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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145167 matches for " Audrey F Saftlas "
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Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study
Tarah T Colaizy, Susan Carlson, Audrey F Saftlas, Frank H Morriss Jr
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-124
Abstract: Retrospective cohort study.171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, < 10th percentile) at birth, and 34% of infants were SGA at discharge. Infants fed >75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving < 75% (?0.6 vs, -0.4, p = 0.03). Protein and caloric supplementation beyond standard human milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor ?0.84, maternal ?0.56, mixed ?0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08).VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk.Maternal milk diets have been associated with advantages for extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants. ELBW infants fed maternal milk have lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) [1-3], the combined outcome of NEC or death [4], late onset sepsis [2,5,6], and have superior neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with those fed preterm formulas [7,8].However, maternal milk diets have also been associated with inferior in-hospital growth when compared with preterm formula. Studies performed prior to the current practice of human milk fortification demonstrated poorer growth in maternal–milk-fed infants compared with those fed formula [9], although neurodevelopmental advantages were associated with human milk intake [7,10]. Results of subsequent
A probabilistic sampling method (PSM) for estimating geographic distance to health services when only the region of residence is known
Kirsten MM Beyer, Audrey F Saftlas, Anne B Wallis, Corinne Peek-Asa, Gerard Rushton
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-10-4
Abstract: This paper describes an algorithm, known as "the probabilistic sampling method" (PSM), which was used to create a distribution of estimated distances to a health facility for a person whose region of residence was known, but for which demographic details and centroids were known for smaller areas within the region. From this distribution, the median distance is the most likely distance to the facility. The algorithm, using Monte Carlo sampling methods, drew a probabilistic sample of all the smaller areas (Census blocks) within each participant's reported region (ZIP Code), weighting these areas by the number of residents in the same age group as the participant. To test the PSM, we used data from a large cross-sectional study that screened women at a clinic for intimate partner violence (IPV). We had data on each woman's age and ZIP Code, but no precise residential address. We used the PSM to select a sample of census blocks, then calculated network distances from each census block's centroid to the closest IPV facility, resulting in a distribution of distances from these locations to the geocoded locations of known IPV services. We selected the median distance as the most likely distance traveled and computed confidence intervals that describe the shortest and longest distance within which any given percent of the distance estimates lie. We compared our results to those obtained using two other geocoding approaches. We show that one method overestimated the most likely distance and the other underestimated it. Neither of the alternative methods produced confidence intervals for the distance estimates. The algorithm was implemented in R code.The PSM has a number of benefits over traditional geocoding approaches. This methodology improves the precision of estimates of geographic access to services when complete residential address information is unavailable and, by computing the expected distribution of possible distances for any respondent and associated distance co
Genome-wide association study identifies a maternal copy-number deletion in PSG11 enriched among preeclampsia patients
Linlu Zhao, Elizabeth W Triche, Kyle M Walsh, Michael B Bracken, Audrey F Saftlas, Josephine Hoh, Andrew T Dewan
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-61
Abstract: A genome-wide scan was performed on 177 PE cases (diagnosed according to National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute guidelines) and 116 normotensive controls. White female study subjects from Iowa were genotyped on Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays. CNV calls made using a combination of four detection algorithms (Birdseye, Canary, PennCNV, and QuantiSNP) were merged using CNVision and screened with stringent prioritization criteria. Due to limited DNA quantities and the deleterious nature of copy-number deletions, it was decided a priori that only deletions would be selected for assay on the entire case-control dataset using quantitative real-time PCR.The top four SNP candidates had an allelic or genotypic p-value between 10-5 and 10-6, however, none surpassed the Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold. Three recurrent rare deletions meeting prioritization criteria detected in multiple cases were selected for targeted genotyping. A locus of particular interest was found showing an enrichment of case deletions in 19q13.31 (5/169 cases and 1/114 controls), which encompasses the PSG11 gene contiguous to a highly plastic genomic region. All algorithm calls for these regions were assay confirmed.CNVs may confer risk for PE and represent interesting regions that warrant further investigation. Top SNP candidates identified from the GWAS, although not genome-wide significant, may be useful to inform future studies in PE genetics.Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific complication which affects 2-7% of pregnancies [1]. Recognized as a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide, PE is characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria with or without other multi-system disorders. Family-based studies in several geographically and ethnically diverse populations have demonstrated the familial nature of PE [2-5]. Despite the evidence for a genetic basis of PE, its exact etiology remains undefined.Numerous candidate genes have been implicated in
Back-propagation of physiological action potential output in dendrites of slender-tufted L5A pyramidal neurons
Benjamin F. Grewe,Audrey Bonnan,Andreas Frick
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2010.00013
Abstract: Pyramidal neurons of layer 5A are a major neocortical output type and clearly distinguished from layer 5B pyramidal neurons with respect to morphology, in vivo firing patterns, and connectivity; yet knowledge of their dendritic properties is scant. We used a combination of whole-cell recordings and Ca2+ imaging techniques in vitro to explore the specific dendritic signaling role of physiological action potential patterns recorded in vivo in layer 5A pyramidal neurons of the whisker-related ‘barrel cortex’. Our data provide evidence that the temporal structure of physiological action potential patterns is crucial for an effective invasion of the main apical dendrites up to the major branch point. Both the critical frequency enabling action potential trains to invade efficiently and the dendritic calcium profile changed during postnatal development. In contrast to the main apical dendrite, the more passive properties of the short basal and apical tuft dendrites prevented an efficient back-propagation. Various Ca2+ channel types contributed to the enhanced calcium signals during high-frequency firing activity, whereas A-type K+ and BKCa channels strongly suppressed it. Our data support models in which the interaction of synaptic input with action potential output is a function of the timing, rate and pattern of action potentials, and dendritic location.
Quantitating the subtleties of microglial morphology with fractal analysis
Audrey Karperien,Helmut Ahammer,Herbert F. Jelinek
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2013.00003
Abstract: It is well established that microglial form and function are inextricably linked. In recent years, the traditional view that microglial form ranges between “ramified resting” and “activated amoeboid” has been emphasized through advancing imaging techniques that point to microglial form being highly dynamic even within the currently accepted morphological categories. Moreover, microglia adopt meaningful intermediate forms between categories, with considerable crossover in function and varying morphologies as they cycle, migrate, wave, phagocytose, and extend and retract fine and gross processes. From a quantitative perspective, it is problematic to measure such variability using traditional methods, but one way of quantitating such detail is through fractal analysis. The techniques of fractal analysis have been used for quantitating microglial morphology, to categorize gross differences but also to differentiate subtle differences (e.g., amongst ramified cells). Multifractal analysis in particular is one technique of fractal analysis that may be useful for identifying intermediate forms. Here we review current trends and methods of fractal analysis, focusing on box counting analysis, including lacunarity and multifractal analysis, as applied to microglial morphology.
Epistasis among Drosophila persimilis Factors Conferring Hybrid Male Sterility with D. pseudoobscura bogotana
Audrey S. Chang,Sarah M. Bennett,Mohamed A. F. Noor
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015377
Abstract: The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model posits that hybrid incompatibilities result from genetic changes that accumulate during population divergence. Indeed, much effort in recent years has been devoted to identifying genes associated with hybrid incompatibilities, often with limited success, suggesting that hybrid sterility and inviability are frequently caused by complex interactions between multiple loci and not by single or a small number of gene pairs. Our previous study showed that the nature of epistasis between sterility-conferring QTL in the Drosophila persimilis-D. pseudoobscura bogotana species pair is highly specific. Here, we further dissect one of the three QTL underlying hybrid male sterility between these species and provide evidence for multiple factors within this QTL. This result indicates that the number of loci thought to contribute to hybrid dysfunction may have been underestimated, and we discuss how linkage and complex epistasis may be characteristic of the genetics of hybrid incompatibilities. We further pinpoint the location of one locus that confers hybrid male sterility when homozygous, dubbed “mule-like”, to roughly 250 kilobases.
O momento de brincar no ato de contar histórias: uma modalidade diagnóstica
Conti, Fábio Donini;Souza, Audrey Setton Lopes de;
Psicologia: Ciência e Profiss?o , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-98932010000100008
Abstract: the objective of this article consisted in conceiving playing - here understood as the way to relate with fantasy’s atmosphere - as a diagnostic resourse when projective instruments are used to narrate histories. moreover, playing goes beyond the sphere of childhood and reaches the sphere of adulthood, regarded as a mental phenomenon inherent to human beings. taking into account this assumption and trying to show how playing may be indicative of the intrapsychic functioning, throughout the study some clippings of stories reported in projective techniques were presented, such as the tat, the drawing-stories procedure and the test of the fables. this way, the discourses that indicate the presence of the symbolic and the absence of the work-representation (concretism) compose the two axis that make possible to understand the relation between self and fantasy and to listen to the unconscious when it reveals itself through playing.
Seeking a Balance: Helping Pre-Service Teachers Develop Positive Attitudes towards Mathematics as They Develop Competency  [PDF]
Chris Hurst, Audrey Cooke
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24022
Abstract: Mathematical competence of teachers continues to be an issue of great interest to mathematics educators within tertiary institutions and it is often thought of simultaneously with the notion of mathematics anxiety. While there has been considerable recent research into the latter, no clear conclusions have been able to be drawn about many aspects of the phenomenon and how it is linked to mathematical competence. Most recently, international studies have highlighted notable differences in the standards of teacher preparation in different countries and in Australia new standards for accreditation of teacher education programs have been drafted. This paper reports on a part of on-going research into mathematics anxiety and competence of pre-service teachers. It uses two small samples of pre-service teachers from different cohorts of a Bachelor of Education course and attempts to identify factors that may help develop positive attitudes towards mathematics as they seek to develop their competency in mathematics. In addition, as a response to greater reported levels of anxiety regarding cognitive and knowledge traits, the paper identifies targeted professional learning and social constructivist teaching as key factors as well as the need to identify personal knowledge of mathematics as a prelude to seeking to become more competent.
Vis-à-vis : Antonio Tabucchi et Fernando Pessoa. étude de la médiation culturelle dans les fictions biographiques d’Antonio Tabucchi
Audrey Lemieux
Temps Zéro : Revue d'étude des écritures Contemporaines , 2010,
Abstract: Dossier/Issue: 4 - Mises en oeuvre de la relation biographique. Frontières et médiations - How does one author undertake writing about another–not only in terms of recounting the story of a life, but also the singularity, the inner truth of a human being? This paper will explore the different strategies by means of which the author/biographer Antonio Tabucchi manages to portray the character of Fernando Pessoa in his biographical fictions, in spite of the distance between them–a distance that initially appears to be rooted in cultural issues, but later reveals itself to be of an essentially ontological order. - Comment un écrivain écrit-il à propos d’un autre écrivain – non seulement l’histoire d’une vie, mais la singularité, la vérité particulière d’un homme ? Cet article examine les différentes stratégies par lesquelles l’écrivain-biographe Antonio Tabucchi, dans ses fictions biographiques, parvient à mettre en scène le personnage de Fernando Pessoa, malgré la distance qui les sépare – distance qui semble reposer, à première vue, sur des enjeux culturels, mais qui se révèle être essentiellement ontologique.
The John Richard Allison Library, Regent College
Audrey Williams
Theological Librarianship , 2012,
Abstract:
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