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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 469149 matches for " Atif A. Ahmed "
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Assessment of Extent and Severity of Pellet Induced Abdominal Injuries, a Rare Variant of Weapon Violence: A Prospective Study  [PDF]
Azher Mushtaq, Atif Naeem Raja, Hilal Ahmad Wani, Shaukat A. Jeelani, Nazia Hilal, Ishfaq Ahmed Gilkar
Surgical Science (SS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2016.710064
Abstract: Background: The use of a Pellet gun, a form of short gun used for mob control in many conflict zones, has posed a serious challenge to the surgeons in assessing the extent of trauma caused by these pellets. Objectives: To study the role of conventional available investigations for trauma like ultrasonography and computed tomography scans in assessing the severity of the injuries caused by the pellets. Methodology: 50 patients having pellet injuries predominantly in abdomen without other associated trauma were included in the study. The decision for surgery was taken on the basis of clinical and CECT (Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography) findings and these findings were then compared with intra-operative findings. Results: 30/50 patients were decided to be operated on the basis of Clinical and CECT findings. On exploration, it was observed that 18/33 patients really needed exploration while as 15/33 patients could have been managed conservatively. This was observed in next 20/50 patients who were put on conservative management with similar CECT findings. Of these 20 patients, 17 did well while as 3 were explored later in view of developing peritonitis and were found to have small bowel perforations. Conclusion: Conventional investigations for trauma like FAST and CECT abdomen are not ideal for assessing the severity of pellet induced abdominal visceral injuries which result in high rate of unnecessary laparotomies. Also the abdominal pellet trauma patients can be well managed conservatively until hemodynamically stable even though CT scan shows pellet penetration into peritoneal cavity or bowel lumen.
Terlipressin and hepatorenal syndrome: What is important for nephrologists and hepatologists
Ahmed A Magan, Atif A Khalil, Mohamed H Ahmed
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a reversible form of functional renal failure that occurs with advanced hepatic cirrhosis and liver failure. Despite mounting research in HRS, its etiology and medical therapy has not been resolved. HRS encompasses 2 distinct types. Type 1 is characterized by the rapid development of renal failure that occurs within 2 wk and involves a doubling of initial serum creatinine. Type 2 has a more insidious onset and is often associated with ascites. Animal studies have shown that both forms, in particular type 1 HRS, are often precipitated by bacterial infections and circulatory changes. The prognosis for HRS remains very poor. Type 1 and 2 both have an expected survival time of 2 wk and 6 mo, respectively. Progression of liver cirrhosis and the resultant portal hypertension leads to the pooling of blood in the splanchnic vascular bed. The ensuing hyperdynamic circulation causes an ineffective circulatory volume which subsequently activates neurohormonal systems. Primarily the sympathetic nervous system and the renin angiotensin system are activated, which, in the early stages of HRS, maintain adequate circulation. Both advanced cirrhosis and prolonged activation of neurohormonal mechanisms result in fatal complications. Locally produced nitric oxide may have the potential to induce a deleterious vasodilatory effect on the splanchnic circulation. Currently medical therapy is aimed at reducing splanchnic vasodilation to resolve the ineffective circulation and maintain good renal perfusion pressure. Terlipressin, a vasopressin analogue, has shown potential benefit in the treatment of HRS. It prolongs both survival time and has the ability to reverse HRS in the majority of patients. In this review we aim to focus on the pathogenesis of HRS and its treatment with terlipressin vs other drugs.
Neuroblastoma in Saudi Children: A Single Center Experience (2006-2014)  [PDF]
Zaid Al Naqib, Atif A. Ahmed, Musa Al Harbi, Fahad Al Manjomi, Zaheer Ullah Khan, Awatif Alanazi, Othman Mosleh, Walid Ballourah, Mohammed Rayis
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.610098
Abstract: Introduction: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood and survival rate has improved during the last few decades. Only a few studies, related to Neuroblastoma in Saudi Arabian children, have been performed. We report epidemiologic data and our clinical experience from the department of Pediatric Hematology Oncology (PHO), King Fahad Medical City (KFMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Method: A retrospective observational study of all patients, with diagnosis of Neuroblastoma, who attended PHO-KFMC from July 2006 to June 2014 was performed. The survival periods (overall survival and disease-free survival) and the final outcomes for patients treated and followed at KFMC were recorded. The survival data were statistically correlated with the clinical, pathological and biological features of patients and tumors and compared to national and international cohorts. Results: Eight-year data were available for the 42 patients of which 22 (52.4%) were male and 20 (47.6%) were females. Age at diagnosis ranged 0 - 91 months with a mean and median of 26.3 and 18.5 months respectively. 16 (38.1%) patients were under one year and 26 (61.9%) above 1 year of age. The event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 66.5% and 71.5% respectively. EFS and OS among those who were <1 year age at presentation was 75% and 82%, whereas ≥1 yr age group had 59% and 62% survival rates respectively. Patients with tumors in the adrenal had considerably lower EFS (59%) and OS (63%); in comparison to patients with tumors sites other than the adrenal who had EFS and OS of 85% and 89% respectively. Both EFS and OS survival rates at the end of follow-up interval were 100.0%, in the low and intermediate risk groups. In contrast, patients in the high risk group had EFS and OS rates of 44% and 48% respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results are very encouraging and comparable with known published international cohorts, and reveal an excellent outcome for stage 1, 2, 3 & 4 s. The prognosis for advanced (stage 4) disease remains rather poor. A collaborative Saudi-wide effort, with an emphasis on research in detecting clinical and biologic characteristics of aggressive disease and tailoring therapy, is needed.
Variation in Thermal time model Parameters Between Two Contrasting Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars  [PDF]
Atif Hassan Naim, Faisal El Gasim Ahmed
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.612138
Abstract: A laboratory experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different constant temperatures on germination and early seedling establishment and to study the variation among parameters of thermal time model parameters for two contrasting chickpea cultivars . Seeds were subjected to six constant temperatures from 10 o C to 35 o C . A complete randomized design was used with four replication. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among treatments for all characters studied. The final germination percentage significantly increased with increasing temperature up to 25 ° C, and thereafter there was a sharp decrease in final germination at 30 ° and 35 ° C. Desi type cultivar (small seeded) “Jabel Marra” significantly exhibited higher final germination percentage and lower germination rate compared with the kabui type cultivar “Shendi” at all temperatures. The median (θ T(50) ) of the thermal time was significantly differ between the two chickpea cultivars. The large seeded cultivars (shendi) recorded significantly higher median thermal time than the small seeded cultivars (Jabel Marra). The results also revealed a significant differences between the two cultivars in all thermal time model parameters. The small seeded cultivar (Jabel Marra) scored lower total dry matter and temperature tolerance index (TTI) compared to the large seeded cultivar (Shendi) at all temperatures studied.
Role of Pathology and Immunohistochemistry in the New Era Of Molecular Therapy
Atif Ali Ahmed
The Open Conference Proceedings Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.2174/2210289201001010164]
Abstract: The modern practice of pathology entails increasing involvement with management of cancer patients. Pathologists are often faced with clinical and research involvements that obligate them to search for prognostic and therapeutic markers on patients’ tumor samples. A practical example would be the detection of HER2-neu in breast cancer which has revolutionized the use of prognostic-therapeutic immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the practical management of patients. Numerous other markers and proliferation pathways have recently been elucidated in many human cancers including pediatric cancers. Although most of these markers are being detected by conventional molecular techniques, IHC methods, routinely practiced in histopathologic laboratories, are being employed at an increasing pace. Since most of these proliferation markers are also the targets of new specific therapy, their positive identification often correlates with the appropriateness of that specific therapy and with other parameters that can gauge the patient’s prognosis. A good example is the identification of epidermal growth factor receptor by IHC in the patient’s lung tumor as an indicator of the tumor responsiveness to “Gefitinib”. Such potential application of immunohistochemistry in patients’ care necessitates adequate standardization of this technique to optimize patients’ management, since erroneous results can lead to erroneous management of patients with cancer. These facts will initiate a new role for pathology laboratory departments to provide a stronger impact on patients’ managements.
Role of Pathology and Immunohistochemistry in the New Era Of Molecular Therapy
Atif Ali Ahmed
The Open Conference Proceedings Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.2174/2210289201001010168]
Abstract: Cells are minimum units reflecting epigenetic information, which is considered to map the history of a parallelprocessing recurrent network of biochemical reactions, their behaviors cannot be explained by considering only conventional DNA information-processing events. We have developed methods and systems of analyzing epigenetic information in cells, as well as that of genetic information, to expand our understanding of how living systems are determined. The role of epigenetic information on cells, which complements their genetic information, was inferred by comparing predictions from genetic information with cell behaviour observed under conditions chosen to reveal adaptation processes and community effects. A system of analyzing epigenetic information was developed starting from the twin complementary viewpoints of cell regulation as an 'algebraic' system (emphasis on temporal aspects) and as a 'geometric' system (emphasis on spatial aspects). The knowlege acquired from this study may lead to the use of cells that fully control practical applications like cell-based drug screening and the regeneration of organs. As one of the practical application, we have developed the on-chip cardiotoxity measurement system for monitoring the risk of the lethal ventricular arrhythmia Torsade de pointes (TdP), which is the most common reason for the withdrawal or restricted use of many cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular drugs. The lack of an in vitro model to detect pro-arrhythmic effects on human heart cells hinders the development of new drugs. We also exploited the recently established human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells driven to differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes. The hiPS-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) were analyzed using our on-chip cardiotoxity measurement system. The application of ion channel inhibitors resulted in dose-dependent changes to the field potential waveform, and these changes were identical to those induced in the native cardiomyocytes. This study shows that hiPS-CMs represent a promising in vitro model for cardiac electrophysiologic studies and drug screening.
Ezetimibe as a potential treatment for dyslipidemia associated with chronic renal failure and renal transplant
Ahmed Mohamed,Khalil Atif
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2010,
Abstract: Individuals with chronic renal disease (CKD) are prone to have accelerated process of atherosclerosis. Importantly, cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Recent studies suggest a potential benefit of the lipid lowering medica-tions in preventing cardiovascular events in the CKD and the transplant populations. In particular, statin was shown to be effective in reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. However, refractory dyslipidemia and difficulty in lowering LDL to target were reported with the CKD and the kidney transplant patients. The second United Kingdom Heart and Renal protection study (UK-HARP-II) showed that the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin was safe and effective in treating dyslipidemia in CKD. Furthermore, the combination of ezetimibe and statin was also effective and safe in treating dyslipidemia in kidney transplant recipients. The Study of Heart and Renal Pro-tection (SHARP) trial will evaluate the effects of lowering LDL-C with ezetimibe 10 mg and simvastatin 20 mg daily versus placebo in 9,000 patients with chronic kidney disease. The current evidence suggests that the addition of ezetimibe to satin is effective and safe in treating dyslipidemia in the CKD and the kidney transplant patients. Future clinical trials are needed to determine whether ezetimibe will reduce cardiovascular risk in the CKD patients.
Vault Hematoma after Vaginal Hysterectomy: An Invariable Complication  [PDF]
Laila Yahya A. Alhubaishi, Atif Bashir Fazari
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2019.95056
Abstract: Hysterectomy is common major operation performed in gynecological field practice after Caesarean section. Vaginal hysterectomy is preferred surgery for uterovaginal prolapsed. Vaginal hysterectomy has advantages over abdominal hysterectomy. Post hysterectomy hematomas are responsible for serious morbidity. Ultrasound is an accurate diagnostic tool and so Computed tomography. Conservative management, analgesia and antibiotics will work in small hematoma, but the significant sized hematoma needs surgical drainage and the infected hematoma. Refinement in surgical techniques is recommended to minimize the formation vaginal vault hematomas after vaginal hysterectomy.
Interactive Effect of Temperature and Water Stress Induced by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) on Germination and Recovery of Two Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars  [PDF]
Atif Hassan Naim, Faisal El Gasim Ahmed
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102005
Abstract: Effects of different temperatures (10℃, 15, 20, 25 and 35) and various water potentials (0, ﹣0.25, ﹣0.5, ﹣0.75, ﹣1.0, ﹣1.25, ﹣1.5 MPa) on seed germination and early seedling development of two contrasting chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars were studied. Different temperatures were applied in an incubator by adjusting the device according to the specific treatments. Water potential treatments were done by using different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG), 8000 (molecular weight). The results showed significant differences between the two cultivars in all characters studied. The cultivar Arman exhibited the higher germination percentage and rate than the cultivar Pirooz. Water stress caused significant reductions in germination parameters at unfavorable temperatures (10℃, 30℃, and 35℃). Seeds of both cultivars, which are subjected to high osmotic potentials, had high recovery percentages at the optimum temperature (25℃). In conclusion, the cultivar Arman seems to be more tolerant to water stress at suboptimal and super optimal temperatures compared with Pirooz.
Management and Outcome of Hyperemesis Gravidarum at Tertiary Obstetric Facility, Khartoum-Sudan  [PDF]
Atif B. Fazari, Hasouna Z. S. Ahmed, Rasha Eltayeb, Mohammed H. Ali, Khalifa Elmusharaf
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.611079
Abstract: Introduction: Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is vomiting and/or nausea in pregnancy causes dehydration, electrolytes imbalance, weight loss and further serious organs dysfunction. Methods: This was a descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional hospital based total coverage analytic study, which was conducted from November 2013 to May 2014 at Omdurman New Hospital (ONH) for Obstetrics & Gynecology, Khartoum-Sudan. Results: HG prevalence is 13% of complicated pregnancy of ONH admission. Acetonurea is reported in all cases with significant association between acetonurea and smoking (P value = 0.005). A significant association between Hemoglobulin level and the readmission the (P value = 0.01) was reported. One maternal death is reported from severe hypoglycemia and liver impairment. Conclusion: Hyperemesis gravidarum has serious maternal morbidity with social negative impacts and significant financial burden on the health services.
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