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Hydrogeology of Abuja FCT-Nigeria: A GIS Evaluation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Ebot Sonia Egbe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105649
Abstract:
Groundwater has been recognized as playing a very important role in the development of Abuja FCT Nigeria’s capital, as many private and government establishments depend solely on wells for their water needs. Exploitation of groundwater is delicate due to its potency to contamination and difficulty to remediate aquifers. This study is to evaluate the input of the rock formations to the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters: pH, EC, Temperature, TDS, Chloro-alkaline indices, Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality index. From physicochemical parameters: pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L. The major ions fell below WHO acceptable limits. The sequences of abundance of major ions were, K > Ca2 > Na > Mg2 for cations and Cl-> HCO3->NO3->SO42- for anions. Borehole depths range from 19.5 - 34.5 m with static water levels between 3 - 12 m.a.m.s.l. Yields were between 3.2 - 7.2 m3/Hr. Ionic ratios show ninety-five (95%) percent of the groundwater chemistry resulting from chemical weathering of rock-forming minerals through the dissolution of the host rock. The Chloro-alkaline indices: CAI1 87.23% are positive indicating exchange of Na and K from water with Mg and Ca of the rocks and 12.77% are negative, indicating reverse softening of groundwater in rocks by infiltrating rainwater while CAI2 85.11% are positive indicating exchange of Na and K from water with Mg and Ca of the rocks and 14.89% are negative, indicating reverse softening of groundwater in rocks by infiltrating rainwater. Thus chloro-alkaline indices indicate the dominance of alkaline earth elements over alkalis in majority of samples due to direct exchange of Ca2 and Mg2 from the aquifer matrix with Na and K from the groundwater. Gibbs diagram revealed groundwater ionic content was as a result of ion exchange from rock-weathering. Piper diagrams give three water types: 75% are CaHCO3, 21.20% are of MgHCO3 and 3.19% are of Na KHCO3 water types respectively. Piper diagrams also give three hydrogeochemical facies in Abuja FCT: 54.25% are of Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, 42.56% are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 and 3.19% are of Na-K-Cl-SO4 hydrogeochemical facies respectively. Durov plot shows 20.21% are anion discriminate Ca dominant; mixed water and 63.83% had no dominant ion; simple dissolution. Water quality indices (WQI) values were between -220 - 180, Total hardness (TH) values were between 0 - 519.12. These WQI and TH values indicate that 69.2% and 47.37% of the groundwater respectively are suitable for domestic purpose. The groundwater in Abuja FCT is acidic to slightly alkaline in nature, soft to moderately hard and of low to high salinity. Major processes controlling the water quality are the weathering of the host rock through mineral dis-solution, cation exchange and inverse cation exchange processes. Ion-exchange, simple dissolution and uncommon dissolution processes determined groundwater character.
GIS-Hydrogeochemical Model of the Yaoundé Fractured Rock Aquifer, Cameroon: Aquifer Setting, Seasonal Variations in Groundwater-Rock Interaction and Water Quality  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omabgemi Omoloju Yaya, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Thomson Areakpoh Eyong, Bihmimihney Nelly Nji, Diana Besem Tambe
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.75018
Abstract:
This study of the gneiss-fractured-rock aquifer in Yaoundé capital of Cameroon determines: the aquifer setting-flow systems, the aquifer type, seasonal variations in rock-water interactions, evolution of the hydrogeochemical processes, physicochemical parameters and the suitability for domestic-agro-industrial use of the groundwater. Physicochemical field tests were carried out on 445 wells during four seasons for EC, pH, TDS, Temperature and static water level from July 2016 to May 2017. 90 well samples were analyzed 45 samples per season: wet/dry. 38 borewell logs were used together with structural data to determine the aquifer setting. The field physico-chemical and laboratory analysis data of well samples were mounted unto various GIS software platforms: Global mapper, AqQa, Aquachem, Rockworks, Logplot7, Surfer and ArcGIS, to get indices/parameters/figures, by use of Durov’s, Piper’s and Gibbs diagrams, Water quality index WQI, USSL ratio, Sodium Absorption ratio SAR, Percent sodium %Na, Kelly Ratio KR, Magnesium Absorption Ratio MAR, Total Hardness TH, Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC and Permeability Index PI that were determined. The process of groundwater ions acquisition is three-fold: by recharge through atmospheric precipitation, by ion exchange/simple dissolution between the rock-groundwater and by groundwater mixing in its flow path. Water types are Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Cl while hydrogeochemical facies are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4. Most water samples are
Agro-Industrial Groundwater Quality Abuja FCT, Nigeria: An Evaluation for Urban and Peri-Urban (UPA) Agricultural Irrigation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Ernest Lytia Molua, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Tom Tabi Oben
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105698
Abstract:
From the declaration made by the African Mayors in Senegal; the Mayors and Municipal Health Officers of the Americas in Columbia; the City Executives of Cities and Local Governments of the World in Spain and in the context of the Millennium Development Goals MDG 1&7; there is a need for increased food production in urban and peri-urban areas UPA in the world. Sub-Saharan Africa faces more development challenges than any other major region of the world with most of the people living in slums, without access to adequate food, water, or sanitation. UPA contributes to increased food security, nutrition and livelihoods in a combination of ways giving access to consumer markets; less need for packaging, storage and transportation of food; potential agricultural-related jobs and incomes; non-market access to food for poor consumers; availability of fresh, perishable food. In Abuja FCT, 40% of the populations in UPA are farmers, a reason why the agricultural quality of its groundwater which is used for irrigation begs for our attention. 33% of the fresh vegetables in the Abuja Federal Capital Territory (FCT) are produced in Abuja UPA. In order to assess groundwater for agro-industrial suitability the following were used: Physicochemical parameters (pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity), Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Permeability Index PI, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR, Percent Sodium %Na, Kelly’s Ratio KR and Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC and the Wilcox diagram. pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L.SAR (0.1 > SAR < 2.1), Percent Sodium (7.11 > %Na < 100), KR (0 > KR < 0.68), RSC (-9.8 > RSC < 0.55), PI (13.9 > PI < 932.4), and MAR (0 > MAR < 80.1). Comparing these values to WHO and the Nigerian Water Quality guidelines, SAR, %Na, KR, RSC, values are 100% suitable, while PI, 96.81% suitable, and MAR 56.46% unsuitable respectively for irrigational purposes in agriculture. The quality classifications of irrigation water based on the values: Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Wilcox, Kelley Ratio KR, Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC, Permeability Index PI and Percent Sodium %Na; indicate that groundwater of Abuja FCT is suitable for irrigation purpose on all soil types and that the groundwater will not degrade the soil. However, United States Soil Salinity USSL Index of Abuja FCT groundwater fall in “very low to high salinity” and “low sodium hazard zone” and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR indicates half of the groundwater as “not suitable”. Hence the groundwater in Abuja FCT should be used only on soils that are well drained.
Geogenic Imprint on Groundwater and Its Quality in Parts of the Mamfe Basin, Manyu Division, Cameroon  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Thomson Areapkoh Eyong, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Regina Engome Wotany, Michael Obiekwe Nwude, Omagbemi Omoloju Yaya
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.75016
Abstract:
Groundwater studies in parts of the Mamfe basin are sparse and the Mamfe area has the highest population density in the Mamfe basin. An in-depth study of groundwater rock interaction and groundwater quality is of vital importance. This same part of the basin is the economic centre and as such development of businesses in this area requires knowledge of the groundwater quality. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the input of the rock formations on the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic-agro-industrial quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters: Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality indices. From physicochemical parameters, in the rainy season, pH ranged from, 4.3 - 8.6; EC, 3 - 1348 μS/cm; Temperature, 24.4 - 30.1
Seasonal Variations in Groundwater of the Phreatic Aquiferous Formations in Douala City-Cameroon: Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk Akoachere, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Thomson Areapkoh Eyong, Sophie Ngomune Edimo, Simon Ngomba Longonje, Diana Besem Tambe, Nji Bihmimihney Nelly
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105328
Abstract:
This study was to determine the seasonal variations of groundwater, the influence of the rock formations on the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic-agro-industrial quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters; Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality indices. From physicochemical parameters; in the rainy season, pH ranged from, 4.6-7.1; EC, 0.023-1.63 mS/cm; Temperature, 26.3-290C andTDS, 0.015-1.09 mg/L and in the dry season pH ranged from 5-7.2; EC, 0.01-1.61 mS/cm; Temperature, 24.4-29.50C andTDS, 0.01-1.08 mg/L. Forty groundwater samples; 20 per season, wet and dry were analysed. Themajor ions fell below WHO acceptable limits for both seasons. The sequences of abundance of major ions were, Ca2 >K >Mg2 >NH4 >Na , HCO3->Cl->SO42->NO3->HPO42- in wet season and Ca2 >Mg2 >K >Na >NH4 , HCO3->Cl->SO42->HPO42->NO3- in dry season. Ion-exchange, simple dissolution and uncommon dissolution processes determined groundwater character. Groundwater ionic content was as a result of ion exchange from rock-weathering. Water types are; MgCl and MgHCO3 in both seasons. Hydrogeochemical facies are; Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, characteristic of groundwater some distance along its flow path and Ca-Mg-HCO3, characteristic of freshly recharged groundwater from precipitation. The groundwater indices of; Sodium Percent (% Na), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) , Kelley’s ratio (KR), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), USSL? and Wilcox index were determined, evaluated and found to be suitable for agro-industrial uses in all seasons. Permeability Index (PI) , Water quality index (WQI) and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR) were not suitable in some areas and in some seasons.
The Head Stands Accused by the Heart! —Depression and Premature Death from Ischaemic Heart Disease  [PDF]
Wendy Thomson
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2014.32008
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to examine whether clinical depression was associated with higher risk of premature death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Risk for IHD was examined separately by sex and sub-type of depression in a long-term follow-up study spanning 49 years. Method: Patients who were diagnosed with depression in the Chichester/Salisbury Catchment Area Study were followed for 49 years. Observed deaths from IHD prior to the age of 70 were compared with rates that were predicted from historical data on mortality rates from 1960 onwards. Results: Significantly higher rates of death from IHD before the age of 70 were found among males with endogenous depression. Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of the broader literature on mortality from natural causes among patients with clinical depression. In terms of prevention, the results indicate that patients diagnosed with severe clinical depression particularly men at the very least warrant risk assessment with regard to IHD.
Challenges of Effective Collaboration in a Virtual Learning Environment among Undergraduate Students  [PDF]
Russell Butson, Carla Thomson
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.516162
Abstract: Web-based technology has influenced the way we perceive and use computer devices. One effect of the increasing variety of online web services has been a move away from “personal” computing toward networked or “social” computing. In this paper we discussed a research project which explored the potential in using a purpose-built social-networked environment to support learning in undergraduate education. In particular, we were interested in which tools would be adopted and the collaborative manner which would be used. A prototype web-based networked environment was built that allowed each student a personal space with their profile, access to resources and a group-project work space. The network incorporated a people-centric paradigm that integrated networking across a range of collaborative tools to support course activities. The system embraced an “open” philosophy where all students and staff were linked to all members and work- group areas. Each work-group area consisted of a number of web-based tools that included a group wiki, group blog, file repository, weblink tool, discussion area, and calendar. The site allowed for both synchronized and asynchronized communication via messaging and chat facilities. The results showed that students did not work collaboratively and struggled to use the web-based tools to advance their learning. Further investigation revealed that students preferred individual offline approaches to the more demanding processes required in a collaborative online environment.
Socio-Economic Implication of Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) Project in Bonny Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Oluyemi Ayorinde Akintoye, Abiodun Komomo Eyong, Peter Okpe Agada, Opaminola Nicholas Digha, Okibe James Okibe
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.45007
Abstract: Notably, the Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) project is the pioneer Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant in Nigeria, aimed at both the diversification of the petroleum industry and utilization of the vastly flared natural gas resources of the nation. However, large scale energy projects have been known to generate both positive and/or negative impacts. Environmental Management Plans (EMP) have often been the compendium of information on approved mitigations, which normally include activities that could maximize the benefits of the host communities, and it’s not unusual for the Community Development and Corporate Social Responsibility (CDCSR) department of such an organization to be saddled with these contributions. But the activities of Nigeria LNG Ltd.’s CSR department have often been the source of criticism, as well as aspiration for improvement by host communities and other stake holders. This article thus aims to present a comprehensive compendium of NLNG’s CDCSR activities, up to the year 2010, and also highlight the level of satisfaction of the immediate and distant host communities against the level of performance of other donors in the area. Also the arrays of negative socio-economic consequences of the Nigeria LNG Ltd.’s activities were identified based on community perception. The results generally showed that comparatively, NLNG project has made more innovative positive socio-economic and health contributions to its areas of operation than the three tiers of government and other donors (including SPDC and Mobil Producing Nigeria). Surprisingly, agitations against Nigeria LNG Ltd.’s activities have not overshadowed its community development provisions, which have been of major assistance in several communities. There is however a dire need to review several aspects of Nigeria LNG Ltd.’s CDCSR activities, especially in the fulfilment of documented promises, as well as in project conception and community participation, for better completed projects acceptance by indigenous host communities. Conflict management strategies also need to be improved, while the dissatisfaction over benefits in New Finima needs to be urgently addressed.
Socio-Economic Implications of Recurrent Flooding on Women Development in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Area of Nigeria  [PDF]
Oluyemi Ayorinde Akintoye, Abiodun Komomo Eyong, Devine Offiong Effiong, Peter Okpe Agada, Opaminola Nicholas Digha
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2016.48004
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to identify the socio-economic implications of re-current flooding on women development in southern Ijaw Local Government Area. Generally, flooding may result in socio-economic, ecological and health problems. This study assumes that on flood days the movement of customers and sellers tends to be hindered, thus resulting in the retardation of transactions and the reduction of daily income earned. The study compared the situation of female traders with that of male traders. Both primary and secondary data were used in this study. Primary data were collected using an open-ended questionnaire. A total of 83 questionnaires were randomly distributed to members of four communities, which were selected through stratified random sampling procedures. Also 33 randomly selected women and men respectively, engaged in marketing activities from open and locked-up shops, were sampled to observe the level of their personal income (in Naira), from customers patronage during 3 flood days and 3 non-flood days. Other data and information were obtained through Key Informants Interview (KII), and observations. Hypotheses I and II were tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistical model. Null hypothesis I (H0), which states that “There is no statistically significant difference in the income earned by men and women traders from marketing activities on flood days and non-flood days in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State”, is accepted (F-value: 3.8723939, P-value: 2.494E-05), whereas null hypothesis II (H0), which states that “There is no statistically significant difference in the income earned by women traders from marketing activities on flood and non-flood days in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, is rejected (F-value: 2.524902, P-value: 0.030069). Thus while there is no significant difference in the earnings of male and female traders on flood and non-flood days, there are significant differences in sales earning among women traders on those days. Factors affecting trading income on flood and non-flood days include accessibility to business premises by customers, ability of male marketers to afford non-easily flooded business premises; and women traders with limited resources often have less suitably drained premises. Reduced total household income can detrimentally affect food affordability, availability, household nutrition, family health and wellbeing. Recommendations highlighting the roles of communities, government and stakeholders in flood management are proffered.
REPRESENTAR EL PENSAR SIN PENSAMIENTOS
Thomson,Garrett;
Discusiones Filosóficas , 2008,
Abstract: the first part of this paper develops a realist view on thought and other mental phenomena, through a criticism of the platonic points of view (which reify mental states), on one side, and the eliminativistic conception (which considers mentalist language as a fatally confused realm that must be eliminated), on the other. shortly, the first part claims and explains the thesis that it is possible to be realist about thinking without being realist about thoughts. in the second part, a theory about the content of mental states is introduced, and the theory of non conceptual content is examined. the essentially linguistic model in which concepts are explained is criticized here, to hold that no all conceptual content must be linguistic and, a fortiori, that the thesis of non conceptual content is based in a very restrictive view about the nature of concepts.
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