Abstract:
We present novel tools suitable for assessments of DNA curvature-related sequence periodicity in nucleotide sequences at the genome scale. Utility of the present software is demonstrated on a comparison of sequence periodicities in the genomes of Haemophilus influenzae, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Arabidopsis thaliana. The software can be accessed through a web interface and the programs are also available for download.The present software is suitable for comparing DNA curvature-related sequence periodicity among different genomes as well as for analysis of intrachromosomal heterogeneity of the sequence periodicity. It provides a quick and convenient way to detect anomalous regions of chromosomes that could have unusual structural and functional properties and/or distinct evolutionary history.Most naturally occurring DNA sequences feature two strong periodic patterns. The first relates to a 3 bp period resulting from amino acid and codon usage biases in protein coding genes. The second arises from periodic spacing of A-tracts (short runs of A or T) phased with the DNA helical period of ~10.5 bp. The periodically spaced A-tracts are a primary indicator of intrinsically bent DNA and the main component of nucleosome positioning signals in eukaryotes [1-3]. Similar periodic patterns are present in prokaryotes, where they could contribute to DNA packaging in the nucleoid [4,5], promote the appropriate mode of supercoiling [6,7], and/or facilitate the initiation and termination of transcription [8,9]. There are significant differences in the character and intensity of these periodic patterns among different genomes as well as among different segments of the same genome [4,6,7,10]. In some species, the intragenomic heterogeneity of the sequence periodicity has been linked to local variance in gene expression and chromatin structure [4,11,12].Despite the biological significance of DNA curvature-related sequence periodicity, there are virtual

Abstract:
The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and its allied problems like Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) are one of the most widely studied problems in combinatorial optimization. It has long been known to be NP-hard and hence research on developing algorithms for the TSP has focused on approximate methods in addition to exact methods. Tabu search is one of the most widely applied metaheuristic for solving the TSP. In this paper, we review the tabu search literature on the TSP and its variations, point out trends in it, and bring out some interesting research gaps in this literature.

Abstract:
r(VI) is a known human carcinogen. It is a wide spread environmental contaminant as it is extensively used in different industry. The kinetic study of reduction of Cr(VI) by a known organic substance, 1-butanol in micellar media have been studied spectrophotometrically. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) occurs in a micro- heterogeneous system in cell cytoplasm. As micelles are considered to mimic the cellular membranes, the reduction process occurring in the micellar system is considered as a model to obtain insight in to the reduction process prevailing in body systems. Micellar media is also a probe to establish the mechanistic paths of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and the effects of some electrolytes common to a biological systems are studied to establish the proposed reaction mechanism strongly. The overall reaction follows a first order dependency on substrate and hexavalent chromium and second order dependency on hydrogen ion. Suitable surfactant & suitable concentration of electrolyte enhance the rate of the reaction.

The unsteady incompressible viscous flow of a Generalised Maxwell fluid between two coaxial rotating infinite parallel circular disks is studied by using the method of integral transforms. The motion of the fluid is created by the rotation of the upper and lower circular disks with different angular velocities. A fractional calculus approach is utilized to determine the velocity profile in series form in terms of Mittag-Leffler function. The influence of the fractional as well as the material parameters on the velocity field is illustrated graphically.

This paper presents a study of visco-elastic flow of an
incompressible generalized Oldroyd-B fluid between two infinite parallel plates
in which the constitutive equation involves fractional order time derivative.
The solutions of field equations are being obtained for the motion of the said
fluid between two parallel plates where the lower plate starts to move with
steady velocity and the upper plate remains fixed in the first problem and the
upper plate oscillates with constant frequency and the other being at rest in
the second problem. The exact solutions for the velocity field are obtained by
using the Laplace transform and finite Fourier
Sine transform technique in terms of Mittag Leffler and generalised functions.
The analytical expression for the velocity fields are derived and the effect of
fractional parameters upon the velocity field is depicted graphically.

Abstract:
In this paper an attempt has been made to study the unsteady incompressible flow of a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid between two oscillating parallel plates in presence of a transverse magnetic field. An exact solution for the velocity field has been obtained by means of Laplace and finite Fourier sine transformations in series form in terms of Mittage-Leffler function. The dependence of the velocity field on fractional as well as material parameters has been illustrated graphically. The velocity fields for the classical Newtonian, generalized Maxwell, generalized second grade and ordinary Oldroyd-B fluids are recovered as limiting cases of the flow considered for the generalized Oldroyd-B fluid.

Abstract:
In present paper, an investigation has been made on the fluctuating flow of a non-Newtonian second grade fluid through a porous medium over a semi-infinite porous plate in presence of a transverse magnetic field B0. The governing equations have been solved analytically and the expressions for the velocity and stress fields are obtained. The free stream velocity U(t) fluctuates in time about a non-zero constant mean. The effects of the permeability parameter K and magnetic field parameter M on velocity field have been analyzed quantitatively with the help of figures. It is noticed that the velocity field asymptotically approaches free stream velocity as it goes far away from the plate.

Abstract:
Quantum cryptography and especially quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technique that allocates secure keys only for a short distance. QKD protocols establish secure key by consent of both the sender and receiver. However, communication has to take place via an authenticate channel. Without this channel, QKD is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. While not completely secure, it offers huge advantages over traditional methods by the use of entanglement swapping and quantum teleportation. In our research, we adopt the principle of charge-coupled device (CCD) to transfer the qubit from the sender to the receiver via a quantum channel. This technology has an added advantage over polarizer as only the circuit for transmitting the qubit is sufficient. No extra circuitry to implement the polarizer is required.

Abstract:
Given a simply connected, closed four manifold, we associate to it a simply connected, closed, spin five manifold. This leads to several consequences : the stable and unstable homotopy groups of such a four manifold is determined by its second Betti number, and the ranks of the homotopy groups can be explicitly calculated. We show that for a generic metric on such a smooth four manifold with second Betti number at least three, the number of geometrically distinct periodic geodesics of length at most l grow exponentially as a function of l. The number of closed Reeb orbits of length at most l on the spherization of the cotangent bundle also grow exponentially for any Reeb flow.

Abstract:
In this paper we give a formula for the homotopy groups of $(n-1)$-connected $2n$-manifolds as a direct sum of homotopy groups of spheres in the case the $n^{th}$ Betti number is larger than $1$. We demonstrate that when the $n^{th}$ Betti number is $1$ the homotopy groups might not have such a decomposition. The techniques used in this computation also yield formulae for homotopy groups of connected sums of sphere products and CW complexes of a similar type. In all the families of spaces considered here, we establish a conjecture of J. C. Moore.