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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2388 matches for " Atsushi Araki "
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Phosphorylation of SET Protein at Ser171 by Protein Kinase D2 Diminishes Its Inhibitory Effect on Protein Phosphatase 2A
Atsushi Irie, Kumiko Harada, Norie Araki, Yasuharu Nishimura
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051242
Abstract: We previously reported that protein kinase D2 (PKD2) in T cells is promptly activated after T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and involved in the activation of interleukin-2 promoter and T cell death, and that one of its candidate substrate is SET protein, a natural inhibitor for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). In this study, we investigated the target amino acid residues of SET phosphorylated by PKD2 and the effects of phosphorylation of SET on PP2A phosphatase activity. In vitro kinase assay using various recombinant SET mutants having Ser/Thr to Ala substitutions revealed that Ser171 of SET is one of the sites phosphorylated by PKD2. Recombinant SET with phosphorylation-mimic Ser171 to Glu substitution reduced its inhibitory effects on PP2A phosphatase activity compared with Ser171 to Ala substituted or wild-type SET. In addition, knockdown of PKD2 in Jurkat cells by RNAi or treatment of human CD4+ T cell clone with the PKD2 inhibitor G?6976 resulted in reduced PP2A activity after TCR-stimulation judged from phosphorylation status of Tyr307 of the catalytic subunit of PP2A. These results suggest that PKD2 is involved in the regulation of PP2A activity in activated T cells through phosphorylation of Ser171 of SET.
Development of Nine Markers and Characterization of the Microsatellite Loci in the Endangered Gymnogobius isaza (Gobiidae)
Kiwako S. Araki,Takefumi Nakazawa,Atsushi Kawakita,Hiroshi Kudoh,Noboru Okuda
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13055700
Abstract: Gymnogobius isaza is a freshwater goby endemic to Lake Biwa, Japan. They experienced a drastic demographic bottleneck in the 1950s and 1980s and slightly recovered thereafter, but the population size is still very small. To reveal dynamics of genetic diversity of G. isaza, we developed nine microsatellite markers based on the sequence data of a related goby Chaenogobius annularis. Nine SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats) markers were successfully amplified for raw and formalin-fixed fish samples. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosities ranged from one to 10 and from 0.06 to 0.84, respectively, for the current samples, while one to 12 and 0.09 to 0.83 for historical samples. The markers described here will be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and gene flow and for conservation of G. isaza.
Fabrication of DNA-antibody–apatite composite layers for cell-targeted gene transfer
Yushin Yazaki, Ayako Oyane, Hiroko Araki, Yu Sogo, Atsuo Ito, Atsushi Yamazaki and Hideo Tsurushima
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials , 2012,
Abstract: Surface-mediated gene transfer systems using apatite (Ap)-based composite layers have received increased attention in tissue engineering applications owing to their safety, biocompatibility and relatively high efficiency. In this study, DNA-antibody–apatite composite layers (DA–Ap layers), in which DNA and antibody molecules are immobilized within a matrix of apatite nanocrystals, were fabricated using a biomimetic coating process. They were then assayed for their gene transfer capability for application in a specific cell-targeted gene transfer. A DA–Ap layer that was fabricated with an anti-CD49f antibody showed a higher gene transfer capability to the CD49f-positive CHO-K1 cells than a DNA–apatite composite layer (D–Ap layer). The antibody facilitated the gene transfer capability of the DA–Ap layer only to the specific cells that were expressing corresponding antigens. When the DA–Ap layer was fabricated with an anti-N-cadherin antibody, a higher gene transfer capability compared with the D–Ap layer was found in the N-cadherin-positive P19CL6 cells, but not in the N-cadherin-negative UV♀2 cells or in the P19CL6 cells that were pre-blocked with anti-N-cadherin. Therefore, the antigen–antibody binding that takes place at the cell–layer interface should be responsible for the higher gene transfer capability of the DA–Ap than D–Ap layer. These results suggest that the DA–Ap layer works as a mediator in a specific cell-targeted gene transfer system.
A C-Based Variable Length and Vector Pipeline Architecture Design Methodology and Its Application  [PDF]
Takashi Kambe, Nobuyuki Araki
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2012.31002
Abstract: The size and performance of a System LSI depend heavily on the architecture which is chosen. As a result, the architecture design phase is one of the most important steps in the System LSI development process and is critical to the commercial success of a device. In this paper, we propose a C-based variable length and vector pipeline (VVP) architecture design methodology and apply it to the design of the output probability computation circuit for a speech recognition system. VVP processing accelerated by loop optimization, memory access methods, and application-specific cir- cuit design was implemented to calculate the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) output probability at high speed and its performance is evaluated. It is shown that designers can explore a wide range of design choices and generate complex circuits in a short time by using a C-based pipeline architecture design method.
Responses of Root Hydraulic Properties and Transpirational Factors to a Top Soil Drying in Cajanus cajan and Sesbania sesban  [PDF]
Nobuhito Sekiya, Hideki Araki
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412A3005

Responses of leaf area (LA), stomatal conductance (gs), root length (RL) and root hydraulic conductance per unit of root length (Lpunit) to top soil dryness were investigated. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and sesbania (Sesbania sesban) were grown in a vertical split-root system. From sixty-six days after sowing, the top soil was dried while the bottom soil was kept wet. Pigeon pea increased LA while maintaining leaf water potential (ΨL) by reducing gs. Increased transpirational demand through canopy development was compensated for by increasing water extraction in the bottom soil. This was achieved by increasing not only RL but also Lpunit. Sesbania kept constant levels of gs, causing a transient reduction of ΨL. Ψ

The Promotion Rule under Imperfect Observability of the Employee’s Ability  [PDF]
Shota Araki, Daiji Kawaguchi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.48084
Abstract: This note provides the closed-form solution for the model by Lazear [1]. The employer adjusts the performance standard for promotion when the employer observes only the imperfect index of the employee’s ability. The adjustment margin is larger when the performance depends heavily on luck and depends lightly on the employee’s ability.
White Matter Microstructural Changes as Vulnerability Factors and Acquired Signs of Post-Earthquake Distress
Atsushi Sekiguchi, Motoaki Sugiura, Yasuyuki Taki, Yuka Kotozaki, Rui Nouchi, Hikaru Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi Araki, Sugiko Hanawa, Seishu Nakagawa, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Atsushi Sakuma, Ryuta Kawashima
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083967
Abstract: Many survivors of severe disasters need psychological support, even those not suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The critical issue in understanding the psychological response after experiencing severe disasters is to distinguish neurological microstructural underpinnings as vulnerability factors from signs of emotional distress acquired soon after the stressful life event. We collected diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) data from a group of healthy adolescents before the Great East Japan Earthquake and re-examined the DTIs and anxiety levels of 30 non-PTSD subjects from this group 3–4 months after the earthquake using voxel-based analyses in a longitudinal DTI study before and after the earthquake. We found that the state anxiety level after the earthquake was negatively associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right anterior cingulum (Cg) before the earthquake (r = ?0.61, voxel level p<0.0025, cluster level p<0.05 corrected), and positively associated with increased FA changes from before to after the earthquake in the left anterior Cg (r = 0.70, voxel level p<0.0025, cluster level p<0.05 corrected) and uncinate fasciculus (Uf) (r = 0.65, voxel level p<0.0025, cluster level p<0.05 corrected). The results demonstrated that lower FA in the right anterior Cg was a vulnerability factor and increased FA in the left anterior Cg and Uf was an acquired sign of state anxiety after the earthquake. We postulate that subjects with dysfunctions in processing fear and anxiety before the disaster were likely to have higher anxiety levels requiring frequent emotional regulation after the disaster. These findings provide new evidence of psychophysiological responses at the neural network level soon after a stressful life event and might contribute to the development of effective methods to prevent PTSD.
Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT, PIASy Regulates α-Smooth Muscle Actin Expression by Interacting with E12 in Mesangial Cells
Kazuo Torikoshi, Hideharu Abe, Takeshi Matsubara, Takahiro Hirano, Takayuki Ohshima, Taichi Murakami, Makoto Araki, Akira Mima, Noriyuki Iehara, Atsushi Fukatsu, Toru Kita, Hidenori Arai, Toshio Doi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041186
Abstract: Phenotypic transformation of mesangial cells (MCs) is implicated in the development of glomerular disease; however, the mechanisms underlying their altered genetic program is still unclear. α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is known to be a crucial marker for phenotypic transformation of MCs. Recently, E-boxes and the class I basic helix-loop-helix proteins, such as E12 have been shown to regulateα-SMA expression. Therefore, we tried to identify a novel E12 binding protein in MCs and to examine its role in glomerulonephritis. We found that PIASy, one of the protein inhibitors of activated STAT family protein, interacted with E12 by yeast two-hybrid screens and coimmunopreciptation assays. Overexpression of E12 significantly enhanced theα-SMA promoter activity, and the increase was blocked by co-transfection of PIASy, but not by a PIASy RING mutant. In vivo sumoylation assays revealed that PIASy was a SUMO E3 ligase for E12. Furthermore, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) treatment induced expression of both PIASy and E12, consistent with α-SMA expression. Moreover, reduced expression of PIASy protein by siRNA specific for PIASy resulted in increased TGF-β-mediated α-SMA expression. In vivo, PIASy and E12 were dramatically upregulated along with α-SMA and TGF-β in the proliferative phase of Thy1 glomerulonephritis. Furthermore, an association between PIASy and E12 proteins was observed at day 6 by IP-western blotting, but not at day 0. These results suggest that TGF-β up-regulates PIASy expression in MCs to down-regulateα-SMA gene transcription by the interaction with E12.
Activation of Src Mediates PDGF-Induced Smad1 Phosphorylation and Contributes to the Progression of Glomerulosclerosis in Glomerulonephritis
Akira Mima,Hideharu Abe,Kojiro Nagai,Hidenori Arai,Takeshi Matsubara,Makoto Araki,Kazuo Torikoshi,Tatsuya Tominaga,Noriyuki Iehara,Atsushi Fukatsu,Toru Kita,Toshio Doi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017929
Abstract: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) plays critical roles in mesangial cell (MC) proliferation in mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. We showed previously that Smad1 contributes to PDGF-dependent proliferation of MCs, but the mechanism by which Smad1 is activated by PDGF is not precisely known. Here we examined the role of c-Src tyrosine kinase in the proliferative change of MCs. Experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (Thy1 GN) was induced by a single intravenous injection of anti-rat Thy-1.1 monoclonal antibody. In Thy1 GN, MC proliferation and type IV collagen (Col4) expression peaked on day 6. Immunohistochemical staining for the expression of phospho-Src (pSrc), phospho-Smad1 (pSmad1), Col4, and smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) revealed that the activation of c-Src and Smad1 signals in glomeruli peaked on day 6, consistent with the peak of mesangial proliferation. When treated with PP2, a Src inhibitor, both mesangial proliferation and sclerosis were significantly reduced. PP2 administration also significantly reduced pSmad1, Col4, and SMA expression. PDGF induced Col4 synthesis in association with increased expression of pSrc and pSmad1 in cultured MCs. In addition, PP2 reduced Col4 synthesis along with decreased pSrc and pSmad1 protein expression in vitro. Moreover, the addition of siRNA against c-Src significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Smad1 and the overproduction of Col4. These results provide new evidence that the activation of Src/Smad1 signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of glomerulosclerosis in experimental glomerulonephritis.
Metabolic predictors of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular attack in elderly diabetic individuals: difference in risk by age
Toshio Hayashi, Atsushi Araki, Seinosuke Kawashima, Hirohito Sone, Hiroshi Watanabe, Takashi Ohrui, Koutaro Yokote, Minoru Takemoto, Kiyoshi Kubota, Mitsuhiko Noda, Hiroshi Noto, Koichiro Ina, Hideki Nomura
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-10
Abstract: We performed a prospective cohort study (Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study) with 5.5 years of follow-up. A total of 4,014 patients with type 2 diabetes and without previous IHD or CVA (1,936 women; age 67.4 +/- 9.5 years, median 70 years; >65 years old, n = 1,261; 65 to 74 years old, n = 1,731; and >= 75 years old, n = 1,016) were recruited on a consecutive outpatient basis from 40 hospitals throughout Japan. Lipids, glucose, and other factors related to IHD or CVA risk, such as blood pressure (BP), were investigated using the multivariate Cox hazard model.One hundred fifty-three cases of IHD and 104 CVAs (7.8 and 5.7/1,000 people per year, respectively) occurred over 5.5 years. Lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and female gender were correlated with IHD in patients >=75 years old (hazard ratio (HR):0.629, P < 0.01 and 1.132, P < 0.05, respectively). In contrast, systolic BP (SBP), HbA1C, LDL-C and non-HDL-C were correlated with IHD in subjects <65 years old (P < 0.05), and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio was correlated with IHD in all subjects. HDL-C was correlated with CVA in patients >=75 years old (HR: 0.536, P < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier estimator curves showed that IHD occurred more frequently in patients <65 years old in the highest quartile of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. In patients >=75 years old, IHD and CVA were both the most frequent among those with the lowest HDL-C levels.IHD and CVA in late elderly diabetic patients were predicted by HDL-C. LDL-C, HbA1C, SBP and non-HDL-C are risk factors for IHD in the non-elderly. The LDL-C/HDL-C ratio may represent the effects of both LDL-C and HDL-C. These age-dependent differences in risk are important for developing individualized strategies to prevent atherosclerotic disease.Trial registration: UMIN-CTR, UMIN00000516
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