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Cognitive Impairment and Recovery in Meningiomas and Low-Grade Gliomas  [PDF]
Jiri Lahti, Tiia Saunam?ki, Jarmo Salo, Asko Niemel, Mervi Jehkonen
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.88029
Abstract: This study aims to elucidate the nature of cognitive deficits caused by intracranial tumors, as well as to examine how a surgical operation of the tumor may affect tumor-induced cognitive deficits. The patient group included 43 individuals with meningioma or low-grade glioma admitted to a surgical operation of the tumor. Neuropsychological examination was conducted preoperatively, as well as three and 12 months postoperatively. The control group comprised 31 healthy subjects. In the tumor patients, preoperative cognitive performance was compromised in several cognitive domains as compared to the controls. The tumor patients with frontal and large tumors showed impairment virtually across all cognitive domains. Postoperatively, the cognitive performance of the meningioma and the small tumor group improved in all domains, with the performance of the low-grade glioma group and the large tumor group reflecting more modest cognitive improvement. Most of this improvement did not emerge until the 12 months follow-up. Cognitive impairment due to an intracranial tumor is diffuse affecting most cognitive domains. Cognitive recovery after the surgery is more noticeable in patients with meningiomas and small tumors, and the recovery will require a minimum of one year time-wise. This evidence is of significant value when planning both clinical treatment and rehabilitation of intracranial tumor patients.
Calcium Carbonate versus Sevelamer Hydrochloride as Phosphate Binders after Long-Term Disease Progression in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats
Suvi T?rm?nen,Arttu Er?ranta,Asko Riutta,Peeter K??bi,Teemu Honkanen,Emmanouil Karavalakis,Onni Niemel,Heikki Tokola,Heikki Ruskoaho,Jukka Mustonen,Ilkka P?rsti
Advances in Nephrology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/538392
Abstract: Our aim was to compare the effects of calcium carbonate and sevelamer-HCl treatments on calcium-phosphate metabolism and renal function in 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats so that long-term disease progression preceded the treatment. After 15-week progression, calcium carbonate (3.0%), sevelamer-HCl (3.0%), or control diets (0.3% calcium) were given for 9 weeks. Subtotal nephrectomy reduced creatinine clearance (?40%), plasma calcidiol (?25%), and calcitriol (?70%) and increased phosphate (+37%), parathyroid hormone (PTH) (11-fold), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) (4-fold). In NX rats, calcium carbonate diet increased plasma (+20%) and urinary calcium (6-fold), reduced plasma phosphate (?50%) and calcidiol (?30%), decreased creatinine clearance (?35%) and FGF 23 (?85%), and suppressed PTH without influencing blood pH. In NX rats, sevelamer-HCl increased urinary calcium (4-fold) and decreased creatinine clearance (?45%), PTH (?75%), blood pH (by 0.20 units), plasma calcidiol (?40%), and calcitriol (?65%). Plasma phosphate and FGF-23 were unchanged. In conclusion, when initiated after long-term progression of experimental renal insufficiency, calcium carbonate diet reduced plasma phosphate and FGF-23 while sevelamer-HCl did not. The former induced hypercalcemia, the latter induced acidosis, while both treatments reduced vitamin D metabolites and deteriorated renal function. Thus, delayed initiation influences the effects of these phosphate binders in remnant kidney rats. 1. Introduction Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) with a 20-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular death compared with normal population [1]. Hyperphosphatemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) [2] significantly contribute to the cardiovascular pathology and mineral-bone disorders in CRI. In order to halt these changes, oral phosphate binders such as calcium carbonate and sevelamer are widely used. High intake of calcium carbonate may predispose to vascular calcifications in CRI, especially if the phosphate levels remain inappropriately high [2]. Consequently, treatment with sevelamer, a calcium- and aluminium-free and nonabsorbable polyallylamine anion exchange resin, may result in less vascular calcifications and reduced mortality in dialysis patients. However, according to recent Cochrane review, the superiority of sevelamer over calcium carbonate remains unclear [3]. In experimental animal models, increased calcium intake has resulted in beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP), endothelial function,
Female Clergy as Agents of Religious Change?
Kati Niemel
Religions , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rel2030358
Abstract: This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each) and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.
Whole-rock geochemistry of some tonalite and high Mg/Fe gabbro, diorite, and granodiorite plutons (sanukitoid suites) in the Kuhmo district, eastern Finland
Asko K?pyaho
Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland , 2006,
Abstract: New whole-rock geochemical analyses (major and trace elements) of three tonalite plutons and high Mg/Fe granodiorites and diorites, termed sanukitoid suites, are presented from Neoarchaean Kuhmo district, eastern Finland. The 2.83 Ga and 2.78 Ga tonalites displayonly moderate fractionation of LREE/HREE thus demanding only minor or no residual garnet in their respective source regions. However, the more prominent HREE depletion in the 2.75 Ga tonalites requires more significant garnet residue. The relatively wide compositional variation in the tonalites implies that Archaean TTG (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) magmatism was derived in general from sources that exhibited considerable mineralogical heterogeneity. The ~2.70 – 2.74 Ga high-Mg/Fe granodiorites and diorites are characterised by strong fractionation of LREE/HREE, relatively high Ba and Sr, and elevated abundances of Cr and Ni as well systematic depletions in P and Ti, which are all typical features of Archaean sanukitoid suites. Some of the granodiorite plutons contain compositionally intermediate high-K enclaves, which share these geochemical characteristics, implying a contribution of mafic-intermediate LILE- and LREE-enriched source for the magma. The geochemical characteristics of the studied plutonic rocks demonstrate the role of contrasting sources for the tonalites and sanukitoid suites in the Kuhmo district.
Very Large Primordial Non-Gaussianity from multi-field: Application to Massless Preheating
Asko Jokinen,Anupam Mazumdar
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2006/04/003
Abstract: In this paper we derive a generic expression, which is valid for scales larger than Hubble radius and contains only the local terms, for the second order curvature perturbations for more than one field, provided the expansion is sourced by the energy density of a single field. As an application, motivated by our previous paper [1], we apply our formalism to two fields during preheating, where the inflaton oscillations are sourced by $\lambda\phi^4$ potential which is governing the expansion of the Universe. A second field $\sigma$, coupled to the inflaton through $g^2\phi^2\sigma^2$, is excited from the vacuum fluctuations. The excited modes of $\sigma$ amplify the super-Hubble isocurvature perturbations, which seed the second order curvature perturbations to give rise to a significantly large non-Gaussianity. Our results show that within 3 inflaton oscillations for a range of parameters, $1< g^2/\lambda < 3$, the non-Gaussianity parameter becomes: $f_{NL}\geq {\cal O}(1000)$, which is already ruled out by the current WMAP observation.
Mit pitkitt istutkimus paljastaa edistyneiden suomenoppijoiden kielitaidosta?
Kirsti Siitonen,Jenny Niemel
L?hiv?rdlusi. L?hivertailuja , 2011,
Abstract: In this article we will make a suggestion on how to longitudinally study the language proficiency of advanced Finnish learners’ writing. In such a study individuals’ actual development can be examined. The study is comparable to variation studies and real-time methods. At the beginning of a two years observation period, the language skills of the students are already quite good; therefore, their development is not rapid. Most likely their language will not be much better at the final stage compared to the initial phase, but it will probably be different. This article resembles a case study with only three informants. The observation period comprises 7 months for informants 1, 2 and 3. From informant 3 we also have material from the subsequent 7 months; thus this material comprises 14 months after the beginning of observation.
Bounded LTL Model Checking with Stable Models
Keijo Heljanko,Ilkka Niemel
Computer Science , 2003,
Abstract: In this paper bounded model checking of asynchronous concurrent systems is introduced as a promising application area for answer set programming. As the model of asynchronous systems a generalisation of communicating automata, 1-safe Petri nets, are used. It is shown how a 1-safe Petri net and a requirement on the behaviour of the net can be translated into a logic program such that the bounded model checking problem for the net can be solved by computing stable models of the corresponding program. The use of the stable model semantics leads to compact encodings of bounded reachability and deadlock detection tasks as well as the more general problem of bounded model checking of linear temporal logic. Correctness proofs of the devised translations are given, and some experimental results using the translation and the Smodels system are presented.
Effects of reindeer on the re-establishment of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia in a subarctic meadow
Michael den Herder,Pekka Niemel
Rangifer , 2003,
Abstract: The effect of reindeer browsing on the regeneration of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia was studied in a subarctic meadow in Finnish Lapland. The aim of the study was to see whether tree recovery from seeds is possible under heavy reindeer-browsing pressure. After removal of the ground and field layer vegetation in 1986, two exclosures were established so that the effect of reindeer on the secondary succession, starting from seeds, could be studied. The size and the number of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia were recorded in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 1999. Reindeer significantly reduced the height and the number of saplings (plants > 10 cm high) of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia but the number of seedlings (plants < 10 cm high) did not differ between browsed and unbrowsed plots. Furthermore the heightclass distribution of saplings was different inside the exlosures compared to control areas. Over time browsed plots continued to have high densities of small saplings while in protected plots an increasing number of larger saplings appeared. In our study site, regeneration from seeds seemed possible although the height of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia was limited by reindeer.
Sub-eV Hubble scale inflation within gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking
Rouzbeh Allahverdi,Asko Jokinen,Anupam Mazumdar
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking has all the necessary ingredients for a successful sub-eV Hubble scale inflation $H_{\rm inf} \sim 10^{-3}-10^{-1}$ eV. The model generates the right amplitude for scalar density perturbations and a spectral tilt within the range, $0.90 \leq n_s \leq 1$. The reheat temperature is $T_{\rm R} \ls 10$ TeV, which strongly prefers electroweak baryogenesis and creates the right abundance of gravitinos with a mass $m_{3/2} \gs 100$ keV to be the dark matter.
Enrichment with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Does Not Enhance Water-Jet Fat Graft Survival in the Breast—A Prospective Comparative Study  [PDF]
Hilkka H. Peltoniemi, Asko Salmi, Kai Saariniemi, Hannu Kuokkanen, Christian Herold
Surgical Science (SS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2016.711065
Abstract: Objective: Although research increasingly underlines the theoretical importance of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) for successful fat transplantation, we could not prove this notion in cosmetic breast augmentation. Stem-cell-enriched breast fat transplantation did not yield better results than grafting based on the WAL (water-jet assisted liposuction) technique in terms of volume persistence. To overcome inter-individual variation, intra-individual comparison was performed. Material and Methods: Four women underwent breast augmentation utilizing WAL fat transplantation with and without ex-vivo ASC isolation performed with the Multistation System. All patients underwent two fat transplantations for breast augmentation. In the first procedure, the left breast was augmented with stem-cell-enriched fat grafts and the right with plain WAL fat grafts. In the second surgery, the lipofilling was performed the other way round to exclude intra-individual differences in fat cell persistence. Results: MRI volumetry revealed a mean volume survival of 56% of the whole (watery) graft in the breasts with WAL only and 56% in the breasts with WAL and stem cell enrichment. While centrifugation of the WAL grafts demonstrated an average adipose content of 68%, the average volume survival of the adipose tissue itself was 83% in the breasts augmented with WAL only and 83% in those with WAL with stem cell enrichment. Conclusion: Breast augmentation by means of lipofilling using WAL alone is faster and more inexpensive, carrying a lower risk of contamination and offering an equal take rate. We do not see any advantage in stem-cell-enrichment in cosmetic fat transplantation to the breast.
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