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Cytotoxic isolates of Helicobacter pylori from Peptic Ulcer Diseases decrease K+-dependent ATPase Activity in HeLa cells
Awasthi Shanjana, Ayyagari Archana
BMC Gastroenterology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-3-31
Abstract: The patients were retrospectively grouped on the basis of endoscopic and histopathological observation as having gastritis or peptic ulcer. The HeLa cells were incubated with the broth culture filtrates (BCFs) of H. pylori isolates from patients of both groups and observed for the cytopathic effects: morphological changes and viability. In addition, the K+-dependent ATPase activity was measured in HeLa cells extracts.The cytotoxin production was observed in 3/7 (gastritis) and 4/4 (peptic ulcer) H. pylori isolates. The BCFs of cytotoxin producing H. pylori strains reduced the ATPase activity of HeLa cells to 40% of that measured with non-cytotoxin producing H. pylori strains (1.33 μmole Pi/mg protein and 3.36 μmole Pi/mg protein, respectively, p < 0.05). The decreased activity of ATPase enzyme or the release of cytotoxin also correlated with the increased pathogenicity indices of the patients.Our results suggest that the isolation of cytotoxic H. pylori is more common in severe form of acid peptic diseases (peptic ulcer) than in gastritis patients from India. Also the cytotoxin released by H. pylori impairs the ion-transporting ATPase and is a measure of cytotoxicity.Helicobacter pylori is a spiral Gram negative, microaerophilic bacterial parasite that inhabitates gastric epithelium [1]. The long-term H. pylori infection has been found associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, B-cell lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of the stomach [2-4]. H. pylori infection is common in both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that in developed countries 30–50% of the adult population is infected. In developing countries, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is noted even higher-approximately 80% [5,6]. Interestingly, not all the H. pylori infected individuals develop peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. A significant number of patients have milder form of disease, like inflammation in stomach and duodenum [7,8]. Such discriminatory behavior of H. pylori can be l
First documented cure of a suggestive exogenous reinfection in polymyositis with same but multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis
Chiranjoy Mukhopadhyay, Ankita Garg, Archana Ayyagari
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-4-63
Abstract: He had non-reactive miliary tuberculosis and multiple cutaneous abscesses 6 months later with the same strain, which was resistant this time to 9 antituberculosis drugs. We described clinical presentation, radiological and laboratory work-up, treatment and follow-up as the patient was cured after 1.5 years with 6 antituberculosis drugs.To our knowledge, this is the first reported case where an immunosuppressed patient with suggestive exogenous reinfection within 6 months with the same but MDR strain of M. tuberculosis was cured. Intense management and regular follow up were important since the patient was a potent source of MDR M. tuberculosis infection and there was limited choice for therapy.World Health Organization published the Global Tuberculosis Control Report (2003) on 'World Tuberculosis Day' where India is ranked number one in the world for high incidence of smear positive cases of pulmonary (about 0.9 million) and extrapulmonary TB (about 0.2 million) every year [1]. Undoubtedly, TB itself has reemerged in India as a serious problem since 1985 with the advent of HIV/AIDS [2]. However, cutaneous TB is still rare in countries like India (0.10%), Hong Kong (0.07%) and Madrid (0.14%) [2] and it manifests either as a true bacterial invasion or as a tuberculid (hypersensitivity reaction) with primary focus elsewhere. Evidences of bacterial invasion are found in lupus vulgaris, the most common manifestation (55%) in patients with cutaneous TB (1975–95) in northern India [2], primary chancre, tuberculous verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, tuberculous cutis orificialis and tuberculous cutis miliaris disseminates [3] whereas erythema induratum (Bazin disease) and lichen scrofulosorum are tuberculid lesions [2]. Moreover, atypical mycobacteria such as M. kansasii, M. scrofulaceum, rather than M. tuberculosis are the most common etiological agents for cutaneous TB in HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised patients.WHO defines acquired drug resistance as the isolation of d
Spectrum and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria contaminating the upper gut in patients with malabsorption syndrome from the tropics
Ujjala Ghoshal, Uday C Ghoshal, Piyush Ranjan, Subhash R Naik, Archana Ayyagari
BMC Gastroenterology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-3-9
Abstract: Jejunal aspirates of 50 consecutive patients with MAS were cultured for bacteria and colony counts and antibiotic sensitivity were performed. Twelve patients with irritable bowel syndrome were studied as controls.Culture revealed growth of bacteria in 34/50 (68%) patients with MAS and 3/12 controls (p < 0.05). Colony counts ranged from 3 × 102 to 1015 (median 105) in MAS and 100 to 1000 (median 700) CFU/ml in controls (p 0.003). 21/50 (42%) patients had counts ≥105 CFU/ml in MAS and none of controls (p < 0.05). Aerobes were isolated in 34/34 and anaerobe in 1/34. Commonest Gram positive and negative bacteria were Streptococcus species and Escherichia coli respectively. The isolated bacteria were more often sensitive to quinolones than to tetracycline (ciprofloxacin: 39/47 and norfloxacin: 34/47 vs. tetracycline 19/47, <0.01), ampicillin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole (21/44, 14/22 and 24/47 respectively vs. tetracycline, p = ns).SIBO is common in patients with MAS due to various causes and quinolones may be the preferred treatment. This needs to be proved further by a randomized controlled trial.Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO) is defined as overgrowth of ≥105 colony forming unit (CFU) per ml of bacteria in the proximal small bowel [1]. Some authors considered a diagnosis of SIBO even with a lower colony count (≥ 103 CFU/ml) if the species of bacteria isolated in jejunal aspirate were those which, colonize large bowel [2,3]. Various anatomical lesions of small bowel and slowing of its motility may lead to bacterial overgrowth [4]. Several specific diseases e.g. celiac disease, tropical sprue (TS) and parasitic infestations have been shown to reduce intestinal motility [5-7]. Classic radiological findings of 'segmentation', 'flocculation' and dilatation of small bowel in barium series in patients with malabsorption are secondary to intestinal stasis [8]. Therefore, patients with specific causes of MAS like TS, celiac disease, parasitic infestat
Resources for Development of Hindi Speech Synthesis System: An Overview  [PDF]
Archana Balyan
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2017.76020
Abstract: Most of the information in digital world is accessible to few who can read or understand a particular language. The speech corpus acquisition is an essential part of all spoken technology systems. The quality and the volume of speech data in corpus directly affect the accuracy of the system. However, there are a lot of scopes to develop speech technology system using Hindi language which is spoken primarily in India. To achieve such an ambitious goal, the collection of standard database is a prerequisite. This paper summarizes the Hindi corpus and lexical resources being developed by various organizations across the country.
Cytologic picture of Castleman′s disease: A report of two cases
Sudha Ayyagari,Vivekanand Namala
Journal of Cytology , 2010,
Abstract: Castleman′s disease (CD), also called giant lymph nodal hyperplasia, is a lymphoproliferative disorder secondary to lymphoid follicle hyperplasia and marked capillary proliferation with endothelial hyperplasia. It presents as enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum, neck, groin, axilla and other sites. On clinical examination as well as gross examination, this disease mimics lymphomas and tuberculosis. Since cytological appearances vary depending on the type and extent of hyperplasia, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) findings may not always be conclusive in all cases. We studied aspirates in two cases of CD, one of which presented with multiple enlarged axillary lymph nodes and the other with enlarged cervical lymph node. Cytology revealed reactive lymphadenitis with hyalinized capillaries and other features. Lymph node excision in both cases confirmed the diagnosis.
Formation Control in Multi-Agent Systems Over Packet Dropping Links
Seshadhri Srinivasan,R. Ayyagari
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: One major challenge in implementation of formation control problems stems from the packet loss that occur in these shared communication channel. In the presence of packet loss the coordination information among agents is lost. Moreover, there is a move to use wireless channels in formation control applications. It has been found in practice that packet losses are more pronounced in wireless channels, than their wired counterparts. In our analysis, we first show that packet loss may result in loss of rigidity. In turn this causes the entire formation to fail. Later, we present an estimation based formation control algorithm that is robust to packet loss among agents. The proposed estimation algorithm employs minimal spanning tree algorithm to compute the estimate of the node variables (coordination variables). Consequently, this reduces the communication overhead required for information exchange. Later, using simulation, we verify the data that is to be transmitted for optimal estimation of these variables in the event of a packet loss. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using suitable simulation example.
Comparative Evaluation of Semi Fragile Watermarking Algorithms for Image Authentication  [PDF]
Archana Tiwari, Manisha Sharma
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2012.33023
Abstract: Technology has no limits today; we have lots of software available in the market by which we can alter any image. People usually copies image from the internet and after some changes they claim that these are their own properties. Insuring digital image integrity has therefore become a major issue. Over the past few years, watermarking has emerged as the leading candidate to solve problems of ownership and content authentications for digital multimedia documents. To protect authenticity of images semi fragile watermarking is very concerned by researchers because of its important function in multimedia content authentication. The aim of this paper is to present a survey and a comparison of emerging techniques for image authentication using semifragile watermarking. In present paper comprehensive overview of insertion and extraction methods used in different semi fragile water marking algorithm are studied using image parameters, potential application, different algorithms are described and focus is on their comparison according to the properties cited above and future directions for developing a better image authentication algorithm are suggested.
Artificial Neural Networks for Event Based Rainfall-Runoff Modeling  [PDF]
Archana Sarkar, Rakesh Kumar
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.410105
Abstract: The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach has been successfully used in many hydrological studies especially the rainfall-runoff modeling using continuous data. The present study examines its applicability to model the event-based rainfall-runoff process. A case study has been done for Ajay river basin to develop event-based rainfall-runoff model for the basin to simulate the hourly runoff at Sarath gauging site. The results demonstrate that ANN models are able to provide a good representation of an event-based rainfall-runoff process. The two important parameters, when predicting a flood hydrograph, are the magnitude of the peak discharge and the time to peak discharge. The developed ANN models have been able to predict this information with great accuracy. This shows that ANNs can be very efficient in modeling an event-based rainfall-runoff process for determining the peak discharge and time to the peak discharge very accurately. This is important in water resources design and management applications, where peak discharge and time to peak discharge are important input variables
Improving Voltage Stability of Power System by Optimal Location of FACTS Devices Using Bio-Inspired Algorithms  [PDF]
Archana Naganathan, Vidhyapriya Ranganathan
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.76069
Abstract: Power system operations can be optimized using power electronics based FACTS devices. The location of these devices at appropriate transmission line plays a major role in their performance. In this paper, two bio-inspired algorithms are used to optimally locate two FACTS devices: UPFC and STATCOM, so as to reduce the voltage collapse and real power losses. Particle swarm optimization and BAT algorithms are chosen as their behaviour is similar. VCPI index is used as a metric to calculate the voltage collapse scenario of the power system. The algorithm is tested on two benchmark power systems: IEEE 118 and the Indian UPSEB 75 bus system. Performance metrics are compared with the system without FACTS devices. Application of PSO and BAT algorithms to optimally locate the FACTS devices reduces the VCPI index and real power losses in the system.
Ralstonia mannitolilytica infection in renal transplant recipient: First report
Mukhopadhyay C,Bhargava A,Ayyagari A
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2003,
Abstract: Ralstonia mannitolilytica is being increasingly identified as an opportunist pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We report the first case of post renal transplant infection by R. mannitolilytica, in a 14-year-old recipient. The graft and the patient were saved with prompt microbiological identification, sensitivity testing and subsequent administration of appropriate antibiotic.
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