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Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric varices: the relationship between the clinical outcome and gastrorenal shunt occlusion
Kenichi Katoh, Miyuki Sone, Atsuo Hirose, Yoshihiro Inoue, Yasuhisa Fujino, Makoto Onodera
BMC Medical Imaging , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2342-10-2
Abstract: B-RTO was performed in 47 patients with gastric varices, who were at a risk of variceal ruptures and who may or may not have had a history of variceal bleeding. We injected a sclerosing agent into the gastric varices for 30-60 minutes. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the technique, we obtained contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans 5 days after B-RTO. As a general rule, if the gastric varices did not appear thrombosed, we repeated the procedure 7 days after the first procedure.B-RTO was a technical success in 37 patients. It was performed once in 26 patients, twice in 6 patients, thrice in 2 patients, and 4 times in 3 patients. Contrast-enhanced CT scans obtained after B-RTO showed thrombosed gastrorenal shunts in 29 patients and patent gastrorenal shunts in 8 patients. The gastric varices recurred in 2 patients who had patent gastrorenal shunts. The overall cumulative relapse-free rate of gastric varices was 90% at 5 years after B-RTO.B-RTO is an effective treatment modality for gastric varices. Moreover, obliteration of the gastrorenal shunt as well as the gastric varices appears to be important for the treatment of gastric varices.The rupture of gastric varices is associated with a mortality rate of 25-55% because it leads to extensive blood loss as compared to the blood loss because of the rupture of esophageal varices [1-4]. Because of poor liver function and rapid blood flow in patients with gastric varices, the development of effective treatment for this condition is a challenge. Gastric varices can be treated by endoscopic injection therapy with cyanoacrylate, but there is a risk of migration of this compound into systemic circulation through the inferior vena cava via the gastrorenal shunt [5]. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO), a minimally invasive procedure that was introduced in the mid-1990s, has been widely accepted in Japan. In the standard technique, gastric varices are thrombosed using a sclerosing agent
Development of an early estimation method for predicting later osteogenic differentiation activity of rat mesenchymal stromal cells from their attachment areas
Kan Cheng, Motohiro Hirose, Xiupeng Wang, Yu Sogo, Atsushi Yamazaki and Atsuo Ito
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials , 2012,
Abstract: Cell morphology has received considerable attention in recent years owing to its possible relationship with cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Recent evidence suggests that extracellular environments can also mediate cell functions, particularly cell adhesion. The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation between osteogenic differentiation activity and the morphology of rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and to develop a method of estimating osteogenic differentiation capability of MSCs on biomaterials. We measured the attachment areas of MSCs on substrates with various types of surface after 2 h of seeding, and quantified the amount of osteocalcin secreted from MSCs after 3 weeks of culture under osteogenic differentiation conditions. MSCs with small attachment areas showed a high osteogenic differentiation activity. These findings indicate that cell attachment areas correlate well with the osteogenic differentiation activity of MSCs. They also suggest that the measurement of cell attachment areas is useful for estimating the osteogenic differentiation activity of MSCs and is a practical tool for applications of MSCs in regenerative medicine.
Durability and Economic Dynamics  [PDF]
Atsuo Utaka
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13025
Abstract: This paper investigates how product’s durability affects the dynamic properties of the economy, using a simple overlapping generations model with durable goods. One of the chief characteristics of the durable-goods market is that a sale condition at a certain period affects another period’s condition. It is shown that this interaction causes oscillatory equilibria that diverge from the stationary point. Hicks [1] argued that unstable oscillations in the economy lead to endogenous business cycles. This paper’s result provides one reason of how unstable oscillations occur from firm’s optimizing behavior.
Accident Prevention and Damage Reduction in an Extended Liability Scheme  [PDF]
Atsuo Tomori
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.52029
Abstract: This study explores how an extended liability scheme affects a judgment-proof firm’s precaution levels to prevent accidents and reduce damage when the regulator cannot observe the firm’s private transactions. For this purpose, we incorporate the firm’s precautions to reduce damage into the model proposed by Hiriart and Martimort [1], who only investigated accident prevention. Then, we examine the optimal regulation of a firm that takes measures to reduce not only the probability of a serious environmental accident but also the extent of the damage of such an accident and analyze how the levels of these two types of efforts are affected by introducing an extended liability scheme. We expand the results of Hiriart and Martimort [1] by showing that extending liability to the firm’s stakeholders may improve social welfare by enhancing accident prevention efforts and by weakening damage reduction efforts even when the regulator cannot observe the private transactions between the firm and its stakeholders.
Insensitivity to Unethical Behavior in Dictator Game When Indirectly Intermediated-Implications of Indirect Blindness for Safety Management  [PDF]
Atsuo Murata
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2016.65020
Abstract: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that indirect mediation in behaviors leads to insensitivity to unethical behavior through a dictator game and to give some implications for safety management. The indirect involvement in the unethical behavior such as the violation of regulation is believed to lessen the responsibility and the criticism from others for the unethical behavior as compared to the direct involvement in it. The instruction condition for the evaluator of behavior in a dictator game was taken up as an experimental variable. Instruction condition 1 was to pay attention to the behavior of only a dictator. In instruction condition 2, the participant (evaluator) was required to review all players’ behavior and evaluate a dictator. It has been investigated whether allowing indirect actions (mediations) leads to reduced punishment as a function of the instruction condition. While the punishment to the indirectness did not get smaller for instruction condition 2, the punishment to the indirectness tended to get smaller only for instruction condition 1.
Cultural Difference and Cognitive Biases as a Trigger of Critical Crashes or Disasters
—Evidence from Case Studies of Human Factors Analysis

Atsuo Murata
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.79029
Abstract: On the basis of the analysis of past case studies of crashes or disasters, it has been clarified how cultural difference and cognitive biases become a trigger of serious crashes or disasters. Heuristic-based biases such as confirmation bias, groupthink, and social loafing surely appeared in the process of crash or disaster breakout. Overconfidence-bases biases such as illusion of control, fallacy of plan, and optimistic bias are also ubiquitous in the route to a critical crash or disaster. Moreover, framing biases contribute to the distorted decision making, and eventually turn into the main cause of critical crash or disaster. In this way, as well as human factors or ergonomics approaches for designing man-machine systems, the prevention and the deletion of cognitive biases are indispensable for the preventing serious crashes or disasters from occurring. Until now, the distortion of decision making has not been discussed from the cultural differences of way of thinking. As well as a variety of cognitive biases, cultural difference in behavior is expected to be important for understanding the root causes of critical crash or disaster. We found that cultural difference distorted judgment through case studies of critical crashes or disasters. It was also demonstrated that considering cultural difference, as well as cognitive biases, is important to prevent irrational and biased decision making from occurring in safety management.
Unrecognized States in the Former USSR and Kosovo: A Focus on Standing Armies  [PDF]
Yoko Hirose
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.61007
Abstract: The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the USSR and Yugoslavia result in a proliferation of unrecognized and weak states, which continue to exist today. This article considers the relationship between unrecognized states and the major powers, Russia and the United States, by focusing on the foreign military bases or standing armies of the latter. In addition, unrecognized states, their parent countries, and similar states have received significant merits and profits from being unrecognized states, and this situation has also helped the survival of unrecognized states. It is possible that unrecognized states can be understood as part of the global strategies of the two great powers and that these states have been maintained through a complex negotiation process that is designed to maintain the superpowers’ global influence.
Rheological Behavior of Nanosilica Suspensions in Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Solutions with Sodium Chloride  [PDF]
Yuji Hirose
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2017.85022
Abstract: Suspensions of silica nanoparticles showed shear-thickening profiles under steady shear conditions up on addition of a small amount of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The suspensions turned into gels upon shaking and their fluidity was recovered several minutes after resting. We studied the rheological properties of these shake gels with small amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl). Gelation occurred at lower shear rates upon addition of small amounts of NaCl. In addition, the time taken by the gelated samples to recover their original viscosity increased with the increasing NaCl content. The weakened repulsive interactions between the silica particles upon NaCl addition lead to particles in closer proximity, and three-dimensional networks of PEO chains are easily formed as the electric double layer of the particles becomes thinner.
Game Russian Options for Double Exponential Jump Diffusion Processes  [PDF]
Atsuo Suzuki, Katsushige Sawaki
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2014.41005

In this paper, we deal with the valuation of Game Russian option with jumps, which is a contract that the seller and the buyer have both the rights to cancel and to exercise it at any time, respectively. This model can be formulated as a coupled optimal stopping problem. First, we discuss the pricing model with jumps when the stock pays dividends continuously. Secondly, we derive the value function of Game Russian options and investigate properties of optimal boundaries of the buyer. Finally, some numerical results are presented to demonstrate analytical properties of the value function.

Effect of Intention on Outcome Bias in Decision Making—Implications for Safety Management  [PDF]
Atsuo Murata, Tomoko Nakamura
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2015.513053
Abstract: The evidence of outcome bias was explored in a two-player (Player 1: allocator and Player 2: evaluator) economic game experiment where the reward allocation was made between two players. The experimental factors were the intention of an allocator (Player 1), the type of chosen dice (selfish, fair, and generous), and the outcome (selfish, fair, and generous). The outcome bias occurred when the type of dice chosen by the allocator (Player 1) was not only a selfish one but also a generous one. The comparison between the two conditions (intentional and no-intentional conditions) definitely showed that Player 2 punished Player 1 to a larger extent when the outcome was disadvantageous for Player 2 (selfish outcome) and Player 2 rewarded Player 1 when the outcome was advantageous (generous outcome) irrespective of whether the die was chosen out of the three types intentionally or not. Moreover, the outcome bias was not observed when the outcome was fair. Thus, we could verify the hypothesis that we are readily got trapped in the outcome bias. Some implications were given for safety management that put more emphasis on the process than on the outcome.
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