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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1742 matches for " Arman Hossain "
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Descriptive Epidemiology of Multidrug Resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Bangladesh  [PDF]
Abu Bakar Siddik, Muhammad Maqsud Hossain, Sanjana Zaman, Basana Marma, Gias Uddin Ahsan, Mohammad Rashed Uzzaman, Arman Hossain, Mohammad Delwer Hossain Hawlader
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.64026
Abstract: Background: The number of reported MDR-TB cases has been increasing in recent years. Objectives: To describe the epidemiological profile of MDR-TB cases in Bangladesh. Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Settings: The study was conducted among the multi drug resistant tuberculosis patient admitted in the National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH) Dhaka, Bangladesh. Samples: 148 confirmed cases of MDR-TB. Materials and Methods: Hospital admitted MRD-TB cases were randomly chosen from the above mentioned hospital. Semi-structured and pretested questionnaire were introduced by researcher. Clinical and treatment data i.e. duration of TB drug intake, report of sputum, X-ray and blood test etc. were extracted from the hospital record. Results: Study found, majority of the participants (56.1%) were in the age group of 16 - 30 years. 64.2% of the study subjects were married. Majority of the participants education were whether under primary or primary level. 24.3% participant’s family member and 14.5% of neighbor were having TB. Most common comorbidity were diabetes, pulmonary infection, hearing loss, psychiatric symptoms, chest pain, joint pain etc. 63.5% respondent had high degree of AFB for sputum positivity and more than 98% had positive finding in X-ray chest. On an average ESR was low and also few cases of extremely low ESR were found. 71.6% were under twenty four months regimen. Conclusion: We can conclude that, many possible factors for MDR-TB. There is an urgent need for further study to confirm the exact factors in Bangladesh and address those immediately.
Improving Rule Base Quality to Enhance Production Systems Performance  [PDF]
Nabil Arman
International Journal of Intelligence Science (IJIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijis.2013.31001
Abstract: Production systems have a special value since they are used in state-space searching algorithms and expert systems in addition to their use as a model for problem solving in artificial intelligence. Therefore, it is of high importance to consider different techniques to improve their performance. In this research, rule base is the component of the production system that we aim to focus on. This work therefore seeks to investigate this component and its relationship with other components and demonstrate how the improvement of its quality has a great impact on the performance of the production system as a whole. In this paper, the improvement of rule base quality is accomplished in two steps. The first step involves re-writing the rules having conjunctions of literals and producing a new set of equivalent rules in which long inference chains can be obtained easily. The second step involves augmenting the rule base with inference short-cut rules devised from the long inference chains. These inference short-cut rules have a great impact on the performance of the production system. Finally, simulations are performed on randomly generated rule bases with different sizes and goals to be proved. The simulations demonstrate that the suggested enhancements are very beneficial in improving the performance of production systems.
The Man Behind the Beard: Perception of Men’s Trustworthiness as a Function of Facial Hair  [PDF]
Arman Bakmazian
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.53029
Abstract:

There are several exogenous factors—such as the presence of facial hair—that can bias a male’s perceived trustworthiness. Research addressing the influence facial hair that has on perceived trustworthiness is scarce; however, research suggests that facial hair promotes the perception of untrustworthiness. In the present study, participants were presented with experimental questions and two facial photographs (depicting a bearded or non-bearded face) and asked to choose the stimulus that they perceived to be more trustworthy. The results of the present study were inconsistent with previous findings (Ebling, 1987; Muscarella & Cunningham, 1996; Neave & Shields, 2008; Stirrat & Perrett, 2010; Terry & Krantz, 1993; Wogalter & Hosie, 1991). More specifically, individuals were significantly more likely to choose bearded faces over non-bearded faces as trustworthy. Moreover, attributions of a photo’s attractiveness were controlled by pre-rating it and randomly matching it with another photo with the same attractiveness rating.

An Econometric Analysis for CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth, Foreign Trade and Urbanization of Japan  [PDF]
Sharif Hossain
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2012.323013
Abstract: This paper examines the dynamic causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, foreign trade and urbanization using time series data for the period of 1960-2009. Short-run unidirectional causalities are found from energy consumption and trade openness to carbon dioxide emissions, from trade openness to energy consumption, from carbon dioxide emissions to economic growth, and from economic growth to trade openness. The test results also support the evidence of existence of long-run relationship among the variables in the form of Equation (1) which also conform the results of bounds and Johansen conintegration tests. It is found that over time higher energy consumption in Japan gives rise to more carbon dioxide emissions as a result the environment will be polluted more. But in respect of economic growth, trade openness and urbanization the environmental quality is found to be normal good in the long-run.
Application of Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP) in the Energy Intensive Industry to Promote Low Carbon Industrial Development in Bangladesh  [PDF]
Tahazzud Hossain
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2015.63009
Abstract: The consumption of natural resources (e.g. raw material, water & energy) in the industries is bringing welfare to the society but per unit of product from the industry is linked with the generation of environmental pollutants and emissions. Resource constraints and climate crisis have come into focus globally; particularly it has become one of the major concerns in the Asia Pacific region. At present, the countries in the Asia Pacific use resources three times greater than the rest of the world to generate one unit of GDP. These countries are more vulnerable to the impacts of resource constraints and climate change. Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production (RECP) has come as a preventive environmental measure to facilitate pollution prevention and reduce carbon intensity per unit of products along with financial profit of the industry. Bangladesh has been considered as one of the transition economies in the South Asia. Industrial sector supports second largest share to the GDP of Bangladesh. The industrial productivity in the country is solely dependent on the locally available natural gas and imported raw materials. Energy Efficiency (EE) and Cleaner Production (CP) measures in the industry can facilitate the promotion of low carbon industrial development through pollution prevention and energy conservation. The main objective of this research is to identify the policy instruments for the promotion of low carbon industrial development in Bangladesh within RECP framework. In this research, ceramics sector has been taken as a research unit. Based on the research objective, three research strategies have been followed which are: 1) review of the existing Environmental Policy, Industrial Policy and Energy Policy of Bangladesh, 2) review of the relevant measures adopted in the regional countries, and 3) case study in a ceramic industry. Stakeholder consultation has been conducted to identify appropriate policy instruments based on multi-criteria evaluation. Through this research, eleven policy instruments have been identified in connection with the promotion of RECP measures in the country with the target of developing low carbon industrial operation. Among the eleven policy instruments seven policy instruments have been identified as prioritized policy instruments based on multi-criteria evaluation through stakeholder consultation. Apart from the prioritized policy instruments the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) has to make realistic sector wise policies and specific policy targets to be achieved within timeline. The GoB has to increase
In Situ Preparation of Core Shell-Polypyrrole /Poly (Acrylonitrile-Co-Vinyl Acetate) Nanoparticles and Their Nanofibers  [PDF]
Burcu Arman, A. Sezai Sarac
Soft Nanoscience Letters (SNL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/snl.2014.42006
Abstract: Poly (acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate)/polypyrrole composite particles with uniform size and morphology have been synthesized using one-step polymerization that involves swelling and coating of polypyrrole (PPy) into P (AN-co-VAc) latex nanoparticles. As an initial stage, free radical copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinyl acetate (VAc) was synthesized by emulsion polymerization using ammonium persulfate (APS) and dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid salt (DBSA) as a surfactant. P (AN-co-VAc)/PPy composites were obtained first time by in situ addition of the pyrrole into the reaction medium. The electrospun P (AN-co-VAc)/PPy nanofibers were obtained from the nanoparticles with better properties and the effect of PPy on the morphology of nanofibers was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High degree of homogeneity and molecular order induced by molecular dispersion of polypyrrole on copolymer matrix without phase separation improve the transport properties and stability of polypyrrole, which are critical for high-performance organic electronics.
Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Admitted Patients at a Tertiary Referral Hospital of Bangladesh
Sayera Banu, Asif Mujtaba Mahmud, Md. Toufiq Rahman, Arman Hossain, Mohammad Khaja Mafij Uddin, Tahmeed Ahmed, Razia Khatun, Wahiduzzaman Akhanda, Roland Brosch
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040545
Abstract: Background This study was set out to investigate the magnitude, patterns and molecular characterization of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains at a tertiary referral hospital in Bangladesh. Methods Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients admitted at National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital from February 2002 to September 2005 with or without previous history of TB and/or other complications were randomly interviewed. Among 265 participants enrolled, M. tuberculosis isolates from 189 patients were finally tested for susceptibility to rifampicin (RMP), isoniazid (INH), ethambutol (ETM) and streptomycin (STM). Genotyping of M. tuberculosis was done using deletion analysis and spoligotyping. Results Eighty-eight percent (n = 167) of the patients had history of previous anti-TB treatment while the remaining 12% were new TB cases. Of the 189 isolates, 9% were fully susceptible to the first line anti-TB drugs and 73.5% were multi-drug resistant TB. Other susceptibility results showed 79.4%, 77.2%, 76.7% and 78.8% resistance to INH, RMP, ETM and STM respectively. Multi-drug resistance was significantly higher among the 130 (78%) patients with previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment (95% confidence interval, p = 0.001). Among the 189 analyzed isolates, 69% were classified as “modern” M. tuberculosis strains (i.e. TbD1- strains, lacking the M. tuberculosis-deletion region TbD1), whereas the remaining 31% were found to belong to the “ancestal” TbD1+ M. tuberculosis lineages. One hundred and five different spoligotype patterns were identified in which 16 clusters contained 100 strains and 89 strains had unique pattern. Strains with a spoligotype characteristic for the “Beijing” cluster were predominant (19%) and most of these strains (75%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Conclusions A high level of drug resistance observed among the re-treatment patients poses a threat of transmission of resistant strains to susceptible persons in the community. Proper counseling of patients and attention towards the completion of the anti-TB treatment is needed.
Weighted Anisotropic Integral Representations of Holomorphic Functions in the Unit Ball of
Arman Karapetyan
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/354961
Abstract: We obtain weighted integral representations for spaces of functions holomorphic in the unit ball and belonging to area-integrable weighted -classes with “anisotropic” weight function of the type , . The corresponding kernels of these representations are estimated, written in an integral form, and even written out in an explicit form (for ). 1. Introduction Denote by the unit ball in the complex -dimensional space . For and , denote by the space of all functions holomorphic in and satisfying the condition where is the Lebesgue measure in . Further, for a complex number with , put We have the following theorem. Theorem 1.1. Assume that , and that the complex number satisfies the condition Then each function admits the following integral representations: where is the Hermitean inner product in . For , that is, for the case of the unit disc , this theorem was established in [1, 2], where the formulas (1.4) are important in the theory of factorization of meromorphic functions in the unit disc. For , the theorem was proved in [3] (when ) and in [4, 5] (when ). In monographs [6, 7], one can find numerous applications of the formulas (1.4) in the complex analysis. In the present paper, we generalize Theorem 1.1 in the following way. Assume that and satisfies the conditions Then we introduce the spaces of functions holomorphic in and satisfying the condition Section 3 contains detailed investigation of these spaces with “anisotropic” weight function. For these “anisotropic” spaces, similarities of the integral representations (1.4) are obtained, but this time a special kernels (where , are associated with , and in a special way) appear instead of (Theorem 4.7). Theorem 4.5 gives the description (in a multiple series form) and the main properties of these kernels. Theorem 4.8 makes it possible to represent the kernels as integrals taken over . Finally, in the special case we write out these kernels in an explicit form (see Theorem 4.12). 2. Preliminaries In this section, we present several well-known facts which will be used in what follows. Fact 1. For and , put then Moreover, if and , then Remark 2.1. Assume that and is a continuous positive (i.e., ) function in . If , then when the corresponding integral exists. Fact 2. For , Fact 3. If , then Fact 4. If , then As a consequence of Stirling’s Formula, we have the following fact. Fact 5. For arbitrary and for In addition, if , and , then Fact 6. Assume that , and ; then is a nondecreasing function of , that is, Corollary 2.2. Assume that , and is a continuous positive (i.e., ) function in . Then if and . In
Model Independent Reconstruction of the Expansion History of the Universe and the Properties of Dark Energy
Shafieloo, Arman
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12175.x
Abstract: We have improved upon the method of smoothing supernovae data to reconstruct the expansion history of the universe, h(z), using two latest datasets, Gold and SNLS. The reconstruction process does not employ any parameterization and is independent of any dark energy model. The reconstructed h(z) is used to derive the distance factor "A" up to redshift 0.35 and the results are compared with the given value of "A" from detection of baryon acoustic oscillation peak (BAO). We find very good agreement between supernovae observations and the results from BAO for \Omega_{0m} \approx 0.276 \pm 0.023. The estimated values of \Omega_{0m} are completely model-independent and are only based on observational data. The derived values of \Omega_{0m} are then used to reconstruct the equation of state of dark energy, w(z). Using our smoothing method we can demonstrate that while SNLS data are in very good agreement with LCDM, the Gold sample slightly prefers evolving dark energy. We also show that proper estimation of the equation of state of dark energy at the high redshifts would be impossible at the current status of observations.
PET vs. SPECT: in the Context of Ongoing Developments
Arman Rahmim
Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine , 2006,
Abstract: This paper intends to compare the abilities of the two major imaging modalities in nuclear medicine imaging: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). The motivations are many-fold: (i) To gain a better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the two imaging modalities in the context of recent and ongoing developments in hardware and software design; (ii) To emphasize that certain issues, historically and commonly thought as limitations, may now be instead viewed as challenges that can be addressed; (iii) To point out that existing PET and SPECT scanners in the field can (much) benefit from improvements in image-reconstruction software; (iii) To point-out (to engineers, physicists and software-developers) important areas of research in PET and SPECT imaging that will be instrumental to further improvements in the two modalities;
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