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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1349 matches for " Ayataka Ishikawa "
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Primary Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Combined with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Soft Palate: A Case Report and Review of Literature  [PDF]
Chatchaphan Udompatanakorn, Naomi Yada, Ayataka Ishikawa, Ikuya Miyamoto, Yukiko Sato, Kou Matsuo
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2018.83008
Abstract: Background: Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare neoplasms that widely occur in various organs. They are heterogeneous and vary from low to high grade malignant. NEC presenting with a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) component is referred to as a composite tumor. Thus far, few cases of this composite tumor in the oral cavity have been reported in the literature; thus, the histogenesis remains unclear. ase Presentation: We encountered a rare case of a primary NEC combined with SCC, occurring at the soft palate in a 59-year-old man. A resected specimen of the tumor was composed of two components: NEC and SCC. The NEC area contained small round to oval atypical cells arranged in nests with a glandular-like-pattern, hyperchromatic molded nuclei, a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, and a scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. The SCC area was composed of non-keratotic, dysplastic oval to spindle-shaped squamous cells with indistinct cell borders and large nuclei that were hyperchromatic and pleomorphic. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells of the NEC component were positive for chromagranin A, synaptophysin, CD56, and p16, whereas those of the SCC component were positive for 34βE12, p63, and p16. Conclusion: In consideration of the morphological and immunohistochemical results, the final diagnosis was a primary NEC combined with SCC of the soft palate.
Potential Risk of Asymptomatic Osteomyelitis around Mandibular Third Molar Tooth for Aged People: A Computed Tomography and Histopathologic Study
Ikuya Miyamoto, Ayataka Ishikawa, Yasuhiro Morimoto, Tetsu Takahashi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073897
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between bone mineral density and histopathological features of mandibular alveolar bone evaluated quantitatively by Hounsfield units [HU] and by histopathology in human subjects. Fifty-six mandibular molars were extracted in 50 patients. Computed tomography was obtained preoperatively, and a cortical bone biopsy was obtained on the extracted sites for histopathological evaluation. The mean cortical and cancellous bone radiodensity was 1846±118 HU and 926±436 HU, respectively. There was no correlation between age and cortical bone HU (r = ?0.004, P = 0.976); however, the correlation between age and cancellous bone HU was significant (r = 0.574, P<0.0000). Significant differences in the cancellous bone between young (0–30 years), middle (31–60 years) and old patient groups (61< years) were evident (P<0.05), whereas the cortical bone presented no significant differences. The histopathological evaluation showed that the young patient group had relatively few osteomyelitis, whereas the old patient group showed 100% focal sclerotic osteomyelitis regardless of the fact that the patients had no clinical symptoms. The mean osteocyte number/unit bone area was 170.7±82.2. Negative correlation between age and osteocyte number was significant (r = ?0.51, P<0.0001). Mean lacunae numbers/unit cortical bone area were 413.1±130 with non-significant negative correlation (r = ?0.257, P = 0.056). The mean empty lacunae numbers/cortical bone were 242.5±145, with no correlation (r = 0.081, P = 0.559). The young patients had high osteocyte number, whereas the old patients showed reduction of the osteocytes in the cortical bone (P<0.05). Bone quality might correlate better to viable cell numbers, which influenced the osseous healing. It is suggested that the outermost layer of cortical bone may have lost its cellular activities over the years due to chronic infection, which may have provoked sclerotic changes in the cancellous bone around tooth.
A New Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  [PDF]
Shiro Ishikawa
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2011.12005
Abstract: The Copenhagen interpretation is the most authorized interpretation of quantum mechanics, but there are a number of ideas that are associated with the Copenhagen interpretation. It is ceratin that this fact is not necessarily desirable. Thus, we propose a new interpretation of measurement theory, which is the linguistic aspect (or, the mathematical generalization) of quantum mechanics. Although this interpretation is superficially similar to a part of so-called Copenhagen interpretation, we show that it has a merit to be applicable to both quantum and classical systems. For example, we say that Bell’s inequality is broken even in classical systems.
Quantum Mechanics and the Philosophy of Language:Reconsideration of Traditional Philosophies  [PDF]
Shiro Ishikawa
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2012.21002
Abstract: Recently we proposed “a new interpretation of quantum mechanics (called quantum and classical measurement theory)” in this journal (JQIS: Vol. 1, No. 2), which was characterized as the metaphysical and linguistic turn of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only realize the remarkable extension of quantum mechanics but also yield the quantum mechanical world view (i.e., the philosophy of quantum mechanics). And thus, the turn urges us to dream that traditional philosophies (i.e., Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, John Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Saussure, Wittgenstein, etc.) can be understood in the quantum mechanical world view. This dream will be challenged in this paper. We, of course, know that most scientists are skeptical to philosophy. Still, we can expect that readers find a good linguistic philosophy (i.e. philosophy of language) in quantum mechanics.
A Role of Chaotic Phenomenon and the Central Place System in a Firm’s Location Selections  [PDF]
Toshiharu Ishikawa
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.21019
Abstract: When a manufacturing firm has a plan to build a factory, the determination of the factory’s location site is one of the most important elements in the plan. Since the manufacturer does not have enough information of economic conditions of all potential location sites, the manufacturer cannot determine immediately its location site. A series of steps are taken to determine the location place. The firm makes range of searching area small step by step toward the site deter-mination; 1) Determination of a prospective region in a large space, 2) Selection of a potential area in that region, 3) Choice of an urban district in that area, 4) Decision of a site in the district. This paper proposes that chaotic phenome-non, which is appeared in the calculation processes to specify the optimal location site, may be used to identify a pro-spective region. And then, it is shown in the paper that the central place systems laid in the region play a role in the se-lection of a potential area for the factory location. This paper elucidates how a firm searches step by step an appropriate factory’s location within a large geographical area.
Ergodic Hypothesis and Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics in the Quantum Mechanical World View  [PDF]
Shiro Ishikawa
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2012.22014
Abstract: In this paper, we study and answer the following fundamental problems concerning classical equilibrium statistical mechanics: 1): Is the principle of equal a priori probabilities indispensable for equilibrium statistical mechanics? 2): Is the ergodic hypothesis related to equilibrium statistical mechanics? Note that these problems are not yet answered, since there are several opinions for the formulation of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In order to answer the above questions, we first introduce measurement theory (i.e., the theory of quantum mechanical world view), which is characterized as the linguistic turn of quantum mechanics. And we propose the measurement theoretical foundation of equili-brium statistical mechanics, and further, answer the above 1) and 2), that is, 1) is “No”, but, 2) is “Yes”.
A Measurement Theoretical Foundation of Statistics  [PDF]
Shiro Ishikawa
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.33044
Abstract: It is a matter of course that Kolmogorov’s probability theory is a very useful mathematical tool for the analysis of statistics. However, this fact never means that statistics is based on Kolmogorov’s probability theory, since it is not guaranteed that mathematics and our world are connected. In order that mathematics asserts some statements concerning our world, a certain theory (so called “world view”) mediates between mathematics and our world. Recently we propose measurement theory (i.e., the theory of the quantum mechanical world view), which is characterized as the linguistic turn of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we assert that statistics is based on measurement theory. And, for example, we show, from the pure theoretical point of view (i.e., from the measurement theoretical point of view), that regression analysis can not be justified without Bayes’ theorem. This may imply that even the conventional classification of (Fisher’s) statistics and Bayesian statistics should be reconsidered.
Monty Hall Problem and the Principle of Equal Probability in Measurement Theory  [PDF]
Shiro Ishikawa
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.37117
Abstract: In this paper, we study the principle of equal probability (i.e., unless we have sufficient reason to regard one possible case as more probable than another, we treat them as equally probable) in measurement theory (i.e., the theory of quantum mechanical world view), which is characterized as the linguistic turn of quantum mechanics with the Copenhagen interpretation. This turn from physics to language does not only realize theremarkable extensionof quantum mechanicsbut alsoestablish the method of science. Our study will be executed in the easy example of the Monty Hall problem. Although our argument is simple, we believe that it is worth pointing out the fact that the principle of equal probability can be, for the first time, clarified in measurement theory (based on the dualism) and not the conventional statistics (based on Kolmogorov’s probability theory).
Treatment Strategy for Recurrent Multiple Hepatocellular Carcinoma  [PDF]
Toru Ishikawa
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.42A049

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has some unique characteristics in the digestive organ cancer. Therefore it is very important to select an appropriate treatment for recurrent HCC according to several situations such as the type of recurrence, previous treatments and conditions of patient. This article is a review of the concept of recurrent multiple HCC and its therapeutic strategies.

Linguistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics; Projection Postulate  [PDF]
Shiro Ishikawa
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2015.54017
Abstract: As the fundamental theory of quantum information science, recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which was characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view. Although the wave function collapse (or more generally, the post-measurement state) is prohibited in the linguistic interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like wave function collapse can be realized. That is, the projection postulate is completely clarified in the linguistic interpretation.
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