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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 26 matches for " Augustina Kodua "
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Pattern of drug utilization for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in urban Ghana following national treatment policy change to artemisinin-combination therapy
Alexander NO Dodoo, Carole Fogg, Alex Asiimwe, Edmund T Nartey, Augustina Kodua, Ofori Tenkorang, David Ofori-Adjei
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-2
Abstract: Patients with diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria were recruited from pharmacies of health facilities throughout Accra in a cohort-event monitoring study. The main drug utilization outcomes were the relation of patient age, gender, type of facility attended, mode of diagnosis and concomitant treatments to the anti-malarial regimen prescribed. Logistic regression was used to predict prescription of nationally recommended first-line therapy and concomitant prescription of antibiotics.The cohort comprised 2,831 patients. Curative regimens containing an artemisinin derivative were given to 90.8% (n = 2,574) of patients, although 33% (n = 936) of patients received an artemisinin-based monotherapy. Predictors of first-line therapy were laboratory-confirmed diagnosis, age >5 years, and attending a government facility. Analgesics and antibiotics were the most commonly prescribed concomitant medications, with a median of two co-prescriptions per patient (range 1–9). Patients above 12 years were significantly less likely to have antibiotics co-prescribed than patients under five years; those prescribed non-artemisinin monotherapies were more likely to receive antibiotics. A dihydroartemisinin-amodiaquine combination was the most used therapy for children under five years of age (29.0%, n = 177).This study shows that though first-line therapy recommendations may change, clinical practice may still be affected by factors other than the decision or ability to diagnose malaria. Age, diagnostic confirmation and suspected concurrent conditions lead to benefit:risk assessments for individual patients by clinicians as to which anti-malarial treatment to prescribe. This has implications for adherence to policy changes aiming to implement effective use of ACT. These results should inform education of health professionals and rational drug use policies to reduce poly-pharmacy, and also suggest a potential positive impact of increased access to testing for malaria both within health facil
Studies on Mechanical and End-Use Properties of Natural Rubber Filled with Snail Shell Powder  [PDF]
Isaac Ogbennaya Igwe, Augustina Adanna Ejim
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.27109
Abstract: A series of natural rubber-snail shell powder vulcanizates were compounded on a two-roll mill, and moulded on a compression moulding machine. The mechanical and end-use properties of the natural rubber vulcanizates were investigated at snail shell powder contents, 0 to 20 pphr. The snail shell powder was characterized for filler properties and sieved to 0.075, and 0.30 μm particle sizes. Carbon black was used as the reference filler. Results showed that the tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, and resilience of the rubber vulcanizates were not enhanced on addition of snail shell powder. The hardness of the rubber vulcanizes were marginally increased at high snail shell powder content. However, the specific gravity of the rubber vulcanizates showed increases with increase in snail shell powder content. At a filler content above 5 pphr, snail shell powder exhibited good flame retardant property in the vulcanizates. The swelling indices of snail shell powder (0.075 μm) filled natural rubber were generally good, and better than those of snail shell powder (0.30 μm) filled natural rubber. Carbon black was found to show more property improvement for the natural rubber vulcanizates when compared to snail shell powder. Although the mechanical properties of snail shell powder filled natural rubber vulcanizates were not good, there were improvements in the end-use properties, an indication that snail shell powder could still find utilization in the rubber industry where specific end-use property of a rubber product is required.
Adolescents’ Knowledge of Diet-Related Chronic Diseases and Dietary Practices in Ghana  [PDF]
Christina A. Nti, Augustina Brown, Angelina Danquah
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.311199
Abstract: Diet-related chronic diseases constitute public health and developmental challenges in Ghana. The Ghana Health Service in 2007 reported a national prevalence of diabetes of 11.6%, 27.8% for hypertension and 25% of women were reported to be overweight. Adolescents usually adopt lifestyles that negatively affect their nutritional and health status and increase their risk for development of diet-related chronic diseases later in life. The study was therefore carried out to investigate adolescents’ knowledge of diet-related chronic diseases and its influence on their dietary practices. The study design was a cross-sectional survey involving 313 adolescents aged 14 18 years from public and private senior high schools. Structured interviews and diet assessment methods were used to collect information on respondents’ knowledge of diet-related chronic diseases and dietary practices. The data collected were analyzed using the SPSS program version 16. The Chi-square test and ANOVA were used to determine the relationships between respondents’ knowledge of diet-related chronic diseases and dietary practices. The results revealed that knowledge of diabetes, hypertension and obesity were low among the respondents with most of them (89.2%) having fair to poor knowledge of the diseases. Eighty-eight percent of the adolescents ate three or more times in a day. Meals mostly skipped were breakfast and lunch. Dietary diversity of the respondents was generally poor. There was a significant relationship between knowledge of diet-related chronic diseases and the dietary practices of the adolescents. As knowledge of the diseases increased, dietary diversity also improved.
Test Anxiety, Depression and Academic Performance: Assessment and Management Using Relaxation and Cognitive Restructuring Techniques  [PDF]
Esther F. Akinsola, Augustina Dubem Nwajei
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.46A1003
Abstract:

Examination as a word evokes varying degrees of anxiety in students depending on the importance of the examination, perceived difficulty level of the subject, and degree of preparedness for the examination. A perceived difficult subject would elicit higher anxiety levels, and test anxiety as a psychological condition can adversely affect people in every field of life (Cohen, 2004), and especially it adversely affects students who face different examinations. The suspicion is that test anxiety may not exist alone but co-exist with other forms of psychological distress such as depression, and psychological intervention such as cognitive therapy is expected to reduce students’ anxieties and any other psychological distress and consequently improve their academic performance. In an attempt to verify our suspicion and confirm the expectation, 420 senior secondary school students made up of 210 males and 210 females aged between 13 and 19 years responded to test anxiety, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms inventories. 72 of the students whose test anxiety scores were higher than the group’s average score were divided into three groups and treated under three conditions of “no treatment”, “relaxation treatment alone”, and combined “relaxation and cognitive restructuring treatment”. Results obtained show that test anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression co-exist and are positively related, and they are negatively related to academic performance. In addition the combination of relaxation and cognitive restructuring treatment reduced anxiety and depression better than relaxation treatment alone or no treatment and improved test performance of the students much more than any of the other two conditions. The findings thus confirm the effectiveness and efficacy of cognitive therapy in managing anxiety and depression and improving academic performance, and when combined with relaxation

Local Government Responses to HIV and AIDS in the Border Areas: a Case Study of Batam
Augustina Situmorang,Sri Sunarti Purwaningsih
Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities , 2011,
Abstract: Improving the welfare of the people who live in the border areas has been a concern of the Indonesian government for the past few years. Compared with other areas, most of the border areas are relatively less developed, especially in terms of human resources development. Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah/RPJM 2005–2009 [National Development Plan of 2005–2009] noted the shift of development priorities in the border areas from security approach to the prosperity approach. One of the key indicators of social welfare is health, particularly reproductive health. This term covers maternal and child health, family planning, adolescent services, abortion, and the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STI), which include HIV and AIDS. Previous studies indicated that STIs (including HIV and AIDS) are one of the emerging health problems in the border areas of Indonesia. Data show that incident rates of HIV and AIDS in these provinces are higher than in other provinces and higher than the national rates.
The Integrated Use of Enterprise and System Dynamics Modelling Techniques in Support of Business Decisions
K. Agyapong-Kodua,R. H. Weston,S. Ratchev
Advances in Decision Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/804324
Abstract: Enterprise modelling techniques support business process (re)engineering by capturing existing processes and based on perceived outputs, support the design of future process models capable of meeting enterprise requirements. System dynamics modelling tools on the other hand are used extensively for policy analysis and modelling aspects of dynamics which impact on businesses. In this paper, the use of enterprise and system dynamics modelling techniques has been integrated to facilitate qualitative and quantitative reasoning about the structures and behaviours of processes and resource systems used by a Manufacturing Enterprise during the production of composite bearings. The case study testing reported has led to the specification of a new modelling methodology for analysing and managing dynamics and complexities in production systems. This methodology is based on a systematic transformation process, which synergises the use of a selection of public domain enterprise modelling, causal loop and continuous simulation modelling techniques. The success of the modelling process defined relies on the creation of useful CIMOSA process models which are then converted to causal loops. The causal loop models are then structured and translated to equivalent dynamic simulation models using the proprietary continuous simulation modelling tool iThink. 1. Introduction A body of literature related to current trends in MEs has explained the enormous complexities and dynamics associated with the design and realisation of business processes [1–7]. Although MEs are inherently complex, traditional methods for solving problems in MEs have not fully accommodated complexities and causal relationships associated with processes in MEs [8, 9]. MEs are inherently complex because they are composed of complex process networks which are interrelated in a way that changes made to one process thread induce dynamics in the ME by having causal and temporal effects on other process threads [10]. System dynamics has been defined as a computer-aided approach to policy analysis and design. It has usefully been applied to dynamic systems characterised by interdependence, mutual interaction, information feedback, and circular causality [5]. Research in the modelling and management of complexities in dynamic systems has resulted in the derivation and application of a number of system dynamics modelling tools and techniques. Notable among these are fuzzy logics (FLs) [11–15], neural networks (NNs) [16–20], Bayesian networks (BNs) [21, 22], Petri nets (PNs) [7, 23–25], causal loops (CLs) [7,
An Examination of the Tenancy Agreement as a Shield in Property Management in Nigeria
Dabara I. Daniel,Olatoye Ojo,Okorie Augustina
International Journal of Business Administration , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/ijba.v3n4p54
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to critically examine tenancy agreement as a shield in property management in Nigeria. Renting is an essential component of a healthy housing system of a nation. It is observed that for most tenants, signing their tenancy agreement will be their largest financial commitment during the year; hence it is an issue not to be taken lightly. The rental housing sector in Nigeria is bedeviled with acute shortage of housing units (said to be between 14-17million units) this in turn impacts negatively on the sale and rental markets. The study revealed that tenancy agreement gives protection to the stakeholders in the rental housing sector only on paper. This is because many rental agreements between landlords and tenants in Nigeria are personal and informal in nature, concluded outside of any government regulatory framework or formal legal system. This informality and lack of official documentation makes going to court an extremely impractical way of dealing with landlord-tenant conflicts. The provisions of the rent control and recovery of premises laws in Nigeria have been held more in disobedience than in obedience for many years. For effective regulation of the rental property market in Nigeria, it was recommended among others, that a strategic approach to developing a workable rental housing policy should first acknowledge the rental arrangements which already exist and then find flexible, realistic ways to regulate and enforce them.
Quality Assessment of Common Instant Noodles Sold in Nigeria Markets  [PDF]
Chukwuebuka T. Onyema, Uche E. Ekpunobi, Augustina A. Edowube, Stanley Odinma, Chinweotito E. Sokwaibe
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.517124
Abstract: Proximate and heavy metal analysis of five instant noodles samples was carried out using standard analytical methods. The proximate analysis showed the presence of moisture content (3.65% - 7.80%), ash content (1.11% - 5.50%), fat content (13.64% - 18.69%), crude protein content (0.167% - 0.202%), crude fibre content (1.00% - 9.25%) and carbohydrate content (63.68% - 79.72%). All essential elements (Fe and Zn) investigated in the noodle samples occurred within the threshold limit of WHO, (2003) standard (10.00 - 50.00 mg/kg and 5.000 - 22.000 mg/kg) while the heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pd) in some samples occurred at levels relatively above the minimum tolerable limit of WHO, (2003). Hence, caution should be taken in the successive consumption of these noodles to avoid diseases associated with the over time accumulation of these heavy metals especially in samples where they appeared in relatively high amount.
Sensitivity and specificity of five malaria rapid diagnostic kits used in south-south region of Nigeria  [PDF]
Seto Aladenika, Mirabeau Tatfeng, Gilbert Nwobu, Eguagie Osakue, Alfred Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetinya Ehiaghe, Maureen Uchechukwu Okwu, Augustina Isioma Ikusemoro
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2012.24016
Abstract: Sensitivity and specificity of five commonly used rapid malaria test kits in South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria were analyzed, namely Plasmotest (Biotech International, Germany), Malariatest (Acon Diagnostic, USA), AcumPF (Acumen, China), PF test (Diaspot, Indonesia) and Malaria P.f. (Global, USA). A total of 200 positive malaria blood sample using microscopy as gold standard and 200 negative were obtained from adult and children. All the kits were tested against these gold standards as directed by the manufacturers. Of the 100 positive gold standard used from children sample, 96% sensitivity were recorded for Biotech, Acon and Global 97%, while Acumen and Diaspot had 99% and 98% respectively. The the highest Specificity was recorded with Biotech 99% both Acumen and Diaspot had 97% specificity. In adult blood sample, there was general reduction in the sensitivity of the test kits. We obtained Sensitivity of 30% with Biotech, 46% with Acon, Global 73%, Diaspot 75%, and Acumen 78%. Considering the increasing influx of MRDT’s into the country, and from the result obtained from this study, there is need for control agensis to ensure that diagnostic test kits be reevaluated before introduction into Nigeria market.
Trace Metals Distribution in Fish Tissues, Bottom Sediments and Water from Okumeshi River in Delta State, Nigeria
Ekeanyanwu C. Raphael,Ogbuinyi C. Augustina,Etienajirhevwe O. Frank
Environmental Research Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/erj.2011.6.10
Abstract: Water samples, bottom sediments, Tilapia and Cat Fish from Okumeshi River in Delta state of Nigeria were analysed quantitatively for the presence of lead, nickel, chromium, manganese and cadmium using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The fishes contained higher concentration of manganese with a value of 7.77 mg kg-1 against 2.76 mg kg-1 in sediment and 0.13 mg L-1 in water. Studies on the different parts of the fish revealed higher concentrations of 1.97 mg kg-1 manganese in the muscle of tilapia fish while the lowest concentration of 0.13 mg kg-1 was detected on the gill of catfish. The highest concentration of 0.62 mg kg-1 cadmium was detected on the muscle of tilapia while the lowest concentration with a value of 0.04 mg kg-1 was recorded in tilapia bone. In most of the fish samples, cadmium concentration was found to be above the maximum tolerable values provided by international institutions.
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