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OALib Journal期刊

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An Eight Order Two-Step Taylor Series Algorithm for the Numerical Solutions of Initial Value Problems of Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations  [PDF]
Ayodele Olakiitan Owolanke, Ohi Uwaheren, Friday Oghenerukevwe Obarhua
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103486
Abstract:
Our focus is the development and implementation of a new two-step hybrid method for the direct solution of general second order ordinary differential equation. Power series is adopted as the basis function in the development of the method and the arising differential system of equations is collocated at all grid and off-grid points. The resulting equation is interpolated at selected points. We then analyzed the resulting scheme for its basic properties. Numerical examples were taken to illustrate the efficiency of the method. The results obtained converge closely with the exact solutions.
Modified Legendre Collocation Block Method for Solving Initial Value Problems of First Order Ordinary Differential Equations  [PDF]
Toyin Gideon Okedayo, Ayodele Olakiitan Owolanke, Olaseni Taiwo Amumeji, Muyiwa Philip Adesuyi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104565
Abstract:
In this paper, block procedure for some k-step linear multi-step methods, using the Legendre polynomials as the basis functions, is proposed. Discrete methods were given which were used in block and implemented for solving the initial value problems, being continuous interpolant derived and collocated at grid points. Some numerical examples of ordinary differential equations were solved using the derived methods to show their validity and the accuracy. The numerical results obtained show that the proposed method can also be efficient in solving such problems.
Social Science Subjects’ Inclusion in the Main Curricular of Medical Students, Views from Nigeria  [PDF]
Ayodele John Oluropo
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.39036
Abstract: This paper discusses the training of medical students in the light of social science courses’ inclusion in the curricula of medical students alongside with organ and academic approaches. The objectives of this study are twofold: 1) to share the data on the views of both faculty and students on the desirability of including social science courses in the main curricula of medical students’ training in two medical schools; 2) to report the extent of social science course inclusion in the training of medical students in the curricula of the two medical schools. Results of the study showed faculty members disapproval of inclusion of social science subjects in the curricular for training medical students. However, students were of the opinion that there should be less of rigorous scientific approach and more of social science courses in their main curricular not just passing attachments.
Ethnic density and prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among patients with hiv infection in Sokoto, Nigeria—A control study  [PDF]
Mufutau A. Yunusa, Ayodele Obembe
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.24041
Abstract: Background: Previous studies among people living with HIV infection suggested that prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was high. In addition, among non-HIV infected patients, ethnic density influence the prevalence. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and effects of ethnic density on psychiatric morbidity among these patients in Sokoto, Nigeria. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among patients who had been diagnosed with HIV infection in a teaching hospital in Sokoto. Questionnaire relating to sociodemographic variables and psychiatric morbidity were administered to the patients. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 while test for significance was set at P < 0.05. Result: The mean age of the patient was 32 ± 9 years (range = 12 - 63), male being older than the female. Of the patients, 71% were married while and about two third were of Islamic religion. Twenty seven percent had no formal education and were mainly Hausa/Fulani ethnicity. Seven percent of the patients had definite depression while 8% had definite anxiety. When the subjects were dichotomized to Hausa/Fulani and others, they were similar with regard to age and gender (X2 = 4.43; P = 0.49 and X2 = 0.22; P = 0.64 respectively). Across the ethnicity (Hausa/Fulani and others), the subjects differ significantly with regard to religion (X2 = 0.68; P = 0.00), marital status (X2 = 15.05; P = 0.00), education (X2 = 30.56; P = 0.00) and employment status (X2 = 9.81; P = 0.01). The Hausa/Fulani ethnic group had less psychiatric morbidity. In addition, marital status had significant pathoplastic effect on depression across ethnicity (X2 = 0.42; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Ethnic density was associated with decrease prevalence of common mental disorder among patients with HIV infection. Environmental manipulation may play a role in the management of this patient.
Fostering Adolescents’ Interpersonal Behaviour: An Empirical Assessment of Enhanced Thinking Skills and Social Skills Training
KO Ayodele
Edo Journal of Counselling , 2011,
Abstract: The study investigated the effect of enhanced thinking skills (ETS) and social skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. A pre- and post-test experimental-control group design with a 3x2 factorial matrix was employed for the study. Gender which was used as a moderator variable was considered at 2 levels along with two (2) experimental and one (1) control groups. The study participants were one hundred and twenty (120) Senior Secondary 2 and 3 students randomly selected from 3 chosen secondary schools in Sagamu LGA of Ogun State. One standardized instrument was used in collecting data while analysis of covariance and t-test statistical methods were used to analyze the generated data. Both the treatment programmes were effective in fostering interpersonal behaviour in the adolescents but Enhanced Thinking Skill was found to be more effective than Social Skill Training. The study also revealed that both ETS and SST did better with females compared to males. Based on the findings, it was recommended that all caregivers must continuously update their skills on the use of ETS and SST to help our youngsters live a meaningful and fulfilled live.
Heterotopic tubal pregnancy with live twin birth complicating ovulation induction assisted cycle  [PDF]
Adebiyi Gbadebo Adesiyun, Benson Ayodele-Cole
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2012.23068
Abstract: Heterotopic pregnancy is an uncommon clinical entity in Nigeria even though some of the risk factors are highly prevalent in the population. We report a case of heterotopic pregnancy following ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. A favourable outcome resulting in live twin birth was recorded despite the presence of poor clinical features that affects pregnancy and foetal outcome.
Analysis on Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Oreke Dolomite Deposit  [PDF]
Jide Muili Akande, Sunday Ayodele Agbalajobi
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2013.12007
Abstract:


The suitability of Oreke dolomite in Kwara State, Nigeria as a raw material for the manufacturing of refractories was investigated. The Oreke dolomite samples were mingled with feldspar, clay, and quartz to form a blend. The fifteen (15) Blend samples were moulded and analyzed for their chemical, physical and mechanical properties. The characterization was carried out in accordance with American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM). The blend samples were tested for various refractory properties such as bulk density, porosity, cold crushing strength, linear shrinkage, refractoriness and others like water absorption and compressive strength. The chemical composition of the Blend was determined, using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer and the result shows that Silica is 60%, Alumina is 11.5%, Iron Oxide is 0.48%, Calcium Oxide is 10%, Magnesium is 6.4%, Alkali is 10.4%, and Loss of Ignition of the sample is 15.28%. The addition of 10%-12% quart contents with dolomite of 20%-25% contents complements the percentage of silica in the blend thereby improving the properties of the blend. The strength characterization shows that the Compressive Strength (mean value) of the blend samples is 5.65 N/m2 with respect firing temperature. The strength classification varies between medium to high and was found to satisfy the allowable standard values for the production of refractory wares.


Spatial Variation of Dissolved Nutrient and Heavy Metal Concentrations in River Bed Sediments as Influenced by Land-Use Patterns in Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria  [PDF]
Adebayo Oke, Abimbola Sangodoyin, Kayode Are, Ayodele Adelana
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.411138
Abstract:

Evaluation of levels and spatial characteristics of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in the river bed sediment within a basin are critical to understanding the extent of land-use impact on the river systems. Surface river bed sediments across eight rivers in the Ogun-Osun River Basin in Nigeria were collected and analyzed for Total N, , Total P, Total organic carbon, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Cr. Pollution Load Index (PLI), Accumulation Factor (AF) and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA) were used to identify the impact of the pollutants and also define the spatial variation across the basin. The pollution load indices of heavy metals were moderately high ranging from 0.41 - 0.60, while AFs were 0.43 - 2.00 and 0.61 - 1.29 for heavy metals and nutrients from upstream to downstream in the rivers systems, respectively. The HCA identified 7 distinct spatial patterns describing pollutant input from the land-use in the basin. Although, heavy metals contents were low in relation to the background values, and the potential for redistribution and secondary pollution was high hence, there was need to impose checks on the activities across agricultural, urban and grazing land-uses that had impact negatively on the river systems in the basin.

Microbial Load (Bacteria, Coliform and Mould Count/Flora) of Some Common Hot Smoked Freshwater Fish Species Using Different Packaging Materials  [PDF]
Olusegun Ayodele Oyelese, Jacob Oyeleye Oyedokun
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.412154
Abstract:

Three different packaging materials of (37 cm × 25 cm) size (Sealed Transparent Polythene Bag (STPB) Sealed Paper Bag (SPB) (Brown envelope), Open Mouth Polythene Bag (OMPB) (Black incolour)) were used for Oreochromisniloticus (O), Clariasgariepinus (C) and Mormyrusrume (M). Twenty fish samples per species (averaging 250 gm) were hot smoked dried whole for 36 hours at an average temperature of 100?C. Packaged hot at the rate of 6 fishes per package for each species (three packs for each packaging treatment i.e. 18 pieces were packed while the remaining 2 pieces were used for initial bacteria load and microbial load). Microbial load (Total Viable Count (TVC), Total Coliform Count (TCC) and Total Fungi Count (TFC)) for the fresh fish was initial hot smoked and finally at the end of 12 weeks was monitored. The TVC (bacterial load) of O. niloticus dropped from (10.6 - 8.4) × 104 (fresh state-hot smoked) and M. rume (9.8 - 7.0) × 104, while C. gariepinus slightly increased from (12.4 - 12.6) × 104. After hot smoking, highest TVC of 8.6 × 104 (OMPBC), 8.3 × 104 (SPBC) and 8.2 × 104 (STPBC) were recorded in C. gariepinus among the 9 packag- ing at 12 weeks. However highest tendency for heavy TVC is in all OMPB with highest bacteria load in the OMPBC (8.6 × 104), 7.6 × 104 (OMPBO) and

Production of Fermentable Sugars from Organosolv Pretreated Cassava Peels  [PDF]
Afolake Atinuke Olanbiwoninu, Sunday Ayodele Odunfa
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2015.52012
Abstract: Cassava peels are rich in lignocellulolytic materials which are not readily amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis; hence, there is a need for a suitable pretreatment method that will support enzymatic hydrolysis. This study was designed to investigate lignocellulolytic organisms that would effectively support the bioconversion of organosolv pretreated cassava peels to fermentable sugars. Decaying cassava peels were collected into sterile bottles and microorganisms isolated, characterized and screened for lignocellulolytic enzymes production. Optimum temperature, pH and nutrient sources for enzyme production were determined. Organosolv pretreatment was carried out using methanol with varied concentration of catalyst (0.01 - 3 M), reaction time (15 - 60 min) and substrate size. Crude enzymes (cellulase and xylanase) from the isolates were added to the pretreated peels and bioconversion was monitored by measuring the concentration of reducing sugar and calculating the percentage peel hydrolysis. The fermentable sugars produced were quantified using gas chromatography. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aspergillus terreus were isolated. P. fluorescens produces 2.8 u/mL of crude enzymes optimally at 50°C and pH 8 while A. terreus produces 3.4 u/mL optimally at 40°C, pH 6. Both isolates utilizes CarboxyMethylCellulose (CMC) and yeast extract as their best carbon and nitrogen sources. Highest percentage of peel hydrolysis was 67% for P. fluorescens at 0.01 M and 0.05 M for A. terreus (94%). Highest concentration of fermentable sugar was produced by A. terreus crude enzyme (331.79 mg/L glucose, 45.3 mg/L rhamnose and 46.52 mg/L xylose). P. fluorescens and A. terreus effectively supported the bioconversion of organosolv pretreated cassava peels to fermentable sugars.
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