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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 116 matches for " Aubrey Sheiham "
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The distribution of burden of dental caries in schoolchildren: a critique of the high-risk caries prevention strategy for populations
Paul A Batchelor, Aubrey Sheiham
BMC Oral Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-6-3
Abstract: Data are from the National Preventive Dentistry Demonstration Programme (NPDDP) in the United States. The analyses identified the distribution of new carious lesions over a 4-year period in four groups of 7 year-old children who received differing preventive regimes.The majority of new lesions occurred in those children classified at lowest caries risk at baseline. Irrespective of the preventive regime adopted and the initial caries levels, children classified as 'highest risk' contributed less than 6% of the total number of new lesions developing over 4 years.These findings challenge the basis for the adoption of a high-risk strategy.A commonly adopted approach for the prevention of caries is the 'high-risk' strategy. For example, Messer [1] concluded that "... the need for, targeted prevention of dental caries for those at high risk has become apparent". The approach is based on three assumptions: first, those individuals with high future caries increments can be identified; second, measures taken to prevent the caries lesions are effective, and third, that those individuals belonging to sub-groups within a population who have previously experienced the highest levels of caries in the past will continue to do so in future. Indeed, any high-risk strategy aims to target those individuals at the greatest risk of future disease based on their current caries status or markers of disease.From a public health perspective, what is important when deciding upon a preventive approach is what impact the measure adopted would have on the total dental health and disease burdens of the population as a whole. Even if an approach was highly accurate in predicting future caries development and the intervention was relatively successful in reducing caries in that group, the distributive features of new disease may make the proposed approach inappropriate. Even if a high-risk group had a far higher annual increment than the remaining sub-groups of the population, due to the underlyin
Grouping of tooth surfaces by susceptibility to caries: a study in 5–16 year-old children
Paul A Batchelor, Aubrey Sheiham
BMC Oral Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-4-2
Abstract: Probit analysis of caries data collected from a 4-year longitudinal study of 20,000 schoolchildren aged between 5 and 16 years in 10 differing locations in the United States.The development of dental caries within the mouth followed a fixed hierarchy indicating that tooth surfaces show variation in caries susceptibility. Certain teeth and tooth sites have similar susceptibilities and can be grouped, the sizes of the groups vary. The most susceptible group consists of six tooth surfaces: the buccal pits and occlusal fissured surfaces of the first molar teeth. The second group consisted of 12 sites on the second molar and premolar teeth. The group formed by the least susceptible sites included the largest number of tooth surfaces and consists of the majority of the lower anterior teeth and canines.Variation in the caries susceptibility of tooth surfaces exists. Surfaces can be grouped according to caries susceptibility. An effect that reduces the cariogenic challenge of one of the sites within a group is likely to affect all the other sites within the particular group.The decline in caries that has occurred in industrialized countries over the past 30 years has been accompanied by major changes in the pattern of caries within the mouth. While the absolute levels of disease have declined, a relatively higher proportion of pit and fissured surfaces and lower proportion of approximal and smooth surfaces are involved. An additional feature in the pattern of dental caries is the existence of a surface hierarchy in susceptibility to caries [1-4]. These authors have reported that the most susceptible surfaces are pit and fissured followed by approximal surfaces on posterior teeth, and the least susceptible, approximal surfaces on anterior teeth.There is also a reported degree of symmetry both between the upper and lower jaws in the posterior sextants [5] and left and right side of the risk of caries. The concept is so well accepted that some survey systems for recording dent
The prevalence and severity of oral impacts on daily performances in Thai primary school children
Sudaduang Gherunpong, Georgios Tsakos, Aubrey Sheiham
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-2-57
Abstract: Cross-sectional study of all 1126 children aged 11–12 years in a municipal area of Suphanburi province, Thailand. An OHRQoL measure, Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (Child-OIDP) was used to assess oral impacts. Children were also clinically examined and completed a self-administered questionnaire about demographic information and oral behaviours.89.8% of children had one or more oral impacts. The median impact score was 7.6 and mean score was 8.8. Nearly half (47.0%) of the children with impacts had impacts at very little or little levels of intensity. Most (84.8%) of those with impacts had 1–4 daily performances affected (out of 8 performances). Eating was the most common performance affected (72.9%). The severity of impacts was high for eating and smiling and low for study and social contact performances. The main clinical causes of impacts were sensitive tooth (27.9%), oral ulcers (25.8%), toothache (25.1%) and an exfoliating primary tooth (23.4%).The study reveals that oral health impacts on quality of life in Thai primary school children. Oral impacts were prevalent, but not severe. The impacts mainly related to difficulty eating and smiling. Toothache, oral ulcers and natural processes contributed largely to the incidence of oral impacts.Contemporary concepts of health suggest that dental health should be defined in physical, psychological and social well-being terms in relation to dental status [1,2]. That is why Cohen and Jago considered that the greatest contribution of dentistry is to the improvement of quality of life because most oral diseases and their consequences interfere with, or have impacts on, daily life performances [3]. Therefore, disruptions in normal physical, psychological and social functioning are important considerations in assessing oral health. Despite these suggestions, traditional methods of measuring oral health use mainly clinical dental indices and focus on the absence or presence of oral diseases. They do not inform
Validation of a Persian version of the OIDP index
Mojtaba Dorri, Aubrey Sheiham, Georgios Tsakos
BMC Oral Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-7-2
Abstract: The Persian version of OIDP index was developed through a linguistic translation exercise. The psychometric properties of the Persian version of OIDP were evaluated in terms of face, content, construct and criterion validity in addition to internal and test-retest reliability. A convenience sample of 285 working adults aged 20–50 living in Mashad was recruited (91% response rate) to evaluate the Persian version.The Persian version of OIDP had excellent validity and reliability charactersitics. Weighted Kappa was 0.91. Cronbachs alpha coefficient was 0.79. The index showed significant associations with self-rated oral and general health status, as well as perceived dental treatment needs, satisfaction with mouth and prevalence of pain in mouth (P < 0.001). 64.9% of subjects had an oral impact on their daily performances. The most prevalent performance affected was eating, followed by major work or role and sleeping.The Persian version of OIDP index is a valid and reliable measure for use in 20 to 50 year old working Iranians.Measuring the impact of oral conditions on quality of life is an important part of assessing oral health. It is now recognised that there are serious limitations in solely using the clinical normative assessments for the measurement of oral health status and needs. Clinical measures do not consider the individual's perceived health status or perceived needs [1]. Health is no longer defined in terms of illness and disease, but concepts have been broadened to take into account physical, psychological and social aspects of well-being [2]. Hence, measures of health status, which more accurately reflect its multi-dimensional character, have been advocated [3]. These measures, which assess "the extent to which oral conditions disrupt normal social role functioning and lead to major changes in behaviour", are known as socio-dental indicators or oral health-related quality of life measures (OHRQoL) [4-7].A variety of oral health-related quality of life i
A sociodental approach to assessing children's oral health needs: integrating an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measure into oral health service planning
Gherunpong,Sudaduang; Sheiham,Aubrey; Tsakos,Georgios;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862006000100012
Abstract: objective: we adopted a sociodental approach to assess the real dental needs of thai primary school children, and integrated an oral health-related quality of life measure (ohrqol) into oral health service planning. we then compared the results of this sociodental assessment with standard estimates of a child's oral health needs. methods: we developed a new model of sociodental needs assessment and used it to assess the level of impact that various oral health conditions have on the everyday lives of school children. we then carried out a cross-sectional study of all grade-6 children (11-12 years old) in suphan-buri province, thailand. we examined the sample (n = 1034) to assess the children's oral health and then we interviewed each child individually to assess what impact any dental conditions he or she may have on their quality of life. this assessment was done using an ohrqol indicator, the child oral impacts on daily performances index (child-oidp). we integrated the results obtained using this indicator with those estimates obtained using more traditional, standard clinical methods, in order to generate a clearer picture of exactly which non-progressive dental conditions really needed treatment. these results take into account the impact those conditions have on the overall well-being of children and their ability to function normally and unimpeded. we were then able to prioritize their dental needs according to the severity of disruption caused in their daily lives. findings: using standard or "normative" estimates of dental health care needs, the children's need was 98.8%. this level of need decreased signifi cantly to 39.5% when adopting the sociodental approach (p <0.001). overall, per 100 children with a standard or normative need for dental treatment, only 40 had a sociodental need for treatment when taking into account the impact their condition has on their everyday lives. children thus identifi ed as requiring treatment were further categorized accord
A sociodental approach to assessing children's oral health needs: integrating an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measure into oral health service planning
Gherunpong Sudaduang,Sheiham Aubrey,Tsakos Georgios
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: We adopted a sociodental approach to assess the real dental needs of Thai primary school children, and integrated an oral health-related quality of life measure (OHRQoL) into oral health service planning. We then compared the results of this sociodental assessment with standard estimates of a child's oral health needs. METHODS: We developed a new model of sociodental needs assessment and used it to assess the level of impact that various oral health conditions have on the everyday lives of school children. We then carried out a cross-sectional study of all grade-6 children (11-12 years old) in Suphan-buri Province, Thailand. We examined the sample (n = 1034) to assess the children's oral health and then we interviewed each child individually to assess what impact any dental conditions he or she may have on their quality of life. This assessment was done using an OHRQoL indicator, the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances index (child-OIDP). We integrated the results obtained using this indicator with those estimates obtained using more traditional, standard clinical methods, in order to generate a clearer picture of exactly which non-progressive dental conditions really needed treatment. These results take into account the impact those conditions have on the overall well-being of children and their ability to function normally and unimpeded. We were then able to prioritize their dental needs according to the severity of disruption caused in their daily lives. FINDINGS: Using standard or "normative" estimates of dental health care needs, the children's need was 98.8%. This level of need decreased signifi cantly to 39.5% when adopting the sociodental approach (P <0.001). Overall, per 100 children with a standard or normative need for dental treatment, only 40 had a sociodental need for treatment when taking into account the impact their condition has on their everyday lives. Children thus identifi ed as requiring treatment were further categorized according to the severity of impact their condition had: 7.2% had severe, 10.3% moderate and 22.0% had minor impacts on OHRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: There was a marked difference between the standard normative and the sociodental needs assessment approach, with the latter approach showing a 60% lower assessment of dental health care needs in Thai 11-12-year-old children. Different levels of "impacts" on daily life can be used to prioritize children with needs.
Validation of an English version of the Child-OIDP index, an oral health-related quality of life measure for children
Huda Yusuf, Sudaduang Gherunpong, Aubrey Sheiham, Georgios Tsakos
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-4-38
Abstract: Children aged 10–11 years in the final year of primary school (year 6) were selected from seven schools where annual screenings are carried out. A total of 228 children participated (99% response rate). A clinical examination was conducted followed by a questionnaire designed to measure oral health-related quality of life in children, namely the Child-OIDP. The psychometric properties of the Child-OIDP were evaluated in terms of face, content and concurrent validity in addition to internal and test-retest reliability.The Child-OIDP revealed excellent validity and good reliability. Weighted Kappa was 0.82. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.58. The index showed significant associations with perceived oral treatment needs and perceived satisfaction with mouth and oral health status (p < 0.001).This study has demonstrated that the Child-OIDP is a valid and reliable index to be used among 10–11 year old schoolchildren in the UK.The concept of need is central to planning, provision and evaluation of health care services. Traditionally, need has been estimated by using professionally based measures, known as normative need. Although normative need is important, it mainly reflects the clinical aspects of illness. However, subjective measures of health are important too, because they provide insights into how people feel and how satisfied they are with their quality of life [1]. Health-related quality of life instruments should therefore be used in conjunction with clinical measures.A child's oral health can impact on eating, smiling, speaking and socialising. Oral conditions, such as dental caries may result in pain, which in turn may lead to consequences on a child's daily life such as taking time off from school or difficulty eating. Facial appearance and its relation to body image, self-esteem and emotional well-being also play important roles in social interaction. Measuring oral impacts in children is particularly relevant, as it will aid researchers and policymakers
Comparison of the discriminative ability of a generic and a condition-specific OHRQoL measure in adolescents with and without normative need for orthodontic treatment
Eduardo Bernabé, Cesar M de Oliveira, Aubrey Sheiham
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-6-64
Abstract: 200 16–17-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from 957 schoolchildren attending a Sixth Form College in London, United Kingdom. The impact of their oral conditions on quality of life during the last 6 months was assessed using two OHRQoL measures; OHIP-14 and OIDP. Adolescents were also examined for normative orthodontic treatment need using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Discriminative ability was assessed comparing the overall scores and prevalence of oral impacts, calculated using each OHRQoL measure, between adolescents with and without normative need. Using the prevalence of oral impacts allowed adjusting for covariates.There were significant differences in overall scores for CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion between adolescents with and without normative need for orthodontic treatment when IOTN or DAI were used to define need (p = 0.029 or 0.011 respectively), and in overall scores for OHIP-14 when DAI, but not IOTN was used to define need (p = 0.029 and 0.080 respectively). For the prevalence of impacts, only the prevalence of CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion differed significantly between adolescents with and without normative need, even after adjusting for covariates (p = 0.017 and 0.049 using IOTN and DAI to define need).CS-OIDP attributed to malocclusion was better able than OHIP-14 to discriminate between adolescents with and without normative needs for orthodontic treatment.Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) can be assessed using either generic or specific measures [1,2]. Generic OHRQoL measures take into account numerous oral conditions, some occurring simultaneously, and thus collect information about wider effects of oral health on daily living. The main advantage of generic measures is that they allow comparison of various domains of quality of life for the condition being studied, as well as across populations and disease states [3-6]. One of the most commonly used generic O
Prevalence, intensity and extent of Oral Impacts on Daily Performances associated with self-perceived malocclusion in 11-12-year-old children
Eduardo Bernabé, Carlos Flores-Mir, Aubrey Sheiham
BMC Oral Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-7-6
Abstract: Eight hundred and five children aged 11 to 12 years attending 4 of 7 randomly selected schools linked to a Health Centre in Lima, Peru, participated in the study. The Spanish (Peru)Child-OIDP was used to assess the prevalence, intensity and extent of oral impacts on 8 daily performances (eating, speaking, teeth cleaning, sleeping, smiling, studying, emotion and social contact). Self-perceived malocclusion included complaints about position of teeth, spacing of teeth and deformity of mouth or face. The prevalence of oral impacts was compared by covariables using the Chi-square test, whereas the intensity and extent of oral impacts were compared by covariables through the Mann-Whitney test.Only 15.5% of children reported impacts associated with self-perceived malocclusion during the last 3 months. Of them, 18.4% reported impacts of severe or very severe intensity and 76.0% reported impacts on only one daily performance. Psychosocial activities such as smiling, emotion and social contact were the most frequently and severely impacted everyday activities.Impacts of self-perceived malocclusion primarily affected psychological and social everyday activities. These findings provide further evidence to support the importance of psychological and social components of oral health on children's lives.A better knowledge about the physical, social and psychological effects of malocclusion is important since it provides insights into the perceived impacts of malocclusion on children's lives [1,2]. To date, there is conflicting evidence on the impact of malocclusion on quality of life. A recent review concluded that a greater understanding is required of the physical, psychological and social consequences of malocclusion [3]. Therefore, there is a need for a more comprehensive and rigorous assessments of the impacts of malocclusion on quality of life. These assessments should be done on representative population-based epidemiological samples, rather than using patient-based studie
Hábitos de higiene bucal e fatores sociodemográficos em adolescentes
Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias;Sheiham, Aubrey;Bino, Yedda Avelino;
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-790X2007000400018
Abstract: objective: to investigate the oral hygiene habits of brazilian adolescents and their relation with gender and socioeconomic status. methods: secondary data analyzed were from a cross-sectional study using self-completion questionnaires among 664 15-year-old schoolchildren randomly selected from public and private schools and their mothers, in goiania-go, brazil. results: 51.8% of the sample comprised girls and 48.2% boys; 48.9% were from a high social class and 51.1% from a low social class. all adolescents said they cleaned their teeth. the main reasons were related to health (73.5%) and cleanliness (40.2%). reasons varied by gender (p<0.001) and socioeconomic status (p<0.05). most adolescents said they brushed their teeth three times or more a day (77.7%). the most common oral hygiene aids were toothbrush (97.6%), toothpaste (90.5%) and dental floss (69.1%). females brushed their teeth with higher frequency than males (p=0.001). main brushing times were after lunch (80.3%), before breakfast (73.5%) and before going to sleep (62.5%). most adolescents (82.7%) said they did not need to be reminded to brush. significantly, more males than females said they needed to be reminded (p=0.017). mothers were the main person to remind them to brush (66.1%) and the person who gave them their first instructions on the importance of teeth cleaning (81.3%). conclusions: brazilian adolescents reported appropriate hygiene habits. habits were influenced by gender and socioeconomic status.
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