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Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A five - year retrospective study
Belay Tessema, Abebe Muche, Assegedech Bekele, Dieter Reissig, Frank Emmrich, Ulrich Sack
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-371
Abstract: We analyzed the records of 4000 tuberculosis patients registered at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2003 to May 2008. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between treatment outcome and potential predictor variables.From the total of 4000 patients, tuberculosis type was categorized as extrapulmonary in 1133 (28.3%), smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in 2196 (54.9%) and smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 671 (16.8%) cases. Of all patients, treatment outcome was classified as successfully treated in 1181(29.5%), defaulted in 730 (18.3%), died in 403 (10.1%), treatment failed in six (0.2%) and transferred out in 1680 (42.0%) patients. Males had the trend to be more likely to experience death or default than females, and the elderly were more likely to die than younger. The proportion of default rate was increased across the years from 97(9.2%) to 228(42.9%). Being female, age group 15-24 years, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and being urban resident were associated with higher treatment success rate.The treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients was unsatisfactorily low (29.5%). A high proportion of patients died (10.1%) or defaulted (18.3%), which is a serious public health concern that needs to be addressed urgently.Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a curable infectious disease [1]. According to the 2007 report of World Health Organization (WHO), one-third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tubercle bacilli and hence at risk of developing active disease, in 2005, the annual incidence of TB, expressed as the number of new TB cases, was globally about 8.8 million people (7.4 million of these were in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa), and the annual number of deaths due to TB was 1.6 million, including 195,000 patients i
Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy of HIV infected and non-infected women in tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia
Andargachew Mulu, Afework Kassu, Kahsay Huruy, Birhanemeskel Tegene, Gashaw Yitayaw, Masayo Nakamori, Nguyen Van Nhien, Assegedech Bekele, Yared Wondimhun, Shigeru Yamamoto, Fusao Ota
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-569
Abstract: In this cross-sectional study, blood samples were collected from 423 pregnant women and from 55 healthy volunteers who visited the University of Gondar Hospital. Serum concentration of vitamin A was measured by high performance liquid chromatography.After controlling for total serum protein, albumin and demographic variables, the mean ± SD serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive pregnant women (0.96 ± 0.42 μmol/L) was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without HIV infection (1.10 ± 0.45 μmol/L, P < 0.05). Likewise, the level of serum vitamin A in HIV seropositive non-pregnant women (0.74 ± 0.39) was significantly lower than that in HIV negative non-pregnant women (1.18 ± 0.59 μmol/L, P < 0.004). VAD (serum retinol < 0.7 μmol/L) was observed in 18.4% and 17.7% of HIV infected and uninfected pregnant women, respectively. Forty six percent of non-pregnant women with HIV infection had VAD while only 28% controls were deficient for vitamin A (P = 0.002).The present study shows that VAD is a major public health problem among pregnant women in the tropical settings of Northwest Ethiopia. Considering the possible implications of VAD during pregnancy, we recommend multivitamin (which has a lower level of vitamin A) supplementation in the care and management of pregnant women with or without HIV infection.Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to be a significant public health problem around the world and it is particularly serious among women of reproductive age in South-East Asia and Africa [1-4]. It has now become evident that VAD in women has negative consequences on their health status as well as on their infants [3,4]. The link between VAD morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases [5] and non-infectious diseases [6-8] has been known for several years.VAD in pregnant women is associated with night blindness, severe anaemia, wasting, malnutrition, and reproductive and infectious morbidity [9], and increased risk of mortality 1-2 years following delivery [4].
Soil Organic Carbon Storage, N Stock and Base Cations of Shade Coffee, Khat and Sugarcane for Andisols in South Ethiopia  [PDF]
Bekele Lemma
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2018.81004
Abstract: In the Wondo Genet, Ethiopia, the common agricultural land uses include maize, shade coffee, khat and sugarcane. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of perennial land uses on soil organic carbon (SOC), soil N and base cations. Four sites having maize and one or two of perennial land uses and with similar site characteristics were identified for this study. Soils (0 - 30 cm) were sampled at corners of a plot (20 × 20 m2) placed in each land use at each site. Results indicated that the SOC storage of the shade coffee plantations were 86% and 125% higher compared with adjacent maize land uses with the absolute differences being 50.7 and 54.4 Mg·ha-1, respectively. The soil N stock was 109% and 126% higher for the shade coffee than the maize land use while the absolute differences were 5.7 and 4.7 Mg·ha-1 for the same sites. Among perennials, the higher SOC storage in the shade coffee is attributable to the increased litter input and reduced soil disturbance in the system. While the higher soil N in the shade coffee was attributed to reduction of leaching, N uplift, and the increased litter quality and input. The high relative increase in shade coffee in SOC and soil N at Finance site was ascribed to the finer soil texture and low SOC and soil N at the compared adjacent maize farm. Although not significant, the relative increase in SOC (34%) and soil N (43%) in the sugarcane at the Finance as well as the relative increase in SOC (7%) and soil N (9%) in khat at Gotu as compared to Chaffee site was attributed to mainly the management differences. The shade coffee has the greatest potential for SOC storage and for increasing N stock, while khat and sugarcane have the least potential.
Assessment and Modeling of Geo-Spatial Technology and Geo-Spatial Intelligence Support for Joint Military Operations  [PDF]
Nigatu Bekele
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2019.111008
Abstract: World military force structure is dramatically changing as collectively; our armed forces undergo a major transition from unprofessional to the Objective Force (designed to capitalize on information-age based technologies and Human Interaction to Non-Human Interaction). Traditional “stovepipes” among services are being eliminated and replaced with integrated systems that allow joint forces (combined Army, Air Force and navy) to seamlessly execute required tasks. This study was undertaken in conjunction with Geospatial Technology (Shows Space and Time) and Geospatial Intelligence Analysis (Use Algorithm, Use AI Concepts, IMINT and GEOINT). In order to successfully support current and future Ethiopian military operations in war zones, geospatial technologies and geospatial intelligence must be integrated to accommodate force structure evolution and mission requirement directives. The intent of joint intelligence operations is to integrate Ground, Air and Navy Forces at war zone and also give COP (“common operational picture”) for Operational and Tactical Commander Service and national intelligence capabilities into a unified effort that surpasses any single organizational effort and provides the most accurate and timely intelligence to commanders.
Intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in Gondar teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia
Kahsay Huruy, Afework Kassu, Andargachew Mulu, Netsanet Worku, Teshome Fetene, Simon Gebretsadik, Fantahun Biadglegne, Yeshambel Belyhun, Abebe Muche, Aschalew Gelaw, Belay Anagaw, Sisay Yifru, Yemataw Wondie, Assegedech Bekele, Moges Tiruneh, Dieter Reissig, Feleke Moges
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-472
Abstract: A cross-sectional study involving 384 consecutive diarrheal patients who visited Gondar teaching hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia from October 2006 to March 2007 was conducted. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria following standard parasitological and microbiological procedures.Intestinal parasites were diagnosed in 36.5% of the patients. The most frequently encountered protozoan parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.3%) followed by Giardia lamblia (5.0%), Cryptosporidium parvum (1.8%) and Isospora belli (1.3%). The dominant helminthic parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (5.5%) followed by Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma mansoni (3.1% each), hookworm infection (1.8%), and Hymenolepis species (1.3%). Multiple infections of intestinal parasites were also observed in 6.3% of the patients. Among the enteropathogenic bacteria Shigella and Salmonella species were isolated from 15.6% and 1.6%, respectively, of the patients. Escherichia coli O57:H7 was not found in any of the stool samples tested. Eighty eight percent and 83.3% of the Shigella and Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more commonly used antibiotics, respectively.Intestinal parasitosis was higher in patients who live in rural area, in patients who were washing their hands after visiting toilet either irregularly with soap and without soap or not at all, in patients who used well and spring water for household consumption, and in patients who had nausea (P < 0.05). Statistically significant associations were also observed between Shigella infections and patients who were using well and spring water for household consumption, and patients who had dysentery and mucoid stool (P < 0.05).The high prevalence of intestinal parasites and Shigella species in diarrheic patients calls for institution of appropriate public health intervention measures to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. The rational use
Analyzing and Modeling of Geo Spatial Effect on Radio Wave Propagation System Using Geospatial Technologies  [PDF]
Nigatu Bekele, Biadgilgn Demissie
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2017.96048
Abstract: The research presented in this thesis reveals the level of rightness of the recurrence Prediction systems by correlated with geospatial effect. The Geospatial technology elements split up: Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) consolidated into this technique in light of the fact that the vast majority of the components in radio wave propagation are geographic highlights. In this exploration, ICEPAC remote arranging programming is tried in a field test completed in Tigray and Afar district. The consequence show that, the Prediction programming doesn’t put, day by day, regular and month to month topographical marvels into thought. Moreover, it doesn’t demonstrate the correct area of the radio stations. Furthermore, the new proposed ICEPAC Calibration algorithm anticipates a good Signal quality for frequencies in the vicinity of 1.5 MHz up to 30 MHz. The total result showed that Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are getting to be noticeably valuable apparatuses in accumulation, stockpiling, control and portrayal of Geo spatial information and also the RS and GIS situated Signal quality forecast can essentially enhance forecast quality contrasted with the hypothetical free space demonstration which does not consider any Geo spatial and neighborhood landscape highlights impacts.
Inactivated Vaccine Trial of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Legesse Bekele, Temesgen Assefa
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2018.86009
Abstract: The study and entire laboratory works were conducted from December 2014 to April 2015 in National Veterinary Institute, Bishoftu, Ethiopia. Formaldehyde inactivated Montanide ISA70 based Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) trial vaccine strain was confirmed the identity with known primer using PCR from locally isolates of National Veterinary Institute of Ethiopia. This study was aimed to develop formaldehyde inactivated Montanide ISA70 based MG vaccine in Ethiopia. It can help to device strategies in controlling the disease mainly through developing more effective vaccine which will replace the currently being imported vaccines by some farms. After culturing procedure, oil based inactivated MG trial vaccine was produced in suitable clean and secure accommodation. In this study, among different isolates, local isolate of Samuel farm in NVI was prepared and evaluated in chickens. The amount of immune antigen per 0.5 ml of the dose was 107 Colony forming units (CFU) of the bacteria. The trail vaccine was prepared and evaluated at the age of 16 weeks of chickens; the chickens were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C), each having twenty birds (10 male and 10 female). Each of group B was vaccinated group of imported-live vaccine with 30 μl intraocularly for comparing with inactivated trial vaccine, each bird of group C was inoculated with 0.5 ml indigenous or trial vaccine subcutaneously at mid neck region and group A was used as a control then challenge tests were performed. After challenge test, among non-vaccinated chickens (control or group A) 2 chickens were died (10%), thicken and cloudy appearance of the air sac showed 18 (90%), 2 chickens were not showed thickened and cloudy air sack (10%). Although among vaccinated group (inactivated vaccine or group C), all chickens did not show clinical signs or post mortem changes (100%). From attenuated imported live vaccine (group B), no clinical signs or post mortem changes were observed (100%). It was concluded that oil based MG vaccine induces protective level of anti MG antibodies in chickens.
Parkland Agroforestry of Ethiopia; Key to Production, Productivity, Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Change Mitigation: A Review  [PDF]
Solomon Estifanos Bekele
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.84030
Abstract: Compiled information on parkland agroforestry tree species in relation to diversity, tree management options and the challenges of the system is important for production and productivity, and biodiversity conservation through availing the required information which in turn has an implication to the sustainability of the system and climate change mitigation. So, the aim of this review paper is to compile information on parkland agroforestry practices of Ethiopia, particularly: on tree species diversity, their roles, management options available and challenges of the practice. Parkland agroforestry which is a system practiced by many local populations comprises the large part of agricultural landscapes in Ethiopia and is very important in different aspects such as; for food security, microclimate amelioration, economic benefits, environmental protection, household energy, household utensils, cultural values, traditional medicines, and fodder. There are many indigenous multipurpose tree species scattered on farmlands in Ethiopia, and the common one includes: Millettia ferruginea, Cordia africana, Ficus vasta, Ficus sur, Croton macrostachyus and Faidherbia albida. However, nowadays these trees are facing challenges like: expansion of exotic trees in the expense of the native ones, expansion of cash crops through removal of the parkland trees from the farm area, climate change, land shortage and tenure system which require high emphasis for the production and productivity as well as sustainability of the system especially, in this era of climate change; hence this system is one of climate change mitigation options.
High Wind Power Penetration Large-Scale Hybrid Renewable Energy System Design for Remote Off-Grid Application  [PDF]
Samuel L. Tesema, Getachew Bekele
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2019.73002
Abstract: This study looks into the resource assessment, technology economics and modeling of different energy alternatives and proposes a rechargeable battery storage-based large-scale wind/photovoltaic hybrid power system to meet an average electrical load demand of 2.4 MW and peak load of 2.9 MW for a remote rural district in Ethiopia called Geladin. The district is 682 km away from nearby grid. The site enjoys high solar and wind resources that can be harnessed for electric power generation to electrify the community. HOMER simulation software is used for optimal sizing and techno-economic analysis. The diesel generator is used as back up to fill the gaps in case both resources are out. Average monthly solar irradiation data of 6.2 kWh/m2 is determined from measured sunshine duration data by implementing a suitable specific model for the site. NASA satellite based estimated wind speed data of 10 years average at hub height of 50 m for the site in question is extracted from the SWERA (Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment) database (with annual average of 6.1 m/s) and its weigh-bull distribution parameter, k of 1.98 is estimated which indicates a fair wind speed distribution of the site to generate electric power using wind turbine. The proposed optimal system results electricity generation indicates that 92% from wind turbine, 3% from photovoltaic, 5% from diesel generator and managed to obtain a much lower cost of energy (COE = 0.11USD/kWh) than other alternatives investigated in this study such as grid extension and diesel generator.
Mycobacterial and nonbacterial pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A prospective, cohort study
Bekele Afessa
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-1-1
Abstract: The study included 1,225 consecutive hospital admissions of 599 HIV-infected patients treated from April 1995 through March 1998. Data included demographics, risk factors for HIV infection, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, pulmonary complications, CD4+ lymphocyte count, hospital stay and case-fatality rate.Patient age (mean ± SD) was 38.2 ± 8.9 years, 62% were men, and 84% were African American. The median APACHE II score was 14, and median CD4+ lymphocyte count was 60/μL. Pulmonary complications were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (85) in 78 patients, Mycobacterium avium complex (51) in 38, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (40) in 35, Mycobacterium gordonae (11) in 11, Mycobacterium kansasii (10) in 9, Cytomegalovirus (10) in 10, Nocardia asteroides (3) in 3, fungus ball (2) in 2, respiratory syncytial virus (1), herpes simplex virus (1), Histoplasma capsulatum (1), lymphoma (3) in 3, bronchogenic carcinoma (2) in 2, and Kaposi sarcoma (1). The case-fatality rate of patients was 11% with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 5%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 6%, Mycobacterium avium complex; and 7%, noninfectious pulmonary complications.Most pulmonary complications in hospitalized patients with HIV are from Pneumocystis and mycobacterial infection.Since the beginning of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, pulmonary complications have been major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection [1]. In addition to the common pulmonary diseases affecting immunocompetent individuals, HIV seropositive patients are prone to other infectious and noninfectious complications. The types of pulmonary complications that develop depend on the degree of immunosuppression, HIV transmission category, and geographic location. Antiretroviral therapy and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis have improved the clinical course and outcome of HIV-infected patients. However, pulmonary complica
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