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The Potential Influence of Common Viral Infections Diagnosed during Hospitalization among Critically Ill Patients in the United States
Makesha Miggins,Anjum Hasan,Samuel Hohmann,Frederick Southwick,George Casella,Denise Schain,Huazhi Liu,Azra Bihorac,Lyle Moldawer,Philip Efron,Darwin Ang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018890
Abstract: Viruses are the most common source of infection among immunocompetent individuals, yet they are not considered a clinically meaningful risk factor among the critically ill. This work examines the association of viral infections diagnosed during the hospital stay or not documented as present on admission to the outcomes of ICU patients with no evidence of immunosuppression on admission. This is a population-based retrospective cohort study of University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) academic centers in the U.S. from the years 2006 to 2009. The UHC is an alliance of over 90% of the non-profit academic medical centers in the U.S. A total of 209,695 critically ill patients were used in this analysis. Eight hospital complications were examined. Patients were grouped into four cohorts: absence of infection, bacterial infection only, viral infection only, and bacterial and viral infection during same hospital admission. Viral infections diagnosed during hospitalization significantly increased the risk of all complications. There was also a seasonal pattern for viral infections. Specific viruses associated with poor outcomes included influenza, RSV, CMV, and HSV. Patients who had both viral and bacterial infections during the same hospitalization had the greatest risk of mortality RR 6.58, 95% CI (5.47, 7.91); multi-organ failure RR 8.25, 95% CI (7.50, 9.07); and septic shock RR 271.2, 95% CI (188.0, 391.3). Viral infections may play a significant yet unrecognized role in the outcomes of ICU patients. They may serve as biological markers or play an active role in the development of certain adverse complications by interacting with coincident bacterial infection.
Azra Zaimovi?
Economic Review : Journal of Economics and Business , 2012,
Abstract: The Sharpe-Lintner Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) implies a simple linear equation for pricing risky financial assets, individually and in portfolios. CAPM finds that the relevant risk measure of individual financial assets held as a portion of a well-diversified portfolio is not a variance (or a standard deviation) of financial assets, as proposed by the Modern Portfolio Theory, but a contribution of financial assets to the portfolio variance, measured by the financial asset beta. Beta coefficient is the measure of the systematic risk of risky assets.This paper explores beta coefficients of stocks of the Bosnia and Herzegovina capital market. This capital market is new and underdeveloped, with a modest supply of securities and with a small number of marketable securities. It is interesting to explore whether the beta coefficients of domestic stocks are efficient and whether they could be used in portfolio management.The paper employs the OLS method to estimate the standard Sharpe-Linter CAPM model. As in most other new markets, this market has a non-synchronous trading problem, which determined the selection of the sample used in the econometric analysis. A representative sample of stocks with satisfactory marketability is analyzed over a five-year period, i.e. 2005–2009. The basic hypothesis of the research is: beta coefficient as a measure of systematic risk is a relevant risk measure for the capital market of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A special aim of the paper is to explore whether estimated models satisfy the presumptions of the linear regression model, which is being examined using a series of diagnostic tests. The results of this paper can be widely used and have significant implications for business purposes. Special attention is dedicated to estimating efficient beta coefficients that may be considered as reliable in a wide use of the CAPM model in financial practice.
Contemporary Islamic Renewal in Indonesia
Azyumardi Azra
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1996,
Abstract: During the early years of Suharto’s presidency, tension and conflict between Muslim groups and the government was widely evident. This discord was a result of government policies which the Muslims felt would uproot the influence of Islam from Indonesian politics. Towards the end of the 1980s, however, Islam began to show some convincing signs of revival. The turning point of Islamic reinvigoration was the acceptance of Pancasila by Muslim mass organizations as the foundation of their socio-political activities, thus ending the mutual suspicion between Muslims and the government. A more recent indication of Islamic resurgence is the increasing number of Indonesian haj pilgrims to Mecca and the formation of important Islamic organization, the All-Indonesian Muslim Intellectual Association, which serves as the sounding board for the Muslims to influence public policy. To conclude, the revival of Islam came at a time when Indonesia was enjoying economic growth. The crucial question, therefore, is how to maintain the momentum for economic growth so as to avoid possible negative effects of an economic regression on the revival of Islamic life. Moreover, Muslim activists working for a genuine revival of Islam should also deal with the problem of how to eliminate, or at least reduce, un-Islamic practices such as corruption and poor discipline among Indonesian Muslims.
Age as an Important Factor in Setting an Indication for Operative Treatment for Children with Cerebral Palsy
Azra Delalic
Acta Medica Saliniana , 2010, DOI: 10.5457/194
Abstract: Cerebral palsy is the result of brain damage in the early developmental period with clinically expressed various disorders, especially motoric ones. Child begins with a normally developed muscoskeletal system, but in time, due to spasticity and lack of activity contractures and deformities that can slow down its further functional recovery occur. Timely application of orthopedic-surgical treatment can have a positive effect on further course of rehabilitation, but also, for children who were previously operated and where applied certain operational techniques, occurring recurrences of the same deformity or secondary deformity are more frequent. By applying non-operative methods in decreasing spasticity one can delay the time of operative intervention or avoid the operation in children with cerebral palsy.
The Challenges of Water Pollution, Threat to Public Health, Flaws of Water Laws and Policies in Pakistan  [PDF]
Azra Jabeen, Xisheng Huang, Muhammad Aamir
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.717125
Abstract: In an era of unprecedented urbanization, population and industrial growth pressure is serious threat for the water management in Pakistan in present days. Water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff limited natural fresh water resources in the country. Human health is facing serious problems due to deteriorating drinking water quality. Current review paper provides an insight to the water quality problems in Pakistan with an attempt to emphasize the challenges of water laws enforcement. Although Pakistan has developed many water laws the state of implementation is dominant, intermediate pollution crises are still remaining. We could come to the conclusion that strictly enforcement is compulsory for water environment regulations in Pakistan. Moreover, it is necessary to establish a reliable risk assessment system for water quality, human health and ecological safety.
Lung involvement in systemic connective tissue diseases
Plavec Goran,Tomi? Ilija,Bihorac Sanela,Kova?evi? Gordana
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/vsp0809688p
Abstract: Background/Aim. Systemic connective tissue diseases (SCTD) are chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorders of unknown cause that can involve different organs and systems. Their course and prognosis are different. All of them can, more or less, involve the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to find out the frequency of respiratory symptoms, lung function disorders, radiography and high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) abnormalities, and their correlation with the duration of the disease and the applied treatment. Methods. In 47 non-randomized consecutive patients standard chest radiography, HRCT, and lung function tests were done. Results. Hypoxemia was present in nine of the patients with respiratory symptoms (20%). In all of them chest radiography was normal. In five of these patients lung fibrosis was established using HRCT. Half of all the patients with SCTD had symptoms of lung involvement. Lung function tests disorders of various degrees were found in 40% of the patients. The outcome and the degree of lung function disorders were neither in correlation with the duration of SCTD nor with therapy used (p > 0.05 Spearmans Ro). Conclusion. Pulmonary fibrosis occurs in about 10% of the patients with SCTD, and possibly not due to the applied treatment regimens. Hypoxemia could be a sing of existing pulmonary fibrosis in the absence of disorders on standard chest radiography.
Discovery and validation of cell cycle arrest biomarkers in human acute kidney injury
Kianoush Kashani, Ali Al-Khafaji, Thomas Ardiles, Antonio Artigas, Sean M Bagshaw, Max Bell, Azra Bihorac, Robert Birkhahn, Cynthia M Cely, Lakhmir S Chawla, Danielle L Davison, Thorsten Feldkamp, Lui G Forni, Michelle Gong, Kyle J Gunnerson, Michael Haase, James Hackett, Patrick M Honore, Eric AJ Hoste, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Michael Joannidis, Patrick Kim, Jay L Koyner, Daniel T Laskowitz, Matthew E Lissauer, Gernot Marx, Peter A McCullough, Scott Mullaney, Marlies Ostermann, Thomas Rimmelé, Nathan I Shapiro, Andrew D Shaw, Jing Shi, Amy M Sprague, Jean-Louis Vincent, Christophe Vinsonneau
Critical Care , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/cc12503
Abstract: We performed two multicenter observational studies in critically ill patients at risk for AKI - discovery and validation. The top two markers from discovery were validated in a second study (Sapphire) and compared to a number of previously described biomarkers. In the discovery phase, we enrolled 522 adults in three distinct cohorts including patients with sepsis, shock, major surgery, and trauma and examined over 300 markers. In the Sapphire validation study, we enrolled 744 adult subjects with critical illness and without evidence of AKI at enrollment; the final analysis cohort was a heterogeneous sample of 728 critically ill patients. The primary endpoint was moderate to severe AKI (KDIGO stage 2 to 3) within 12 hours of sample collection.Moderate to severe AKI occurred in 14% of Sapphire subjects. The two top biomarkers from discovery were validated. Urine insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), both inducers of G1 cell cycle arrest, a key mechanism implicated in AKI, together demonstrated an AUC of 0.80 (0.76 and 0.79 alone). Urine [TIMP-2].[IGFBP7] was significantly superior to all previously described markers of AKI (P <0.002), none of which achieved an AUC >0.72. Furthermore, [TIMP-2].[IGFBP7] significantly improved risk stratification when added to a nine-variable clinical model when analyzed using Cox proportional hazards model, generalized estimating equation, integrated discrimination improvement or net reclassification improvement. Finally, in sensitivity analyses [TIMP-2].[IGFBP7] remained significant and superior to all other markers regardless of changes in reference creatinine method.Two novel markers for AKI have been identified and validated in independent multicenter cohorts. Both markers are superior to existing markers, provide additional information over clinical variables and add mechanistic insight into AKI. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01209169.
Patterns of DMSA Renal Scan in Different Renal Abnormalities
Morteza Bostani,Azra Izanloo
Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: DMSA renal scan is a helpful investigation in several conditions including acquired disease such as acute or chronic pyelonephritis, obstructive uropathy, renal insufficiency as well as renal anomalies, renal shape normal variations and genetic disease. In this poster we present many of these patterns
Clonal Propagation of Ginger through Shoot Tip Culture
Aish Mohammed,Azra Quraishi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: In vitro response for multiplication of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) from shoot tip was studied. Shoot tips (3-5mm) were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog salts and vitamins were used as basal medium. Benzylaminopurine and Naphthalene acetic acid constituted the growth regulators. Maximum shoot multiplication with well developed roots and good plant height was achieved on medium containing 2 mg/l BAP and NAA. After four weeks, plants were transferred to the pots in green house.
Plasmid Mediated Salt Tolerance in Root Associated Bacteria from Erigerone linifolious
Azra Yasmin,Shahida Hasnain
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Bacterial strains (which could tolerate 2-3M NaCl in the growth medium) were isolated from the roots of Erigerone linifolious. They were El-1, El-2, El-3 (from histoplane of roots) and REl-1, REl-2, REl-3, REl-4, REl-5 (from the rhizoplane). All bacterial strains were motile rods (except El-2 which were cocci), exhibiting either Gram-negative (El-1, El-2, El-3, REl-1) or Gram-variable (REl-2, REl-3, REl-4, REl-5) staining. These strains were affiliated with genus Delya (El-1), Vibrio (El-3, REl-1), while four Gram-variable strains shaired characters with Bacillus pumilus. They have wide temperature and pH ranges with different optima. These strains also exhibit multiple salts/osmolytes/heavy metals/antibiotics resistance. Curing of plasmids from four of these strains revealed that salt tolerance and most of the other resistances were plasmid encoded. Plasmids residing in these halo-tolerant strains were conjugative (except pSH1413). Hybridization experiments revealed that one of these plasmids (pSH1414) belonged to IncN group of plasmids.
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