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Hepatitis C has a 3% of the global
disease burden that remains endemic in many regions of the world. According to a
general statistical survey it has approximately 5.3% seroprevalence in Pakistan.
HCV is a persistent and silent disease thus making the primary diagnosis complicated. Occasionally HCV positive population could not be diagnosed by routine HCV antibody testing therefore requires
molecular diagnosis. This study is aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV and
to estimate the HCV viral load by quantitative
analysis among different patient groups of District Gujrat, Pakistan. A total
of 597 samples were collected from clinically diagnosed liver patients that were
categorized into three age groups: 1) up to 25 years; 2) 26-50 years 3) above
50 years. All samples were subjected to real time PCR for determination and
quantification of HCV RNA. Activity of liver aminotransferases was measured. The
overall prevalence of HCV-RNA was 73.87%. Females had slightly higher HCV prevalence which is 74.06% while 73.45% in males. Highest prevalence of active HCV infection was found in age group 26-50. In addition, liver function tests showed that 28.12% HCV-positive patients
do not have elevated ALT level whereas 32.65% did not show elevated AST levels.
It may be assumed that there is not a significant relationship between increased
viral load and liver amino transferases. The study concluded a significantly higher
rate of HCV infection in young population. Moreover screening with antibody and
liver function tests alone does not exclude the possibility of HCV infection.
In this paper, I described the methods that I used for the creation of Xlets, which are Java applets that are developed for the IDTV environment; and the methods for online data retrieval and processing that I utilized in these Xlets. The themes that I chose for the Xlets of the IDTV applications are Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning; Recent Seismic Activity Report; and Emergency Services. The online data regarding the Recent Seismic Activity Report application are provided by the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) of Bogazici University in Istanbul; while the online data for the Earthquake and Tsunami Early Warning and the Emergency Services applications are provided by the Godoro website which I used for storing (and retrieving by the Xlets) the earthquake and tsunami early warning simulation data, and the DVB network subscriber data (such as name and address information) for utilizing in the Emergency Services (Police, Ambulance and Fire Department) application. I have focused on the methodologies to use digital television as an efficient medium to convey timely and useful information regarding seismic warning data to the public, which forms the main research topic of this paper.
sensual and motoric equipment and its successful development within the
maternal organism on the one hand, and the harmonic psycho-physic
transformation and maturation of the woman into a mother on the other hand, are
linked in dialectic inter-dependence. We describe situations in which the
harmony of this process is disturbed. Visualization of the fetus in 3D and real
time 3D (4D) can influence parental phantasies of the unborn, improve
compromised bonding, or create bonding between fetus and (foster)-parents, and
support understanding and even acceptance of fetal pathology.
In this article, a new application to find the exact solutions of nonlinear partial time-space fractional differential Equation has been discussed. Firstly, the fractional complex transformation has been implemented to convert nonlinear partial fractional differential Equations into nonlinear ordinary differential Equations. Afterwards, the (G'/G)-expansion method has been implemented, to celebrate the exact solutions of these Equations, in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. As application, the exact solutions of time-space fractional Burgers’ Equation have been discussed.