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Type-2 fuzzy logic systems have recently been utilized in many control processes due to their ability to model uncertainty. This research article proposes the position control of (DC) motor. The proposed algorithm of this article lies in the application of a genetic algorithm interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (GAIT2FLC) in the design of fuzzy controller for the position control of DC Motor. The entire system has been modeled using MATLAB R11a. The performance of the proposed GAIT2FLC is compared with that of its corresponding conventional genetic algorithm type-1 FLC in terms of several performance measures such as rise time, peak overshoot, settling time, integral absolute error (IAE) and integral of time multiplied absolute error (ITAE) and in each case, the proposed scheme shows improved performance over its conventional counterpart. Extensive simulation studies are conducted to compare the response of the given system with the conventional genetic algorithm type-1 fuzzy controller to the response given with the proposed GAIT2FLC scheme.
Introduction: Despite recent advances in neuroimaging and microsurgical
techniques, surgical resection of spinal cord tumours remains a challenge.
However, the evolution with advances and refinement of neurophysiological
equipment and methodologies, intra-operative neurophysiolo- gical monitoring
(IONM) is now regarded as an essential adjunct to the surgical management of
intramedullary spinal cord tumours. This study aims to report our preliminary
experience with IONM and emphasise its effective role of achieving maximum tumour
resection and minimising neurological injury. Methods: This is a retrospective
study performed at our institution between July
2012 and August 2013. It included a cohort of 6 consecutive patients presented
with intramedullary spinal cord tumours. Their mean age was 26 years
(range, 4 months - 37 years), all were males, and the mean follow up was 11.6
months. Results: We combined the use of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs)
and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in spinal cord surgery. SSEPs are monitored during
the incision of the dorsal midline of the spinal cord and this was used in two
of our patients and MEPs were used as an essential monitoring during the tumour
resection. In addition, we used free-running electromyography (EMG) and muscle
MEPs (mMEPs) during tumour resection. Four of our patients (two with
ependymoma, one with ganglioglioma, and one with pilocytic astrocytoma) had
complete tumour resection and two patients (pilocytic and diffuse astrocytoma) had
IONM changes during surgery and had partial tumour resection. At 6-month follow
up all our patients had made a good recovery with no new neurological sequelae.
Conclusion: This small series and literature review is presented to add and
improve the understanding of IONM in intramedullary spinal cord procedures and
to reinforce the importance of IONM in optimising tumour resection and
neurological outcome. Our series confirm that without D-wave monitoring,
free-running EMG and MEP monitoring during tumour resection remain an important
adjunct. We also draw attention to the fact that changes in the free-running
EMG occur before any changes in the MEPs are noted.