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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 704 matches for " Autism "
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Use of Science in Autism Policy Development  [PDF]
Dana Lee Baker
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.31001

Though ultimately beneficial to society, interactions between science and politics require careful tending. Because science is an exercise in trial and error, public policy development can be affected by both scientific missteps and the length of time it takes to produce reasonable scientific certainty. Introduction of scientific findings, especially more preliminary ones, into the political process has a mixed record. Understanding how these tensions play out in contemporary politics is important for both disability studies and policy studies generally. This article explores how science and scientific evidence is employed by stakeholders engaged with autism policy development in the United States.

No correlation between X chromosome inactivation pattern and autistic spectrum disorders in an Italian cohort of patients  [PDF]
Natalia Cannelli, Elisabetta Tabolacci, Claudia Rendeli, Giovanni Neri, Fiorella Gurrieri
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2011.13007
Abstract: Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) occur more frequently in males, suggesting a major pathogenic role for genes located on the X-chromosome. The analysis of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern may help to identify XCI skewing in those families in which such genes are involved, even without identifying the specific genetic mutation. In order to identify such families, we determined the XCI pattern in 40 females with ASD and 58 mothers of children with ASD, as well as in 80 matched control females. The X inactivation assay was carried out on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood. XCI was calculated for informative heterozygous individuals as the ratio of the peak area of two alleles of the highly polymorphic CAG repeat of the androgen receptor (AR) gene (Xq11-12). Our results indicate that there is no difference in XCI pattern both in ASD females and in the mothers of ASD patients when compared with the appropriate controls. These findings suggest that the contribution of X-linked genes to the etiology of ASD is still likely but it is not supported by X-inactivation patterns on peripheral blood cells.
Imitation Effects on Joint Attention Behaviors of Children with Autism  [PDF]
Shauna Ezell, Tiffany Field, Jacqueline Nadel, Rae Newton, Greg Murrey, Vijaya Siddalingappa, Susan Allender, Ava Grace
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.39103
Abstract: This study examined the effects of adult imitation on three joint attention behaviors of nonverbal preschoolers with autism including referential looking, gaze following and gesturing to the adult. Videotapes taken from a previous study were recoded for the adult’s imitation behavior and the children’s joint attention behaviors (Field, Field, Sanders, & Nadel, 2001). In the original study, twenty nonverbal, 4 - 6-year- old children with autism were randomly assigned to one of two groups, an imitation or a contingent responsivity group. Both groups of children engaged in an intervention play phase during which the adult imitated the children or contingently responded to them and a subsequent spontaneous play phase. ANOVAs revealed that the imitation group children versus the contingent responsivity group children spent a greater percent time looking at the adult during the intervention phase and looking at the adult and following the adult’s gaze during the spontaneous play phase. A correlation analysis on the data collapsed across the 2 groups yielded significant correlations between adult imitation during the intervention phase and referential looking and gaze following during the spontaneous play phase. Overall, these results revealed that adults imitating preschoolers with autism elicited joint attention behaviors, highlighting the value of imitation as an intervention.
Autism spectrum disorders: The collaborative roles of the psychiatrists, educators and parents  [PDF]
Shernavaz Vakil, Evonn Welton
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32A001

Autism is a complex disability that requires collaboration, consultation and communication for provision of optimum treatment and intervention. Both psychiatrists and educators are key to the well-being of children and their families and can work together successfully in a comprehensive framework. This article provides information and recommendations in order to bridge both disciplinary fields so that this framework can be established.

What Autists Can Teach Us about Social Interactions and How Psychoanalytic Treatment Can Contribute to It  [PDF]
Ana Beatriz Freire, Fabio Malcher
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.511145

This paper aims to bring contributions from psychoanalysis to the debate about autism. We assume that while working with the autistic it is imperative to single out each case and not to seek out a standardized approach, based on a previous knowledge. The therapist oriented by psychoanalysis starts to work from a point of view where stereotyped or seemingly bizarre behaviors are taken as a resource used by the subject to protect himself from the invasion experienced in his relationship with others. The treatment, therefore, would not seek to eliminate such behaviors, but to promote the elaboration, on the autistic part, of a way of his own to belong in the world, as we will be able to follow in the exposition of a clinical case in which the subject makes use of objects in a unique manner to mediate his relationship with the other and promote his social interaction.

Professional opinion on the question of changes in autism incidence  [PDF]
M. Catherine DeSoto, Robert T. Hitlan
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32A010

The question of whether the prevalence increase observed in autism due to an actual increase in the incidence of autism is a matter of concern to professional psychologists, and has been a matter of debate. As professionals trained in diagnosis and research methodology, the opinions of psychologists are of interest. We report the results of what we believe to be the first survey of professional opinion on the topic. Results suggest that among professional psychologists with a terminal degree (n = 88), the majority believe that diagnostic changes can not fully account for the observed increase; 72% reported either the true rate may have, or definitely has, increased. In this sample, the professionals who are certain about the occurrence of a real increase (n=20) are five times as many as those who do not think the increase has occurred (n=4). These results are not meant to document whether or not an increase has or has not occurred, but instead speak to the question of consensus opinion among professional psychologists. What experts believe is an empirical question, and statements about what experts believe should be empirically based.

Auditory abnormalities in children with autism  [PDF]
Ying-Hua Tan, Chun-Yan Xi, Shu-Ping Jiang, Bing-Xin Shi, Li-Bo Wang, Lin Wang
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.21005
Abstract: The present study aimed to describe the characteristics of auditory abnormalities present in cases of autism. One hundred and fifty six children with autism and 141matched controls with language delay were investigated via direct observations combined with parent/caregiver reports. All of the autistic individuals demonstrated auditory abnormalities especially in the domain of hyposensitivity, compared with 33.3% of children with language delay. The auditory abnormalities in autism primarily comprised of auditory hyposensitivity, auditory hypersensitivity, phonophobia, and peculiar interests in certain sounds. Participants with autism were rated as having more problems than the language-delayed children in all the items of each domain. No significant difference in the range of auditory abnormalities were observed between mild and severe autistic children except for the presence of phonophobia. Children with autism presented with diverse auditory abnormalities which may be specific features in autism and may play an important role in the early identification of autism.
Psychological effects of parenting children with autism prospective study in Kuwait  [PDF]
Abdullahi Fido, Samira Al Saad
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32A002

Background: Recent reports suggest that the prevalence of autism in the Arab world ranges from 1.4 cases per 10,000 children inOmanto 29 per 10,000 children in theUnited Arab Emirates. While these rates are lower than those of the developed world, which are 39 per 10,000 for autism and 77 per 10,000 for all forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), it does not necessarily mean the condition is less prevalent in the Arab world. Objectives: Studies of parents with children with autism suggest that 35% - 53% of mothers with children show various degrees of depressive symptoms. However, many of these studies were conducted in western countries which still make little inferences about the prevalence of these stresses in Arab countries uncertain. No data are available on the use of the BDI on parents of children with autism in Kuwait. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of parental depression in families of children with autism and in control families. Subjects and Methods: The participants in this study were 120 mothers and fathers of autistic children whose children were attending the Kuwait Autism Center at the time of this study. They were asked to complete the Arabic translated version of the Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI). It consists of 21 symptoms or attitudes commonly seen in patients suffering from depression. The symptoms are rated from “0”to “3”in intensity. The following cut-off points of depressive symptoms were used when interpreting the results in the present study: the range of scores from 0 to 9 indicates no depression, 10 - 20 dysphoria and over 20 depression. Results: The mean standard deviation scores for the mothers of autistic children were 21.2 ÷ 2.9 and 10.3 ÷ 2.1, (p = 0.001) for the control mothers respectively. No significant difference were observed across the samples of fathers other than slight increase for the autistic group. Marital status did not affect the number of mothers of the autism groups who had elevated depression scores, but single mothers in both groups had higher elevated depression scores than mothers living with partners, (x2 = 6.4, p < 0.005). Out of mothers with autistic children, 32.3% had depression and 41.5% had dysphoria while, 10% of control mothers had depression and 16% had dysphoria, x2 = 6.3 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: It is clear from our findings that mothers of autistic children have higher parenting-related stress and psychological distress as compared to

The current situation and issues there of related to nursing care at the time of medical examinations for children with developmental disabilities including autism  [PDF]
Mikiko Natsume
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.41004

The objective of this study is to clarify the details regarding nursing care that is currently provided in terms of the situation regarding medical examinations for children with developmental disabilities and to discuss necessary nursing care. I conducted semi-structured interviews among 13 parents brining up children with developmental disabilities and analyzed the content of verbatim reports both qualitatively and functionally. Regarding those situations when they feel difficult at the time of undergoing medical examinations at the medical institute, the following four categories were extracted: painful treatment; difficulty in predicting; difficulty in communicating; and trouble in the waiting room. Regarding nursing care felt necessary at the time of undergoing medical examinations, the following six categories were extracted: technique while suppressing pain to a minimum; involvement in providing perspective; adjustment of surrounding environment; provision of opportunities to get acclimatized; provision of warm support; and understanding of patient characteristics. Many difficulties regarding medical examinations were revealed and it was found that they have concerns with regard to health management. It has been suggested that it is important to adjust the surrounding environment during medical examinations.

Oxytocin but Not Testosterone Modulates Behavioral Patterns in Autism Spectrum Disorders  [PDF]
Silvia Lakatosova, Sheinberg Nurit, Pivovarciova Anna, Husarova Veronika, Rozenfeld Irina, Ostatnikova Daniela, Castejon Ana Maria
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.31006
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology. Social deficits represent one of the core symptoms of the diagnosis. The aim was to reveal possible correlations among peripheral levels of oxytocin and testosterone with behavioral and symptom characteristics in patients with ASD. 8 children with ASD were recruited and underwent psychological profiling. Blood oxytocin and testosterone levels were analyzed using ELISA method. Oxytocin levels positively correlated with Adaptation to change category of CARS-2 (P = 0.008, R = 0.848) and Vineland-II maladaptive behavior scores (P = 0.004, R = 0.884). No significant correlations were found among testosterone levels and behavioral parameters. Higher oxytocin levels were connected with more severe adaptive behavior in ASD patients. Increased oxytocin levels in children with more severe phenotype could be a result of compensatory mechanism of impaired oxytocin signaling. Oxytocin seems to employ distinct mechanisms in regulating social behavior in autism and healthy population.
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