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Objective: To evaluate the reliability and accuracy of frozen
section (FS) compared with final pathology and to determine whether they should
be obligatory in every patient with atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH).
Methods: We retrospectively assessed the medical records of 192 patients whose
endometrial biopsy results were endometrial hyperplasia and underwent
hysterectomy at our center. Results: Twenty-two (11.4%) of the 192 patients in
our study had concurrent endometrial carcinoma (EC). Of these, 21 (95.5%) were
EC and 1 (4.5%) was non-endome- trioid. Of the 140 patients with AEH, 20
(14.3%) had concurrent EC. Overall, 157 patients had FS. Two (1%) patients’ EC
was higher than grade 1B and needed lymphadenectomy. The positive and negative
predictive value, specifity and sensitivity of FS were found to be 77.8%,
95.7%, 97% and 70%, respectively. Conclusion: Patients who have AEH without
high-risk comorbidities do not have to be referred to oncology centers and can
undergo hysterectomy in community hospitals without FS.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea
polyphenol possesses antioxidant,
antibacterial, anticancer and antiviral properties. EGCG-Stearate (EGCG-S) is of interest for this study because of its stability and lipophilic
properties. The chemical modification of EGCG-S increased its lipid solubility.
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), a member of the family Herpesviridae, and Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily is a leading cause of human viral diseases in the United
States. In this study, 25 μM, 50 μM, 75 μM, and 100 μM of EGCG and EGCG-S were
used to carry out cytotoxicity, cell viability and cell proliferation assays to
determine the maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations on cultured A549 cells. The
results suggested that 75 μM of EGCG and EGCG-S is the appropriate
concentration to further study the effect on the infection of HSV-1 in A549
cells. Infectivity, antiviral, and inverted microscopy assays were performed to
study the effects of EGCG and EGCG-S on HSV-1 infection. An antiviral assay was
performed using luminescence and it indicated that EGCG-S treated HSV-1 showed
up to 90% inhibition. Confocal microscopy images further supported the
inhibitory effects of 75 μM EGCG-S on HSV-1 infection in A549 cells. The
long-term goal of this research is to use EGCG-S as a possible novel topical
therapeutic treatment to limit the spread of HSV-1 infections.