had gastric carcinoma. A total of four gastric biopsy specimens were collected. One was used for culturing H. pylori, one for histological lesions and the remaining two one each from the antrum & corpus was collected in phosphate buffered saline for the DNA analysis. Results: Helicobacter pylori were isolated from many of the biopsies and the identification of Helicobacter pylori was confirmed in 200 biopsies with colony characteristics, Biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA amplification. The presence of VacA marker was detected by using appropriate primers. From the data obtained in our study, in a total of 169/200 isolates s1 region was found in 84.1% and s2 was found in 36/200 i.e. 18% of the isolates. In the middle region, m1awas found in 60/200 which was 30%, m1b was found in 60/200 i.e. 60% and m2 was found in 114/200 i.e. 57.1% of the isolates. Conclusion: Thus, VacA detection might be helpful for determination of which patients are at highest risk for severe clinical outcomes such as duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer or gastric carcinoma and eventually, to define strategies for the treatment or prevention of H. pylori infection.

The Mélange of Innovation and Tradition in Maltese Law: The Essence of the Maltese Mix?
B Andò
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2012,
Abstract: Aim of this paper is to provide valuable insights into the Maltese legal system with a special focus on private law. The assumption is that this legal system is the byproduct of the "mixing" of innovation and tradition, resulting from the interaction of English law and continental law. A major role in the development of the system is played by courts. Some examples (moral damages and pre-contractual liability) are considered which highlight the importance of the function displayed by Maltese judges. KEYWORDS: Tradition; English law; continental law; hybridity; mixed legal systems; Maltese courts; moral damages; pre-contractual liability; lacunae
B. Харченко,О. Ал?кс??в,Д. Бабейчук,М. Повознюк
Proceedings of National Aviation University , 2011,
Abstract: At present, the problem who can and who should solve the question concerning the preparationand recurrent training of pilots of Ukrainian civil aviation is not solved. The necessity of updatingof aircraft’s park in aviation branch and aircraft operation, which was ripened 10 years ago,demands a corresponding infrastructure. It is necessary to understand, that the pilots ready toperform the flights on modern aircrafts, will not appear by themselves, therefore the real actions onmodernization of existing system of aircrew and the aviation personnel preparation as a whole arerequired. Main objective of this work is the determination of the basic components concerning thesolving of the problematic questions on preparation of aircrew on modern types of aircrafts. Duringthe problem analysis it was specified that the present development of system of aircrew preparationin Ukraine is not perfect, and does not correspond the ICAO and EU requirements, therefore needsan immediate intervention at the highest State level. Trainings are not complex, as do not containthe elements of selection of aircrew members cooperation. Programs of recurrent training ofaircrew, courses of pilots training flight preparation were not reconsidered for many years Розглянуто проблему п дготовки п лот в цив льно ав ац Уккра ни, яка на сьогодн нев дпов да вимогам ICAO та С. Визначено основн складов п дготовки льотного складу насучасн пов трян судна.Ключов слова: аеронав гац йне обслуговування, керована множина, керован об’ кти,рад олокац йне та рад онав гац йне забезпечення польот в, системи керування пов трянимрухом. Розглянуто проблему п дготовки п лот в цив льно ав ац Уккра ни, яка на сьогодн нев дпов да вимогам ICAO та С. Визначено основн складов п дготовки льотного складу насучасн пов трян судна.
С. Павлова,B. Павлов,В. Чеп?женко
Proceedings of National Aviation University , 2011,
Abstract: Substantially nonlinear objects function at limitations of arbitrary kind. These limitations are not necessarily convex areas. For such objects the construction of area of the fully the fully-controlled state area is a serious problem. In the article it has been suggested to replace this task the task of the fully-controlled state area estimation from within. The secure estimation method of the fully-controlled state area has been developed for this purpose. Other dynamic system has been used as a tester (measure) of the fully-controlled state area. Construction and estimation of controllability and accessibility area of this dynamic system well methodically validate and deserved researchers confession. The descriptions concordance requirements of this new object with properties of initial object must be executed and provide property of immersion of new object in an initial object. Possibility is thus opened on the the fully-controlled state area of new object to define the the fully-controlled state area of the initial system На основ процедури мерсування м рних об’ кт в у вих дний об’ кт розроблено методгарантованого оц нювання област повн стю керованого стану.On the basis of procedure of immersion of the measuring objects in an initial object the secureestimation method of the fully controlled state area has been developed.На основе процедуры иммерсирования мерных объектов в исходный объект разработанметод гарантированного оценивания области полностью управляемого состояния. Показано, що для стотно нел н йних об’ кт в, що функц онують в умовах наявност обме-жень дов льного виду, як не обов’язково опуклими областями, побудова област повн стюкерованого стану проблематична. Запропоновано зам нити це завдання оц нюванням област повн стю керованого стану зсередини. Для цього розроблено метод гарантовано оц нюванняобласт повн стю керованого стану. Як вим рника (м ра) област повн стю керованого станувикористана нша динам чна система, п
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