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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2652 matches for " Atsushi Baba "
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Evaluation of peripapillary choroidal thickness in patients with normal-tension glaucoma
Hirooka Kazuyuki,Tenkumo Kaori,Fujiwara Atsushi,Baba Tetsuya
BMC Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-12-29
Abstract: Background To compare peripapillary choroidal thickness measurements between normal and normal-tension glaucoma eyes. Methods Cross-sectional comparative study. 50 normal and 52 normal-tension glaucoma subjects were enrolled in the study. Peripapillary choroidal thickness was measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and enhanced depth imaging. After obtaining circular B-scans around the disc, choroidal thicknesses were calculated based on the exported segmentation values. Visual fields were measured using automated perimetry. Difference in peripapillary choroidal thickness between the normal subjects and the patients with normal-tension glaucoma was analyzed. Results There were no significant differences in age, axial length, or refraction between the two groups. Peripapillary choroidal thickness was inversely correlated with age in both the normal (r = 0.287, P = 0.04) and normal and normal-tension glaucoma (r = 0.322, P = 0.02) groups. Peripapillary choroidal thickness of inferonasal (125 vs 148 μm, P < 0.05), inferior (101 vs 122 μm, P < 0.05), or inferotemporal (100 vs 127 μm, P < 0.05) regions were significantly thinner in the normal-tension glaucoma group as compared to normal subjects. Superior visual hemifield defect was significantly worse than inferior visual hemifield defect in normal and normal-tension glaucoma patients. Conclusion As compared to normal subjects, peripapillary choroidal thickness was significantly thinner in the normal and normal-tension glaucoma patients, at least in some locations.
The MX/M/1 Queue with Multiple Working Vacation  [PDF]
Yutaka Baba
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.22025
Abstract: We study a batch arrival MX/M/1 queue with multiple working vacation. The server serves customers at a lower rate rather than completely stopping service during the service period. Using a quasi upper triangular transition probability matrix of two-dimensional Markov chain and matrix analytic method, the probability generating function (PGF) of the stationary system length distribution is obtained, from which we obtain the stochastic decomposition structure of system length which indicates the relationship with that of the MX/M/1 queue without vacation. Some performance indices are derived by using the PGF of the stationary system length distribution. It is important that we obtain the Laplace Stieltjes transform (LST) of the stationary waiting time distribution. Further, we obtain the mean system length and the mean waiting time. Finally, numerical results for some special cases are presented to show the effects of system parameters.
Enhanced Development of Azoxymethane-Induced Colonic Preneoplastic Lesions in Hypertensive Rats
Takahiro Kochi,Masahito Shimizu,Tomohiko Ohno,Atsushi Baba,Takafumi Sumi,Masaya Kubota,Yohei Shirakami,Hisashi Tsurumi,Takuji Tanaka,Hisataka Moriwaki
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms140714700
Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. This study investigated the impact of hypertension, a component of metabolic syndrome, on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis using SHRSP/Izm (SHRSP) non-diabetic/hypertensive rats and SHRSP.Z- Leprfa/IzmDmcr (SHRSP-ZF) diabetic/hypertensive rats. Male 6-week-old SHRSP, SHRSP-ZF, and control non-diabetic/normotensive Wister Kyoto/Izm (WKY) rats were given 2 weekly intraperitoneal injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight). Two weeks after the last injection of AOM, the SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats became hypertensive compared to the control WKY rats. Serum levels of angiotensin-II, the active product of the renin-angiotensin system, were elevated in both SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats, but only the SHRSP-ZF rats developed insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hyperleptinemia and exhibited an increase in adipose tissue. The development of AOM-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions and aberrant crypts foci, was significantly accelerated in both SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF hypertensive rats, compared to WKY normotensive rats. Furthermore, induction of oxidative stress and exacerbation of inflammation were observed in the colonic mucosa and systemically in SHRSP and SHRSP-ZF rats. Our findings suggest that hypertension plays a role in the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis by inducing oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, which might be associated with activation of the renin-angiotensin system.
Assessing gestational age of babies: Performance of obstetric ultrasound scan compared to that from the combination of Naegle’s rule and Dubowitz score in the 21st century  [PDF]
Baba Usman Ahmadu
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.58A2005
Abstract:

Background: Some researchers have suggested that when Naegle’s rule (NR) and Dubowitz score (DS) are combined, it could out-perform obstetric ultrasound scan (USS). Others still believe that obstetric USS alone is still effective relative to the combination of NR rule and DS in assessing the gestational age (GA) of babies. Objectives: To determine and compare the GA of babies using obstetric USS, NR and DS; and to provide relevant public health information on obstetric USS in the 21st century. Methods: Subjects were selected using systematic random sampling and the GA of babies was determined using obstetric USS, NR, and DS. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) statistical software version 16, Illinois, Chicago USA was used for all data analysis. Results: Eightyfive mother-baby pairs were studied. Forty-four babies (52%) were males and 41 (48%) females. Sixty four (75%) were term with a mean (SD) BW of 3.02 (0.59) at 95%CI (2.89 - 3.14) kg. The overall mean GA of the babies was 38.49 (2.89) at 95%CI (38.14 - 38.85) weeks. The mean GA using obstetric USS, NR and DS were 38.52 (1.98) at 95%CI (38.14 - 38.99), 38.09 (4.13) at 95%CI (37.20- 38.99) and 38.82 (2.02) at 95%CI (38.39 - 39.26), but comparison of these means was not significant (p = 0.256). Combined mean GA by NR and DS was 38.46 (3.26) at 95%CI (37.96 - 38.95). Comparing this mean with mean GA obtained by obstetric USS was also not significant (p = 0.885). Conclusion: The GA assessments by Obstetric USS, NR and DS were all reliable, and Obstetric USS performed effectively relative to combined NR and DS.

Looking at maternal inequalities (socioeconomic class, age and human immunodeficiency virus status) to predict well-being of neonates during infancy  [PDF]
Baba Usman Ahmadu
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58A4001
Abstract:

Background: Infant health inequalities responsible for high infant sicknesses and deaths in our setting could depend to a large extend on maternal inequalities like socioeconomic class (SEC), age and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Objective: To look at maternal inequalities (SEC, Age and HIV), to predict well-being of neonates during infancy. Methods: Subjects were selected using systematic random sampling. Maternal education, occupation, age and HIV status were obtained using a questionnaire; their SEC was derived using the Oyedeji’s model. Gestational age (GA) of the neonates was estimated from their mother’s last menstrual period, obstetric ultrasound scan reports or the Dubowitz criteria; and birthweight (BW) was determined using the basinet weighing scale, which has a sensitivity of 50 grams. Results: Ninety mother-neonatal pairs were enrolled, 47 (52.2%) neonates were males and 43 (47.8%) females. Most of the neonates were term 66 (73.3%) and of normal BW 75 (83.4%). A significant association existed between maternal variables and the likely hood of the subjects being less healthy during infancy (χ2 = 126.528, p < 0.005). Maternal age had a negative correlation coefficient with GA (r = -0.200) and BW (r = -0.115) and comparison of MA, GA and BW was significant (F = 2662.92, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The combine effects of maternal SEC, Age and HIV have predicted less healthy neonates during infancy. Neonates in the present work are more prone to sicknesses and ill-health during infancy.

Diversity Management for Improving Performance in Mobile Telephone Network (MTN) Ghana Limited  [PDF]
Alhaji Yussif Baba Suleman
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.710083
Abstract: The study examined the impact of diversity management on the general performance of organizations in the telecommunication industry in Ghana, through a case study on Mobile Telephone Network (MTN) Ghana limited. The target population was made up of top and middle management teams of MTN Ghana ltd, and the purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of ten (10) respondents for the study. Questionnaires were the instruments used for data collection and the data collected were analysed using tables. The key findings were that, diversity management has a positive influence on the performance of MTN Ghana ltd; and though diversity management is present in the company, management of it is improperly undertaken. It is therefore recommended that, top management team should give their support to diversity management and establish a complete strategy for diversity management in the company. Education and training programs may be organized for employees to learn about diversity and how to handle its complex issues in order to enhance performance in the organization.
Economic Growth with Asset Bubbles in a Small Open Economy  [PDF]
Atsushi Motohashi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65097
Abstract: This paper analyzes the characteristics of asset bubbles in a small open economy. First, we show that financial globalization relaxes the existence conditions for asset bubbles. This result implies that more countries may experience asset bubbles in a global economy. Second, we show that the effect of asset bubbles in a global economy is larger than in a closed economy. In particular, countries with high financial friction experience a high economic growth rate before a foreign bubble bursts and they are subjected to more negative influence after that. This conclusion implies that financial globalization may cause large economic movements before and after a bubble bursts.
Pitavastatin suppresses diethylnitrosamine-induced liver preneoplasms in male C57BL/KsJ-db/db obese mice
Masahito Shimizu, Yoichi Yasuda, Hiroyasu Sakai, Masaya Kubota, Daishi Terakura, Atsushi Baba, Tomohiko Ohno, Takahiro Kochi, Hisashi Tsurumi, Takuji Tanaka, Hisataka Moriwaki
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-281
Abstract: Male db/db mice were administered tap water containing 40 ppm DEN for 2 weeks and were subsequently fed a diet containing 1 ppm or 10 ppm pitavastatin for 14 weeks.At sacrifice, feeding with 10 ppm pitavastatin significantly inhibited the development of hepatic premalignant lesions, foci of cellular alteration, as compared to that in the untreated group by inducing apoptosis, but inhibiting cell proliferation. Pitavastatin improved liver steatosis and activated the AMPK-α protein in the liver. It also decreased free fatty acid and aminotransferases levels, while increasing adiponectin levels in the serum. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the expression of TNF-α and interleukin-6 mRNAs in the liver were decreased by pitavastatin treatment, suggesting attenuation of the chronic inflammation induced by excess fat deposition.Pitavastatin is effective in inhibiting the early phase of obesity-related liver tumorigenesis and, therefore, may be useful in the chemoprevention of liver cancer in obese individuals.Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious healthcare problem worldwide because of its increasing morbidity and high mortality. Chronic inflammation of the liver and subsequent cirrhosis, which are highly correlated with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses infection and alcoholic liver disease, are the strongest risk factors for HCC development. Recent evidence also indicates that obesity and related metabolic abnormalities, especially diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance, raise the risk of HCC [1-4]. In obese individuals, high levels of free fatty acid (FFA) flux into the liver from excess adipose tissue. This in turn promotes hepatic steatosis and inflammation through the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, and is closely associated with liver carcinogenesis [5-7]. Aberrant lipogenesis in the liver, which is closely linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome, is also a domina
Overexpression of LIM and SH3 Protein 1 Leading to Accelerated G2/M Phase Transition Contributes to Enhanced Tumourigenesis in Oral Cancer
Fumie Shimizu, Masashi Shiiba, Katsunori Ogawara, Ryota Kimura, Yasuyuki Minakawa, Takao Baba, Satoshi Yokota, Dai Nakashima, Morihiro Higo, Atsushi Kasamatsu, Yosuke Sakamoto, Hideki Tanzawa, Katsuhiro Uzawa
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083187
Abstract: Background LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1) is a specific focal adhesion protein involved in several malignant tumors. However, its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the role and molecular status/mechanism of LASP-1 in OSCC. Methods We evaluated LASP-1 mRNA and protein expressions in OSCC-derived cell lines and primary OSCCs. Using an shRNA system, we analyzed the effect of LASP-1 on the biology and function of the OSCC cell lines, HSC-3 and Ca9-22. The cells also were subcutaneously injected to evaluate tumor growth in vivo. Data were analyzed by the Fisher’s exact test or the Mann-Whitney U test. Bonferroni correction was used for multiple testing. Results Significant up-regulation of LASP-1 was detected in OSCC-derived cell lines (n = 7, P<0.007) and primary OSCCs (n = 50, P<0.001) compared to normal controls. LASP-1 knockdown cells significantly inhibited cellular proliferation compared with shMock-transfected cells (P<0.025) by arresting cell-cycle progression at the G2 phase. We observed dramatic reduction in the growth of shLASP-1 OSCC xenografts compared with shMock xenografts in vivo. Conclusion Our results suggested that overexpression of LASP-1 is linked closely to oral tumourigenicity and further provide novel evidence that LASP-1 plays an essential role in tumor cellular growth by mediating G2/M transition.
BMP-2 Induced Expression of Alx3 That Is a Positive Regulator of Osteoblast Differentiation
Takashi Matsumoto, Atsushi Yamada, Ryo Aizawa, Dai Suzuki, Masayuki Tsukasaki, Wataru Suzuki, Mutsuko Nakayama, Koutaro Maki, Matsuo Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi Baba, Ryutaro Kamijo
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068774
Abstract: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate many aspects of skeletal development, including osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, cartilage and bone formation, and cranial and limb development. Among them, BMP-2, one of the most potent osteogenic signaling molecules, stimulates osteoblast differentiation, while it inhibits myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. To evaluate genes involved in BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation, we performed cDNA microarray analyses to compare BMP-2-treated and -untreated C2C12 cells. We focused on Alx3 (aristaless-like homeobox 3) which was clearly induced during osteoblast differentiation. Alx3, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophila aristaless gene, has been linked to developmental functions in craniofacial structures and limb development. However, little is known about its direct relationship with bone formation. In the present study, we focused on the mechanisms of Alx3 gene expression and function during osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. In C2C12 cells, BMP-2 induced increase of Alx3 gene expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the BMP receptors-mediated SMAD signaling pathway. In addition, silencing of Alx3 by siRNA inhibited osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, as showed by the expressions of alkaline phosphatase (Alp), Osteocalcin, and Osterix, while over-expression of Alx3 enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. These results indicate that Alx3 expression is enhanced by BMP-2 via the BMP receptors mediated-Smad signaling and that Alx3 is a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2.
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