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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 400792 matches for " Askira M. Umoru "
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Infection of Wounds by Potential Bacterial Pathogens and Their Resistogram  [PDF]
Isyaka M. Tom, Muhammad M. Ibrahim, Askira M. Umoru, Jidda B. Umar, Musa A. Bukar, Ali B. Haruna, Abdullahi Aliyu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105528
The major innate barrier to the establishment of infections in internal tissues is the skin, the disruption of which leads to wound formation. Such wounds can be contaminated by bacterial pathogens thereby hampering the healing process and its management becomes resource demanding. Here, we assess the diversity of potential bacterial pathogens in the infection of different types of wounds among hospitalized patients. Three hundred and twenty wound swab samples were collected and processed via microscopy, and cultured on Blood, MacConkey and Chocolate Agar. Isolates were further confirmed using biochemical tests and Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test was used to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. 87.5% of samples collected yielded bacterial growth comprising of single bacterial isolates (52.17%) and polymicrobial/mixed growth (47.82%). Staphylococcus aureus (32.61%) was the most prevalent bacterial specie identified. Gram-negative bacteria (62.33%) were the most pervasive group, chief among which were E. coli (23.64%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.13%). Rate of infection was highest among Wound sepsis and Burns wound where Enterobacter spp. and Streptococcus spp. were the most prevalent respectively. Differences in wound type in relation to rate of infection with Gram-negative bacteria was statistically significant (f = 5.9592; df = 29; p-value = 0.001645; p < 0.01; Mean ± SD = 7.633 ± 6.3706). Resistivity profile of isolates has shown that the most significant resistance rate was against Amoxicillin and Ampicillin, among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria identified respectively. This suggests that wounds can be infected by potential bacterial pathogens which can exacerbate the progression of the wound and complicate the healing process.
Nutritional evaluation of the giant grassropper (Zonocerus variegatus) protein and the possible effects of its high dietary fibre on amino acids and mineral bioavailability.
M Soloman, O Ladeji, H Umoru
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2008,
Abstract: The biological value of giant grasshopper protein (Zonocerus variegatus) was evaluated by comparing the weight gained, food efficiency ratio (FER), protein efficiency ratio (PER) of rats fed standard laboratory chow with that of rats fed giant grasshopper, Soyabean(Glycine max) and crayfish. The effect of high fibre content on utilization of nutrients has also been assessed in rats fed the supplements. Each diet produced a progressive gain in body weight ranging from 32.1 ± 2.0g in rats feeding on control diet to 56.0 ± 2.0g for rats feeding on giant grass-hopper. FER ranges between 0.22 in rats fed on laboratory chow to 0.44 in giant grass-hopper fed rats while PER ranges between 1.12 in laboratory chow fed rats to 1.90 in rats fed giant grass-hopper. Despite the fact that food and protein intake of rats on control and experimental diets were identical, at the end of the 28 day feeding period, the growth rate, FER and PER of giant grass-hopper fed rats were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with rats fed on Soyabean(Glycine max), laboratory chow and crayfish supplemented diets, thus suggesting that the giant grass-hopper protein was superior in terms of quality and was better utilized. The fiber content in giant grass-hopper was 15%, which was thrice the amount present in laboratory chow and one and half times the amount present in crayfish. Plasma levels of total protein, essential amino acids and minerals in rats on different diets were almost identical. This seems to suggest that the high fiber content in giant grass-hopper did not seem to affect the bioavailability and levels of these parameters determined in the plasma especially the total protein and minerals. The significant increase in body weight, the high values of FER and PER together with ease of collection(possibility of cultivation) and economic aspect would make giant grasshopper a suitable alternative, digestible and highly nutritive protein and its inclusion in food supplementation would provide good quality protein especially in developing countries. Additionally, giant grasshopper protein may also be included in animal feed formulation.
Thermal, Hardness and Microstructural Characterization of Al-Si-SiCp Composites  [PDF]
O. A. Alo, L. E. Umoru, J. A. Ajao, K. M. Oluwasegun
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.112013
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of silicon and silicon carbide particles contents on the thermal, hardness and microstructural behaviour of Al-Si-SiCp composites. 16 samples of the composite produced by stir casting technique were of silicon contents of 1, 2, 3 and 4% by weigh, and silicon carbide contents of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% by weight for each composition of silicon. Each of the samples were subjected to homogenizing annealing heat treatment. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), hardness test and microstructural analysis were then performed on the samples from each composition. The results obtained showed that the hardness of the composite increased gradually as the silicon and silicon carbide particles content increased. The micrographs obtained revealed the presence of silicon carbide, silicon precipitates and aluminium carbide (Al4C3) within the metallic matrix. The amounts of these phases varied with the silicon and silicon carbide content. All the samples gave DTA curves with major endothermic peaks between 550 – 570℃ and two sets of exothermic peaks between 580 – 610℃ for the first set and between 565 – 570℃ for the second set. It was inferred from the study that although varied silicon and silicon carbide contents affected the thermal, hardness and microstructural behaviour of the Al-Si-SiCp composites, the variation of the SiCp content had a more pronounced effect on the hardness value of the Al-Si-SiCp composite.
Development of an Environmentally Friendly in-situ Pack-Cyaniding Technique  [PDF]
K. J. Akinluwade, A. R. Adetunji, M. O. Adeoye, L. E. Umoru, P. N. Kalu, A. T. Taiwo, O. O. Adewoye
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.111002
Abstract: A safe and environmentally friendly cyaniding method has been developed to mitigate the toxic impacts of cyanide salts on the environment during conventional cyaniding. The method entails in-situ diffusion of nascent cyanide from mature cassava leaves into the surface of mild steel components via pack-cyaniding. Both high-temperature in-situ diffusion into austenite and low-temperature in-situ diffusion into ferrite were explored. Results from light and scanning electron microscopic studies showed that surface hardness of the steel components was substantially increased. The waste product was a harmless biodegradable organic compound that posed no disposal threats. This study is important for increasing the wear resistance of ferrous parts for a longer service life in application without polluting the environment.
Effects of Different Amino-acid Derivatives on the Inhibition of NST-44 Mild Steel Corrosion in Lime Fluid
M. Alagbe,L.E. Umoru,A.A. Afonja,O.E. Olorunniwo
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: This study presents the report of an investigation on the effect of some amino acid based inhibitors on the corrosion characteristics of NST-44 mild steel in lime fluid (citrus aurantifolia). The corrosion rates of the exposed mild steel were obtained using the weight loss immersion method. The amino acid inhibitors investigated include leucine, alanine, methionine and glutamic acid. The corroded surfaces of the specimens were characterized using the optical microscopic techniques. It was observed that alanine showed the highest inhibitive potential on NST-44 mild steel in the lime fluid with at a lower concentration while glutamic acid showed the least potential with as low as 23% inhibition efficiency. Leucine and methionine, however showed considerable potentials with inhibition efficiencies of about 41 and 44.70%, respectively. The results of this research are expected to improve the corrosion resistance of this steel as a constructional material for lime processing industries in Nigeria.
Risawe’s Palace, Ilesa Nigeria: Traditional Yoruba Architecture as Socio-Cultural and Religious Symbols
N Umoru-Oke
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: This paper is a situational report of the present position of Risawe’s Chieftaincy palace; one of the chiefs’ palaces in Ilesa town, Nigeria, an extant building of the 21st century. This paper identifies the paramount place of culture and traditions as the basis of Yoruba architectural plan, design and construction. It examines the importance and functions of the courtyard style of traditional Yoruba architecture in socio-cultural and religious context. The significance of the chieftaincy palaces in general is also discussed. The paper therefore, focuses on the ancient Yoruba architectural creativity and functionality. The effects of modernization are also mentioned. Data for the paper were collected through field work, oral interviews and published literature. The paper concludes that traditional architecture should be maintained, preserved and sustained as legacy for the generation to come
Clinical characteristics of dermatophytosis among children in a Nigerian population: role of HIV/AIDS
DD Umoru, H Esene
Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Dermatophytosis is a common superficial mycosis. It affects virtually every child at one stage or the other, but the disease may be more frequent in individuals with immunocompromising conditions. The typical characteristic of the rash is an annular, popular rash with a healing centre and an active periphery that may have an erythematous base and it occurs in different parts of the body. Aims: To elicit the clinical characteristics of dermatophytosis among children with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Two hundred each of HIV sero-positive and sero-negative children were evaluated for dermatophytosis (and its clinical types) and the possible role of HIV was examined. Results: Thirty-two (16%) seropositive and 24(12%) sero-negative children had dermatophytosis (P = 0.086). Tinea capitis was the most prevalent among the sero-positive and was the only type seen among the sero-negative subjects. Dermatophytosis was significantly more prevalent among those with more advanced clinical stage of HIV (p = 0.000). Children in 5 – 12 year age bracket were more affected in both groups. Conclusion: Tinea capitis was the most frequent type of dermatophytosis in the study, followed by tinea corporis. Children in 5 – 12 year age bracket were more affected in both groups. Occurrence of dermatophytosis was significantly influenced by the stage of HIV disease but not by HIV status.
Preparation of Nano-TiO2 Thin Film Using Spin Coating Method  [PDF]
Ayodele Abeeb Daniyan, Lasisi Ejibunu Umoru, Bankole Olunlade
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2013.14024
Abstract: This paper presented the preparation of TiO2 thin film on empty glass and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass by spin coating method. Highly transparent titanium oxide thin films were obtained. The Optical absorption and transmission of the film prepared from both the synthesized and the commercially available TiO2 were measured by the UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. A sharp absorption edge of the TiO2 film was observed. The estimated energy band gap for the film of the commercially available sample was larger than that of the synthesized one.
Effect of Calcium Nitrate and Sodium Nitrite on the Rebar Corrosion of Medium Carbon Steel in Seawater and Cassava Fluid  [PDF]
Mohammed Adamu, Lasisi Ejibunu Umoru, Oladeji Oluremi Ige
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2014.23027
Abstract: Inhibitors are regularly used as one of the principal prevention and control techniques in reinforcement corrosion. Hence this study investigates the effect of calcium nitrate and sodium nitrite inhibitors on the rebar corrosion of medium carbon steel in seawater and cassava fluid with a view to determining inhibitive potentials of the different inhibitors in the two media. Gravimetric and voltametric techniques were employed in this study and a total of forty-five corrosion coupons of different dimensions were produced. Forty coupons were used for gravimetric analysis and the remaining five for corrosion potentials measurements. Eight of the samples were used as control; while other eight samples each were admixed with calcium nitrate and sodium nitrite in concrete cubes. It was later immersed in seawater and cassava fluid for a total duration of 32 days and the measurements were taken at the interval of 4 days in order to determine the corrosion rates in mils per year (mmpy). Two controls and admixed samples each were later immersed in seawater and cassava fluid, respectively, for durations of 32 days to determine the corrosion potentials using a voltmeter and a Copper-Copper Sulphate Electrode (Cu/CuSO4). The pH of each medium was measured throughout the period of exposure. The results obtained expressed that all the samples except the control samples, displayed some degree of inhibition. The inhibition levels for the admixed samples in seawater were higher compared with those in cassava fluid. Inhibition efficiencies for various inhibitors followed different trends in different environment. The inhibition efficiencies for calcium nitrate in cassava fluid and seawater were 26.81% and 64.85% respectively. The study concluded that inorganic inhibitors were effective in inhibiting corrosion in cyanide and chloride contaminated concrete cubes.
Corrosion Study of AISI 304, AISI 321 and AISI 430 Stainless Steels in a Tar Sand Digester  [PDF]
L.E. Umoru, A.A. Afonja, B. Ademodi
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2008.74022
Abstract: This work has investigated the corrosion properties of three types of stainless steels in a tar sand digester environment with the aim of establishing their relative resistances in the environment. The corrosion experiments for the stainless steels were conducted by the non-electrochemical immersion technique with corrosion rates expressed in mils per year (mpy). The spectroscopy analysis of the Nigerian tar sand was done by the energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The surface study of the corroded stainless steels was accomplished via a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to reveal the form of corrosion. The results of the corrosion experiments show that all the stainless steels have a relatively low corrosion rates (<5mpy). The SEM analyses of their corroded surfaces however revealed great tendency in them to exhibit crevice and pitting corrosions. On the basis of resistance to the two forms of corrosion the AISI 321 stainless steel exhibited the best resistance in the environment.
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