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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 331 matches for " Arianna Lark "
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Factors that Differentially Affect Daytime and Nighttime Sleep in Drosophila melanogaster
Hiroshi Ishimoto,Arianna Lark,Toshihiro Kitamoto
Frontiers in Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00024
Abstract: Rest in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has key characteristics of mammalian sleep and is thus considered as a fly version of sleep. Drosophila sleep has been studied extensively, with the aim of gaining fundamental insights into the evolutionarily conserved functions of sleep as well as the mechanisms that regulate it. An interesting question that has not yet been addressed is whether fly sleep can be classified into distinct sleep types, each having particular biological roles – like rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep in birds and mammals. Typically, Drosophila sleep displays a bimodal pattern, consisting of distinct daytime and nighttime components. Notably, daytime and nighttime sleep differ with respect to several qualities, such as sleep-bout lengths and arousal thresholds. In this short review, we describe several genetic and environmental factors that differentially affect daytime and nighttime sleep, highlighting the observations suggesting the notion that these temporally distinct components of Drosophila sleep may have unique biological functions and be regulated by different homeostatic regulatory mechanisms.
Targeting adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in preclinical models reveals a potential mechanism for the treatment of neuropathic pain
Ohannes K Melemedjian, Marina N Asiedu, Dipti V Tillu, Raul Sanoja, Jin Yan, Arianna Lark, Arkady Khoutorsky, Jessica Johnson, Katherine A Peebles, Talya Lepow, Nahum Sonenberg, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price
Molecular Pain , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-7-70
Abstract: Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition wherein a large cohort of patients fail to achieve even partial pain relief [1]. Hence, novel treatment approaches targeting molecular mechanisms of pathology induced by peripheral nerve injury (PNI) are needed. PNI leads to changes in sensory neuron phenotype and function resulting in hyperexcitability and ectopic activity in these neurons driving neuropathic pain [2]. The important role of translation regulation in learning and memory has elucidated translation control as a critical factor for neuronal plasticity [3]. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that translation regulation at the level of the primary afferent neuron is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of enhanced pain states [4-9]. Several recent reports have suggested an important role for the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in neuropathic pain [4,6]; however, mechanistic links between mTORC1 and pathology induced by PNI are still lacking. Moreover, treatment strategies that target translation control have not been clearly identified as potential treatments for neuropathic pain.Translation control is orchestrated by upstream kinases that signal to the translation machinery [10]. These kinases can be targeted individually by selective inhibitors or they can be negatively modulated by endogenous signaling factors that act on these pathways [11]. A crucial kinase for negative regulation of translation is the ubiquitous, energy-sensing kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of AMPK by depletion of cellular nutrients or through pharmacological intervention results in a dampening of signaling to the translation machinery [11] but the potential effects of AMPK activation on neuronal excitability, an important component of neuropathic pain conditions [2], is not known. AMPK can be targeted pharmacologically via a number of investigational compounds (e.g. AICAR and A769662) and by the widely clinically available and r
The Many Forms and Functions of Long Term Plasticity at GABAergic Synapses
Arianna Maffei
Neural Plasticity , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/254724
Abstract: On February 12th 1973, Bliss and Lomo submitted their findings on activity-dependent plasticity of glutamatergic synapses. After this groundbreaking discovery, long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) gained center stage in the study of learning, memory, and experience-dependent refinement of neural circuits. While LTP and LTD are extensively studied and their relevance to brain function is widely accepted, new experimental and theoretical work recently demonstrates that brain development and function relies on additional forms of plasticity, some of which occur at nonglutamatergic synapses. The strength of GABAergic synapses is modulated by activity, and new functions for inhibitory synaptic plasticity are emerging. Together with excitatory neurons, inhibitory neurons shape the excitability and dynamic range of neural circuits. Thus, the understanding of inhibitory synaptic plasticity is crucial to fully comprehend the physiology of brain circuits. Here, I will review recent findings about plasticity at GABAergic synapses and discuss how it may contribute to circuit function. 1. Heterosynaptic Inhibitory Plasticity 1.1. Long-Term Potentiation Plasticity of GABAergic synapses onto excitatory neurons, in the form of long-term potentiation (LTPi) and/or depression (LTDi) of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), was initially reported in layer 5 of the rodent primary visual cortex [1]. Following these pioneering studies, bidirectional inhibitory plasticity was observed in many areas of the brain—neonatal hippocampus [2], deep cerebellar nuclei [3, 4], lateral superior olive [5], brain stem [6], and onto dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) [7, 8]. Although there are significant differences in the induction and expression mechanisms of high-frequency long-term inhibitory plasticity (HF-LTPi and HF-LTDi, Figure 1), some common features have been identified across several brain circuits. Most forms of HF-LTPi involve Ca2+-mediated signaling. The source of Ca2+ is specific to the inhibitory synapse: voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in neonatal hippocampus (Figure 1(b), left panel) [9]; astrocytes in juvenile hippocampus [10]; postsynaptic intracellular stores in cortex (Figure 1(a), left panel) [11, 12]; activation of postsynaptic NMDA receptors in the VTA (Figure 1(c), left panel) [8]. In several systems, the induction of HF-LTPi and HF-LTDi depends on high-frequency activation of glutamatergic and GABAergic axons. Postsynaptic activation of glutamatergic receptors is often required for the induction of HF-LTPi, while
Educational models and concept of childhood in the Gaza Strip Educare a Gaza
Arianna Taddei
Ricerche di Pedagogia e Didattica , 2010,
Abstract: In 2008, R.E.C. (Remedial Education Centre, Gaza, Palestine) was carrying out the project “Promotion of the democratic process and active participation among young population in the Gaza Strip”, approved by the Europe Initiative for democracy and Human Rights, and financed by the European Union. The project included a research activity, “Educational models and concept of childhood in the Gaza Strip”. The research is an idea coming from the long-term collaboration, started in 2002, between EducAid (Italian Ngo, Rimini, Italy) and R.E.C. in the educational work with the vulnerable children in the Gaza Strip.Teachers, educators and parents play a fundamental role in the education of children and adolescents; therefore families, associations and schools should be places where children become aware of their rights as human beings, in order to become, one day, active citizens of a society that themselves can improve. It’s of fundamental importance the policy that institutions carry out (supporting families, schools and associations), because it guarantees a functional education system. We interfaced with the different faces of formal and informal education, and it was impossible not to have the sensation of being inside a big prison, not too big, if we think its size compared to one and a half million inhabitants, between a closed tall and gray wall, a sea hardly accessible due to embargo, and Erez, the check point of transit for Israel. No gas, no fuel, no electricity, yet children continue to go to school, the roads are crowded by pedestrians who are waiting for a taxi for hours under the sun, wondering if they can go to work. The potential of education and schooling represent non-violent weapons to defend peace, promote change, make children aware of their rights, begin to live their citizenship at school, at home, in the associations. Through the testimonies we realized how much these valuable potentials are in danger in the Gaza Strip, as indeed in many other places in the world where people are slaves to someone or something, and lose confidence, tighten up their minds, are afraid to change, to fight for transforming what the political, social, local and international system make difficult and overwhelming. In 2008, R.E.C. (Remedial Education Centre, Gaza, Palestine) was carrying out the project “Promotion of the democratic process and active participation among young population in the Gaza Strip”, approved by the Europe Initiative for democracy and Human Rights, and financed by the European Union. The project included a research activity, “Educational m
Althea Gyles’ Symbolic (De)Codification of William Butler Yeats’ ‘Rose and Wind Poetry’
Arianna Antonielli
Studi Irlandesi : a Journal of Irish Studies , 2011,
Abstract: In 1897, Yeats’s The Secret Rose was published in London by Lawrence & Bullen, while two years later, in 1899, the London editor Elkin Mathews published The Wind Among the Reeds. Both volumes are extremely interesting, not only for their acknowledged poetical value but also for their material worth. This is due to their elaborate designs: gold stamps on the spine and cover 1897 edition of the Secret Rose and intertwining reeds on The Wind Among the Reeds cover. Both were done by the Irish artist Althea Gyles (1867-1949). Gyles was frequently described by Yeats as a “symbolic artist” producing a “symbolic art” (Memoirs: Autobiography – A First Draft, 1972). Her paintings deeply influenced Yeats’s symbolical and imaginary system, to such a degree that they formed its perfect iconic counterpart. Following this hypothesis, Antonielli concentrates on Yeats’s main esoteric topoi, symbols and images emerging from the poems in The Secret Rose and The Wind Among the Reeds, and on their ‘translation’ into Althea Gyles’s iconic visions and artistic output. She examines how Yeats’s poems were clarified or further complicated by Gyles’s corresponding designs and how Yeats and Gyles, through their own peculiar artistic expressions, exemplified a shared symbolic vision of phenomenal reality.
The Rhyme of the Flying Bomb di Mervyn Peake: 125 quartine sul Blitz di Londra
Arianna Antonielli
LEA : Lingue e Letterature d'Oriente e d'Occidente , 2013,
Abstract: This essay addresses Mervyn Peake’s own memories of the Second World War Blitz and their migration into the poetical form of a ballad, The Rhyme of the Flying Bomb, composed in 1947. Abounding with Catholic symbolism, allegories and sea imagery, the poem tells the story of a sailor escaping from London bombing raids and his rescue of a new-born babe from a “golden drain”. The subsequent dialogue between the two protagonists reveals the fragile human side of the sailor and the divine prophetical power of the infant. Their former roles of saviour and rescued finally appear to be both spiritually and physically inverted. Written in alternating rhymes, the poem emphasizes Peake’s strong faith in humanity’s capacity to perform acts of love, despite living “at the height of a world at war”.
Ripensare l’11 Settembre con Derrida: Tra evento e autoimmunità
Arianna Marchente
Altre Modernità , 2011,
Abstract: In a way, after the September 11th terrorist attack, we have all had the feeling that we witnessed a real major event. However, the notion of event itself is semantically problematic. The 10th anniversary of this date offers us the opportunity to interrogate ourselves with a new question: was this indeed an event? To what extent? This is the very question which opens Jacques Derrida’s interview, undertaken by Giovanna Borradori in New York a few days after the attack. Indeed the French philosopher Derrida provides us with deep insights into the notion of event, its underpinnings and semantic roots. To a certain extent September 11th seems to be an event; indeed, how otherwise could it have given such a strong impression of being so? On the other hand however, it seems not to have been an event, in that it does not correspond to the Derridian definition of “event” as a surprise, as something totally unpredictable. September 11th - Derrida claims- was predictable and it’s not by chance that the US had created institutions such as the CIA or the NSA to defend themselves from this kind of threat. Nevertheless in understanding September 11th as something other than an event, we are forced to struggle with the question why was it that we first had the impression it was an event and why did it have such a strong impact on us? We are therefore confronted with two new important questions. The first leads us to reflect on the role that the media played with respect to September 11th. What would September 11th have been –Derrida asks himself- without TV? The second question concerns the auto-immune nature of this event, which explains its traumatic effect and stands as an emblem of that auto-immunity, which is the fundamental characteristic of present times, in this era of globalisation.
The political economy of Turkey-EU customs union after the treaty of Lisbon: A Reappraisal
Arianna Catalano
Interdisciplinary Political Studies , 2011,
Abstract: This article analyses the European Union’s (EU) trade policy highlighting the gradual shift towards a more penetrating EU Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) policy and institutional changes brought about by the Treaty of Lisbon and their impact on trade policy’s functioning. Emphasizing Turkey’s changing trade patterns and stressing the growing salience of non-EU trade partners, the article opens up a debate on the rationale of current Customs Union. The analysis brings to the understanding of the on-going cases of trade deflection negatively affecting Turkish economy and the drawbacks arisen from the EU’s changing FTA policy. Finally, the political and technical aspects of Turkey’s accession process are discussed to shed further light on the current and future meaning behind today’s Customs Union.
Carlo Dionisotti, Scritti di storia della letteratura italiana
Arianna Gianotti
Enthymema , 2009, DOI: 10.6092/2037-2426/424
Sirio Giannini, Prati di fieno e I racconti
Arianna Gianotti
Enthymema , 2010, DOI: 10.6092/2037-2426/588
Abstract: Recensiamo i due volumi di Sirio Giannini, Prati di fieno, con Prefazione di Daniela Marcheschi, e I racconti, con Prefazione di Paolo Capovani, Edizioni Polistampa, Firenze, 2010.
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