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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15 matches for " Awash Teklehaimanot "
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Weather-based prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in epidemic-prone regions of Ethiopia I. Patterns of lagged weather effects reflect biological mechanisms
Hailay D Teklehaimanot, Marc Lipsitch, Awash Teklehaimanot, Joel Schwartz
Malaria Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-3-41
Abstract: Daily average number of cases was modeled using a robust Poisson regression with rainfall, minimum temperature and maximum temperatures as explanatory variables in a polynomial distributed lag model in 10 districts of Ethiopia. To improve reliability and generalizability within similar climatic conditions, we grouped the districts into two climatic zones, hot and cold.In cold districts, rainfall was associated with a delayed increase in malaria cases, while the association in the hot districts occurred at relatively shorter lags. In cold districts, minimum temperature was associated with malaria cases with a delayed effect. In hot districts, the effect of minimum temperature was non-significant at most lags, and much of its contribution was relatively immediate.The interaction between climatic factors and their biological influence on mosquito and parasite life cycle is a key factor in the association between weather and malaria. These factors should be considered in the development of malaria early warning system.Malaria epidemics due to Plasmodium falciparum are reported frequently in the East African highlands [1-6]. Immunity to malaria in the populations of these epidemic-prone regions is often incomplete, so that epidemics cause high case fatality rates among all age groups. In 1958, a malaria epidemic covering over 250,000 square kilometers resulted in an estimated three million cases and 150,000 deaths in Ethiopia [2]. Since then, large scale epidemics of malaria have been noted every five to eight years. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of malaria early warning systems [7-9] to predict where and when malaria epidemics will occur, with adequate lead-time to target scarce resources for prevention activities. Unusual meteorological conditions, such as especially high rainfall or high temperature, are often cited retrospectively as the precipitating factors for epidemics [10,11]. There have also been formal attempts to predict epidemics by the u
Weather-based prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in epidemic-prone regions of Ethiopia II. Weather-based prediction systems perform comparably to early detection systems in identifying times for interventions
Hailay D Teklehaimanot, Joel Schwartz, Awash Teklehaimanot, Marc Lipsitch
Malaria Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-3-44
Abstract: Expected case numbers were modeled using a Poisson regression with lagged weather factors in a 4th-degree polynomial distributed lag model. For each week, the numbers of malaria cases were predicted using coefficients obtained using all years except that for which the prediction was being made. The effectiveness of alerts generated by the prediction system was compared against that of alerts based on observed cases. The usefulness of the prediction system was evaluated in cold and hot districts.The system predicts the overall pattern of cases well, yet underestimates the height of the largest peaks. Relative to alerts triggered by observed cases, the alerts triggered by the predicted number of cases performed slightly worse, within 5% of the detection system. The prediction-based alerts were able to prevent 10–25% more cases at a given sensitivity in cold districts than in hot ones.The prediction of malaria cases using lagged weather performed well in identifying periods of increased malaria cases. Weather-derived predictions identified epidemics with reasonable accuracy and better timeliness than early detection systems; therefore, the prediction of malarial epidemics using weather is a plausible alternative to early detection systems.Malaria epidemics are reported frequently and have caused high morbidity and mortality among all age groups in the African highlands [1-4]. Early detection and accurate forecasting of the time, place and intensity of these epidemics is important for emergency preparedness, planning and response [5,6]. Considerable efforts are being made to promote, develop and implement early warning systems for malaria epidemics in Africa [5,7]. Ideally, public health and vector control workers would have access to a system that alerts them when substantial numbers of excess cases are expected, and such alerts should be sensitive (so that alerts are reliably generated when excess cases are imminent), specific (so that there are few "false alarms") an
Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA) in sub-Saharan Africa
Shr-Jie Wang, Christian Lengeler, Thomas A Smith, Penelope Vounatsou, Guéladio Cissé, Diadie A Diallo, Martin Akogbeto, Deo Mtasiwa, Awash Teklehaimanot, Marcel Tanner
Malaria Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-4-40
Abstract: This work was done in Yopougon municipality (Abidjan), Cotonou, Dar es Salaam and Ouagadougou. The study design consists of six components: 1) a literature review, 2) the collection of available health statistics, 3) a risk mapping, 4) school parasitaemia surveys, 5) health facility-based surveys and 6) a brief description of the health care system. These formed the basis of a multi-country evaluation of RUMA's feasibility, consistency and usefulness.A substantial amount of literature (including unpublished theses and statistics) was found at each site, providing a good overview of the malaria situation. School and health facility-based surveys provided an overview of local endemicity and the overall malaria burden in different city areas. This helped to identify important problems for in-depth assessment, especially the extent to which malaria is over-diagnosed in health facilities. Mapping health facilities and breeding sites allowed the visualization of the complex interplay between population characteristics, health services and malaria risk. However, the latter task was very time-consuming and required special expertise. RUMA is inexpensive, costing around 8,500–13,000 USD for a six to ten-week period.RUMA was successfully implemented in four urban areas with different endemicity and proved to be a cost-effective first approach to study the features of urban malaria and provide an evidence basis for planning control measures.Urbanization has a significant impact on the economy, lifestyles, ecosystems and disease patterns, including malaria [1,2]. An estimated 39% of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) lived in urban areas in 2003 [3], 198 million Africans lived in urban malaria-endemic areas and 24–103 million clinical attacks occur annually in those areas [4]. An important message addressed in the Pretoria Statement on urban malaria was that the malaria control strategies used in rural areas cannot be directly transferred to the urban context [5]. The e
Estimated global resources needed to attain international malaria control goals
Kiszewski,Anthony; Johns,Benjamin; Schapira,Allan; Delacollette,Charles; Crowell,Valerie; Tan-Torres,Tessa; Ameneshewa,Birkinesh; Teklehaimanot,Awash; Nafo-Traoré,Fatoumata;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862007000800015
Abstract: objective: to provide the international community with an estimate of the amount of financial resources needed to scale up malaria control to reach international goals, including allocations by country, year and intervention as well as an indication of the current funding gap. methods: a costing model was used to estimate the total costs of scaling up a set of widely recommended interventions, supporting services and programme strengthening activities in each of the 81 most heavily affected malaria-endemic countries. two scenarios were evaluated, using different assumptions about the effect of interventions on the needs for diagnosis and treatment. current health expenditures and funding for malaria control were compared to estimated needs. findings: a total of us$ 38 to 45 billion will be required from 2006 to 2015. the average cost during this period is us$ 3.8 to 4.5 billion per year. the average costs for africa are us$ 1.7 billion and us$ 2.2 billion per year in the optimistic and pessimistic scenarios, respectively; outside africa, the corresponding costs are us$ 2.1 billion and us$ 2.4 billion. conclusion: while these estimates should not be used as a template for country-level planning, they provide an indication of the scale and scope of resources required and can help donors to collaborate towards meeting a global benchmark and targeting funding to countries in greatest need. the analysis highlights the need for much greater resources to achieve the goals and targets for malaria control set by the international community.
Comparative Evaluation of Farmers’ Perception and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and Variability in Bako Tibe, Ethiopia and Abeokuta, Nigeria  [PDF]
Chizoba Obianuju Oranu, Anthonia Ifeyinwa Achike, Amanuel Zenebe, Abadi Teklehaimanot
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2018.74038
Abstract: Comparing the perception of farmers to climate change and variability in Bako Tibe, Ethiopia and Abeokuta, Nigeria is important in promoting sustainable agriculture and in understanding the impact of climate change and variability on agriculture in Africa. A total of 153 farmers were interviewed in both study areas using well structure questionnaire. The study describes the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers using descriptive statistics and thereafter the perception of Bako Tibe and Abeokuta farmers to climate change and variability was examined using Likert type scale. The binary logistics regression was later used to ascertain the effect of socioeconomic characteristics on perception of the farmers in both study areas. The farmers in both study areas believed that there have been changes in the amount of rainfall and temperature in the past thirty years. The farmers in Bako agreed that there have been increased temperature and decreased rainfall, contrary to the farmer’s perception in Abeokuta. The binary logistic regression results showed that socioeconomic characteristics of farmers in Bako Tibe, have no effect on the perception of farmers on climate change and variability. However, in Abeokuta, age, land ownership, and distance to market had an effect on the perception on the farmers on climate change and variability. The adaptation strategies to climate change and variability commonly used by Bako Tibe farmers was, improved seed (drought resistance) adaptation method, while most farmers in Abeokuta used soil moisture conservation adaptation method. The study recommends that government and Non-Governmental Organization of both countries should promote more adaptation and mitigation practices to climate change and variability through policy interventions to help curb the impact of climate change and variability to agriculture.
Helping northern Ethiopian communities reduce childhood mortality: population-based intervention trial
Ali Mohammed,Asefaw Teklehaimanot,Byass Peter,Beyene Hagos
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2005,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: More than 10 million children die each year mostly from preventable causes and particularly in developing countries. WHO guidelines for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) are intended to reduce childhood mortality and are being implemented in Ethiopia. As well as specific clinical interventions, the role of the community in understanding and acting on childhood sickness is an important factor in improving survival. This trial sought to assess the effect on survival of community-based health promotion activities. METHODS: Two districts in northern Ethiopia were studied, each with a random sample of more than 4000 children less than 5 years old. Regular six-monthly visits were made to document deaths among children. After the first year, communities in one district were educated about issues of good childcare and caring for sick children while the other district received this information only after the trial ended. FINDINGS: Although overall mortality was higher in the post-intervention period, most of the increase was seen in the control area. A Cox proportional hazards model gave an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.95) for the intervention area compared with the control area in the post-intervention period, with no significant pre-intervention difference. Significant survival advantages were found for females, children of younger fathers, those with married parents, those living in larger households, and those whose nearest health facility was a health centre. For all of the children who died, only 44% of parents or caregivers had sought health care before the child's death. CONCLUSION: This non-specific community-based public health intervention, as an addition to IMCI strategies in local health facilities, appears to have significantly reduced childhood mortality in these communities. The possibility that such interventions may not effectively reach certain social groups (for example single parents) is an important consideration for implementation of similar strategies in future. The synergy between community awareness and the availability of effective peripheral health services is also an issue that needs further exploration.
Helping northern Ethiopian communities reduce childhood mortality: population-based intervention trial
Ali,Mohammed; Asefaw,Teklehaimanot; Byass,Peter; Beyene,Hagos; Pedersen,F. Karup;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862005000100011
Abstract: objective: more than 10 million children die each year mostly from preventable causes and particularly in developing countries. who guidelines for the integrated management of childhood illness (imci) are intended to reduce childhood mortality and are being implemented in ethiopia. as well as specific clinical interventions, the role of the community in understanding and acting on childhood sickness is an important factor in improving survival. this trial sought to assess the effect on survival of community-based health promotion activities. methods: two districts in northern ethiopia were studied, each with a random sample of more than 4000 children less than 5 years old. regular six-monthly visits were made to document deaths among children. after the first year, communities in one district were educated about issues of good childcare and caring for sick children while the other district received this information only after the trial ended. findings: although overall mortality was higher in the post-intervention period, most of the increase was seen in the control area. a cox proportional hazards model gave an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.95) for the intervention area compared with the control area in the post-intervention period, with no significant pre-intervention difference. significant survival advantages were found for females, children of younger fathers, those with married parents, those living in larger households, and those whose nearest health facility was a health centre. for all of the children who died, only 44% of parents or caregivers had sought health care before the child's death. conclusion: this non-specific community-based public health intervention, as an addition to imci strategies in local health facilities, appears to have significantly reduced childhood mortality in these communities. the possibility that such interventions may not effectively reach certain social groups (for example single parents) is a
A community-based study of childhood morbidity in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Mohammed Ali, Teklehaimanot Asefaw, Hagos Beyene, Peter Byass, Mohammed Shishay, Mohammed Shishay Hasibu, Freddy Karup Pedersen
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2001,
Abstract: Background: The study was conducted in preparation for the early implementation of the integrated management of childhood illnesses. Methods: Caretakers of a cohort of 1034 under-five children in two districts of Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, were interviewed weekly in their homes for a one-year period for symptoms of disease. Possible risk factors for disease in the home were identified during a preceding base-line survey. Results: The overall incidence of perceived illness was found to be 5.26 per child-year, that of ARI 5.53 per child-year and of diarrhea 3.05 per child-year. Recall appears to be influenced by asking caretakers for illness in general as compared to asking for specific symptoms. A lower incidence of overall illness was found in children above 2 years of age, and in those from Christian families, those living in houses with corrugated iron roofs and those from households with 2 or more children under-five. Increased incidence was associated with the use of open pit latrines compared to open air excreta disposal as there were no properly covered latrines. Conclusions: Age, housing factors and water supply and sanitation are important determinants for disease. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2001, 15(3): 165-172)
Maternal psychosocial well-being in Eritrea: application of participatory methods and tools of investigation and analysis in complex emergency settings
Almedom,Astier M.; Tesfamichael,Berhe; Yacob,Abdu; Debretsion,Za?d; Teklehaimanot,Kidane; Beyene,Teshome; Kuhn,Kira; Alemu,Zemui;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862003000500010
Abstract: objective: to establish the context in which maternal psychosocial well-being is understood in war-affected settings in eritrea. method: pretested and validated participatory methods and tools of investigation and analysis were employed to allow participants to engage in processes of qualitative data collection, on-site analysis, and interpretation. findings: maternal psychosocial well-being in eritrea is maintained primarily by traditional systems of social support that are mostly outside the domain of statutory primary care. traditional birth attendants provide a vital link between the two. formal training and regular supplies of sterile delivery kits appear to be worthwhile options for health policy and practice in the face of the post-conflict challenges of ruined infrastructure and an overstretched and/or ill-mannered workforce in the maternity health service. conclusion: methodological advances in health research and the dearth of data on maternal psychosocial well-being in complex emergency settings call for scholars and practitioners to collaborate in creative searches for sound evidence on which to base maternity, mental health and social care policy and practice. participatory methods facilitate the meaningful engagement of key stakeholders and enhance data quality, reliability and usability.
Use and Management of Balanites aegyptiaca in Drylands of Uganda
Clement Akais Okia,Jacob Godfrey Agea,James Munga Kimondo,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Paul Okiror,Joseph Obua,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjbsci.2011.15.24
Abstract: There is strong evidence across the drylands of Africa that local communities have utilized Indigenous Fruit Trees (IFTs) including Balanites for generations. IFTs have however, received limited recognition from research and development community. It is now widely accepted that IFTs research needs to embrace local knowledge since this can be a useful resource in solving local problems and contribute to meaningful development. This study explored local use and management of the Balanites aegyptiaca among two contrasting dryland communities in Uganda. A survey involving 150 respondents was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted to capture detailed information on various aspects of Balanites use and management. The results revealed a wealth of information on local use and management of B. aegyptiaca tree and its products. Besides being a market commodity, several uses of the tree products were reported, especially among women and children. Contrary to its early reference as famine food, B. aegyptiaca products were used by most households. The young leaves and ripe fruits were regarded as dependable dry season food sources in both years of food scarcity and plentiful harvest. However, institutional arrangements for management of Balanites and other IFTs are weak and trees are increasingly being cut for fuelwood. There is a need to build on the local peoples knowledge, especially on processing of products so as to realise increased contribution of Balanites to rural livelihoods in the drylands of Uganda and other areas where the species grows.
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