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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3807 matches for " Arshad Hasan "
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Impact of Firm Specific Factors on Profitability of Firms in Food Sector  [PDF]
Nousheen Tariq Bhutta, Arshad Hasan
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2013.22005
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the impact of firm specific and macroeconomic factors on profitability of food sector in Pakistan. This study explores the impact of firm specific factors on profitability of companies listed in food sector ofKarachistock market in the presence of food inflation by employing multivariate regression analysis in common effect setting for the period of 2002-2006. The firm specific factors include debt to equity, tangibility, growth and size and macroeconomic factor include food inflation. Findings of study reveal the presence of significant negative relationship between size and profitability. However, tangibility, growth of the firm and food inflation are found insignificantly positively related to profitability. Similarly, an insignificant negative relationship is observed between debt to equity ratio of firm and its profitability. Empirical results provide evidence that the profitability of food sector is shaped by firm specific factors and not macroeconomic variables. One important limitation of study is that it only considers one macroeconomic factor i.e. food inflation. In future studies more macroeconomic factors will be explored to examine their impact on profitability of food sector firms. However, this study still provides significant insight about dynamics of profitability in food sector and helps in making optimal decisions of resource allocation in food sector of Pakistani equity market.
Impact of Ownership Structure and Corporate Governance on Capital Structure of Pakistani Listed Companies
Arshad Hasan,Safdar Ali Butt
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v4n2p50
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between corporate governance and capital structure of listed companies in an emerging equity market, Pakistan. The study covers the period 2002 to 2005 for which firm level data for 58 randomly selected non-financial listed companies from Karachi Stock Exchange has been examined by using multivariate regression analysis under fixed effect model approach. Measures of corporate governance employed are board size, board composition, and CEO/Chair duality. Impact of shareholding on financing decisions has also been examined by using managerial shareholding and institutional shareholding. Similarly influence of controlled variables like firm size and profitability on firms’ financing mechanism is also investigated. Results reveal that board size and managerial shareholding is significantly negatively correlated with debt to equity ratio. However corporate’s financing behavior is not found significantly influenced by CEO/Chair duality and the presence of non-executive directors on the board. However, control variables firm size and return on assets are found to have a significant effect on capital structure. No temporal effects are observed. Therefore results suggest that corporate governance variables like size and ownership structure and managerial shareholding play important role in determination of financial mix of the firms.
Association between Injections and HIV Incidence
Naveed Zafar Janjua ,Khabir Ahmad,Arshad Altaf,Mohammad Imran Khan,Hasan Bin Hamza
PLOS Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020139
IL13 gene polymorphisms modify the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke on persistent wheeze and asthma in childhood, a longitudinal study
Alireza Sadeghnejad, Wilfried Karmaus, S Hasan Arshad, Ramesh Kurukulaaratchy, Marianne Huebner, Susan Ewart
Respiratory Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-9-2
Abstract: In the Isle of Wight birth cohort (UK, 1989–1999), five IL13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs1800925 (-1112C/T), rs2066960, rs1295686, rs20541 (R130Q) and rs1295685 were genotyped. Parents were asked whether their children had wheezed in the last 12 months at ages 1, 2, 4 and 10 years. Children who reported wheeze in the first 4 years of life and also had wheezing at age 10 were classified as early-onset persistent wheeze phenotype; non-wheezers never wheezed up to age 10. Persistent asthma was defined as having a diagnosis of asthma both during the first four years of life and at age 10. Logistic regression methods were used to analyze data on 791 children with complete information. Potential confounders were gender, birth weight, duration of breast feeding, and household cat or dog present during pregnancy.Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with early-onset persistent wheeze (OR 2.93, p < 0.0001); polymorphisms in IL13 were not (OR 1.15, p = 0.60 for the common haplotype pair). However, the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy was stronger in children with the common IL13 haplotype pair compared to those without it (OR 5.58 and OR 1.29, respectively; p for interaction = 0.014). Single SNP analysis revealed a similar statistical significance for rs20541 (p for interaction = 0.02). Comparable results were observed for persistent childhood asthma (p for interaction = 0.03).This is the first report that shows a combined effect of in utero exposure to smoking and IL13 on asthma phenotypes in childhood. The results emphasize that genetic studies need to take environmental exposures into account, since they may explain contradictory findings.It has been suggested that the increased prevalence of asthma-related phenotypes over the last three decades is due to exposure to environmental factors [1]. Among such exposures, environmental tobacco smoke is regarded as an important risk factor for asthma-related phenotypes [2,3]. In particular, an e
Interplay of Filaggrin Loss-of-Function Variants, Allergic Sensitization, and Eczema in a Longitudinal Study Covering Infancy to 18 Years of Age
Ali H. Ziyab, Wilfried Karmaus, Mitra Yousefi, Susan Ewart, Eric Schauberger, John W. Holloway, Hongmei Zhang, Syed Hasan Arshad
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032721
Abstract: Background Immune specific genes as well as genes regulating the formation of skin barrier are major determinants for eczema manifestation. There is a debate as to whether allergic sensitization and filaggrin gene (FLG) variants lead to eczema or FLG variants and eczema increase the risk of allergic sensitization. To investigate the time-order between eczema and allergic sensitization with respect to FLG variants, data from a large prospective study covering infancy to late adolescence were analyzed. Methodology/Principal Findings Repeated measurements of eczema and allergic sensitization (documented by skin prick tests) at ages 1, 2, 4, 10, and 18 years were ascertained in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (n = 1,456). Three transition periods were analyzed: age 1-or-2 to 4, 4 to 10, and 10 to 18 years. FLG variants were genotyped in 1,150 participants. Over the three transition periods, in temporal sequence analyses of initially eczema-free participants, the combined effect of FLG variants and allergic sensitization showed a 2.92-fold (95% CI: 1.47–5.77) increased risk ratio (RR) of eczema in subsequent examinations. This overall risk was more pronounced at a younger age (transition period 1-or-2 to 4, RR = 6.47, 95% CI: 1.96–21.33). In contrast, FLG variants in combination with eczema showed a weaker, but significant, risk ratio for subsequent allergic sensitization only up to 10 years of age. Conclusions/Significance Taking the time order into account, this prospective study demonstrates for the first time, that a combination of FLG variants and allergic sensitization increased the risk of eczema in subsequent years. Also FLG variants interacted with eczema and increased the risk of subsequent allergic sensitization, which, was limited to the younger age. Hence, early restoration of defective skin barrier could prevent allergic sensitization and subsequently reduce the risk of eczema development.
Are exhaled nitric oxide measurements using the portable NIOX MINO repeatable?
Anna Selby, Bernie Clayton, Jane Grundy, Katy Pike, Kirsty Drew, Abid Raza, Ramesh Kurukulaaratchy, S Hasan Arshad, Graham Roberts
Respiratory Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-43
Abstract: Paired exhaled nitric oxide readings were obtained from 494 teenagers, aged 16-18 years, enrolled in an unselected birth cohort and 65 young people, aged 6-17 years, with asthma enrolled in an interventional asthma management study.The birth cohort participants showed a high degree of variability between first and second exhaled nitric oxide readings (mean intra-participant difference 1.37 ppb, 95% limits of agreement -7.61 to 10.34 ppb), although there was very close agreement when values were categorised as low, normal, intermediate or high (kappa = 0.907, p < 0.001). Similar findings were seen in subgroup analyses by sex, lung function and asthma status. Similar findings were seen in the interventional study participants.The reproducibility of exhaled nitric oxide is poor for absolute values but acceptable when values are categorised as low, normal, intermediate or high in children and teenagers. One measurement is therefore sufficient when using categorical exhaled nitric oxide values to direct asthma management but a mean of at least two measurements is required for absolute values.Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways associated with airway hyperresponsiveness and recurrent episodes of reversible airflow limitation that are accompanied by wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough [1]. It is the most common chronic condition of childhood [2] affecting approximately 20% of school-aged children in the United Kingdom [3]. Decisions regarding asthma management are currently based on symptoms and conventional lung function tests. Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has recently emerged as a potentially useful tool in the assessment of patients with asthma [4]. Exhaled nitric oxide measurements correlate well with measures of airway inflammation, including sputum levels of eosinophils [5], airway eosinophilia in bronchial biopsies [6] and allergen exposure [7]. Measurements can be made within minutes, even in young school children. Furthermore
Impact of Urban Land Transformation on Water Bodies in Srinagar City, India  [PDF]
Shahab Fazal, Arshad Amin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.22016
Abstract: Human actions rather than natural forces are the source of most contemporary changes in the state and flows of the biosphere. Understanding these actions and the social forces that drive them is crucial to understanding, modelling and predicting local, regional as well as global environmental change and also for managing and responding to such change. The present study investigates the patterns of urban land transformation in Srinagar City, which lies in fragile hill eco-system of Kashmir valley. The results points towards unplanned and haphazard urban expansion and transformation. These transformations have severely destroyed the water bodies both in terms of area as well as its quality.
Land Transformation Analysis Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques (A Case Study)  [PDF]
Arshad Amin, Shahab Fazal
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2012.43027
Abstract: The increasing population and economic activities are putting pressure on the available land resources. Human population and their use of land have transformed the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes). The present study analyses the urban land use/cover change and land transformation in Srinagar city which is located in the valley of the hill state of Jammu and Kashmir. A change detection analysis was performed to determine the nature, extent and rate of land use/cover change and transformation over 30 years of time period. The results show that the city has expanded significantly at the cost of non built-up land which has decreased in its area. Significantly there was not only the expansion of city area but also there were interchange of land between different land use/cover classes in the study area.
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Chemically Modified Epoxy Resin  [PDF]
Sumeera Ikram, Arshad Munir
Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications (OJSTA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojsta.2012.13007
Abstract: Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA), having number average molecular weight (Mn) 375, was modified by incorporating the hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) based prepolymer using isophorone diisocyanate as a coupling agent. To increase the compatibility between the epoxy resin and HTPB part, polar groups were introduced in the later to achieve physical and chemical interactions between the two phases. The finally modified DGEBA system was cured with amine based hardener. FTIR and 1H-NMR were used to monitor the whole modification procedure. The rubber particles size and distribution was monitored as a function of HTPB contents in the resin system using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical, thermal and thermo-mechanical properties have shown that the tensile strength, toughness, ductility and impact strength of the modified cured system have been successfully increased at some optimum HTPB contents without affecting the inherent thermal and thermo-mechanical stability associated with DGEBA resin system. Some of the mechanical properties like flexural modulus, tensile modulus and compressive strength decreased with increasing rubber contents.
Evaluating Urban Landscape Dynamics over Srinagar City and Its Environs  [PDF]
Arshad Amin, Shahab Fazal
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2015.72018
Abstract: Rapid, unplanned and uncontrolled urbanization causes disorganized growth. The patterns of urban development are changing natural landscapes and their dynamics. This has necessitated understanding of spatial patterns of urbanization and prompted research. Urbanization being a dynamic phenomenon has been facing ambiguities regarding methods to study its dynamism. It has made operational, a wide-variety of spatial metrics methods utilizing multiple dates of remotely sensed data. The present work carries out the quantitative and qualitative analysis of urban growth of Srinagar by using Urban Landscape Analysis Tool (ULAT). Urbanized Area (UA), Urban Footprint (UF) and New Development (ND) maps are generated to quantify the degree of urbanization based on spatial density of built-up area. Comparative analysis of these maps in relation to the built-up spread pattern indicates that mostly the environs of the Srinagar city which includes mostly agricultural, vacant and marshy areas prominently in northern, western and southern areas contribute to the development of the city.
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