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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9256 matches for " Ara Nazarian "
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Utilization of Dimethoate by Wild Type Pseudomonas putida from Polluted Sites in Iran
Aboalfazl Nazarian
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Pseudomonas putida was isolated from organophosphate contaminated soil by enrichment method. Dimethoate optimally was degraded at 0.8 g L-1 in mineral solution and showed the maximum tolerance at 4 g L-1 in nutrient broth. Dimethoate was degraded two folds more than orthophosphate. Total protein was increased to 287 mg L-1 in single culture. Anti-acetyl choline esterase (AChE) Activity was proportionally displayed of dimethoate level (0.2-2 g L-1). Dimethoate (2 g L-1) was remedied 50 and 100% by p putida after 48 and 96 h, correspondingly. It means that its anti-AChE effect diminished to 70-95%. The strains were lost the dimethoate degrading plasmids by 200 mg L-1 of acridine orange and converted to dimethoate-sensitive strains. This plasmids were transferred to sensitive strains that were consecutively confirmed by replica plating technique in mineral medium containing dimethoate. We are supposed to simply applying organophosphate degrading plasmids for cleaning the anti-nerve agents.
Micro-computed tomography assessment of human femoral trabecular bone for two disease groups (fragility fracture and coxarthrosis): Age and gender related effects on the microstructure  [PDF]
Ana Catarina Vale, Manuel F. C. Pereira, António Maurício, Bruno Vidal, Ana Rodrigues, Joana Caetano-Lopes, Ara Nazarian, Jo?o E. Fonseca, Helena Canh?o, Maria Fátima Vaz
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.62021
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to identify three-dimensional microstructural changes of trabecular bone with age and gender, using micro-computed tomography. Human trabecular bone from two disease groups, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis was analyzed. A prior analysis of the effects of some procedure variables on the micro-CT results was performed. Preliminary micro-CT scans were performed with three voxel resolutions and two acquisition conditions. On the reconstruction step, the image segmentation was performed with three different threshold values. Samples were collected from patients, with coxarthrosis (osteoarthritis) or fragility fracture (osteoporosis). The specimens of the coxarthrosis group include twenty females and fifteen males, while the fragility fracture group was composed by twenty three females and seven males. The mean age of the population was 69 ± 11 (females) and 67 ± 10 years (males), in the coxarthrosis group, while in the fragility fracture group was 81 ± 6 (females) and 78 ± 6 (males) years. The 30 μm voxel size provided lower percentage difference for the microarchitecture parameters. Acquisition conditions with 160 μA and 60 kV permit the evaluation of all the volume’s sample, with low average values of the coefficients of variation of the microstructural parameters. No statistically significant differences were found between the two diseases groups, neither between genders. However, with aging, there is a decrease of bone volume fraction, trabecular number and fractal dimension, and an increase of structural model index and trabecular separation, for both disease groups and genders. The parameters bone specific surface, trabecular thickness and degree of anisotropy have different behaviors with age, depending on the type of disease. While in coxarthrosis patients, trabecular thickness increases with age, in the fragility fracture group, there is a decrease of trabecular thickness with increasing age. Our findings indicate that disease, age and gender do not provide significant differences in trabecular microstructure. With aging, some parameters exhibit different trends which are possibly related to different mechanisms for

The role of left and right Locus Coeruleus in formalin test in rats
Javad Sajedianfard,Zahra Nazarian
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Pain as a complex process in the CNS has been extensively studied by many researchers. It has been found that pain is controlled by certain pathways in the CNS, one of most important of which is the descending noradrenergic system. The pathway begins with Locus Coeruleus (LC) nucleus and ends in the spinal cord. In this study, formalin test was used as a chemical and tonic pain test to determine the role of LC in modulating pain in this pathway. Methods: 30 Sprague-Dawley rats with mean±SD weight of 280±30 g were divided into 6 groups (3 test and 3 control groups). In the test groups, 0.5 μL lidocaine was injected in the left LC (group 1), right LC (group 2) or both LC (group 3) to make local anesthesia. Half μL of normal saline was injected to controls (groups 4–6). After 15 min of injection, 50 μL of 2.5% of formalin was injected SQ to the left hind paw of rats and the level of nociception was recorded every 15 sec for one hour. Results: The induction of unilateral pain (right hind paw) in rats, can affect not only the contralateral but also the ipsilateral LC nucleus. Conclusion: The left and right LC nuclei have significant role on unidirectional nociception in formalin test in rats. The ipsilateral LC, however, has a minor effect on nociception.
STUDY OF BACTERIAL RESISTANCE TO ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDES IN IRAN
A. Nazarian and M. Mousawi
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2005,
Abstract: The broadness application of organophosphorus compounds has abounded the number of its polluted areas. Bioremediation has widely focused on insitu bacterial degradation of organophosphorus residues in the world. Therefore, in this research six numbers of samples from two different sources, soil and water randomly were isolated using different organophosphorus pesticides containing mineral solution without supplementation. More than 100 isolated strains were selected according to their simultaneous optimal growth on mineral medium with organophosphorus and Mac Conkey,s agar. More than 50 percent of them were lost above resistance. The resistant strains were identified by two methods, the biochemical convention and API 20E procedure with positive agreement. The identified strains belonged to Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium species. The maximum tolerant concentrations of different organophosphorus pesticides by these resistant strains were 2.5, 4 and 8 g/L of guthion, methyl parathion and Dimethoate, respectively. The resistance to these pesticides due to organ phosphorous degrading plasmids had the ability to express hydrolytic enzymes. Resistant bacteria lost these plasmids by acridin orange and could translocate to sensitive strains. Thus, certain environmental bacteria could be used as protection tools against antinerve agents.
Microstructural, Densitometric and Metabolic Variations in Bones from Rats with Normal or Altered Skeletal States
Andrew N. Luu, Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos, Shima Aran, Francisco J. Araiza Arroyo, Vahid Entezari, Claudio Rosso, Brian D. Snyder, Ara Nazarian
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082709
Abstract: Background High resolution μCT, and combined μPET/CT have emerged as non-invasive techniques to enhance or even replace dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the current preferred approach for fragility fracture risk assessment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of μPET/CT imaging to differentiate changes in rat bone tissue density and microstructure induced by metabolic bone diseases more accurately than current available methods. Methods Thirty three rats were divided into three groups of control, ovariectomy and vitamin-D deficiency. At the conclusion of the study, animals were subjected to glucose (18FDG) and sodium fluoride (Na18F) PET/CT scanning. Then, specimens were subjected to μCT imaging and tensile mechanical testing. Results Compared to control, those allocated to ovariectomy and vitamin D deficiency groups showed 4% and 22% (significant) increase in 18FDG uptake values, respectively. DXA-based bone mineral density was higher in the vitamin D deficiency group when compared to the other groups (cortical bone), yet μCT-based apparent and mineral density results were not different between groups. DXA-based bone mineral density was lower in the ovariectomy group when compared to the other groups (cancellous bone); yet μCT-based mineral density results were not different between groups, and the μCT-based apparent density results were lower in the ovariectomy group compared to the other groups. Conclusion PET and micro-CT provide an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in bone tissue mineral density, as well as microstructure for cortical and cancellous bone and metabolic activity. As osteomalacia is characterized by impaired bone mineralization, the use of densitometric analyses may lead to misinterpretation of the condition as osteoporosis. In contrast, μCT alone and in combination with the PET component certainly provides an accurate three-dimensional measurement of the changes in both bone tissue mineral density, as well as microstructure for cortical and cancellous bone and metabolic activity.
A Knowledge-Based Method for Association Studies on Complex Diseases
Alireza Nazarian, Heike Sichtig, Alberto Riva
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044162
Abstract: Complex disorders are a class of diseases whose phenotypic variance is caused by the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Analyzing the complexity underlying the genetic architecture of such traits may help develop more efficient diagnostic tests and therapeutic protocols. Despite the continuous advances in revealing the genetic basis of many of complex diseases using genome-wide association studies (GWAS), a major proportion of their genetic variance has remained unexplained, in part because GWAS are unable to reliably detect small individual risk contributions and to capture the underlying genetic heterogeneity. In this paper we describe a hypothesis-based method to analyze the association between multiple genetic factors and a complex phenotype. Starting from sets of markers selected based on preexisting biomedical knowledge, our method generates multi-marker models relevant to the biological process underlying a complex trait for which genotype data is available. We tested the applicability of our method using the WTCCC case-control dataset. Analyzing a number of biological pathways, the method was able to identify several immune system related multi-SNP models significantly associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Crohn’s disease (CD). RA-associated multi-SNP models were also replicated in an independent case-control dataset. The method we present provides a framework for capturing joint contributions of genetic factors to complex traits. In contrast to hypothesis-free approaches, its results can be given a direct biological interpretation. The replicated multi-SNP models generated by our analysis may serve as a predictor to estimate the risk of RA development in individuals of Caucasian ancestry.
Effects of Cumin(Cuminum Cyminum L) Oil on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels of Rats
J Mohiti Ardekani,Z Akbarian,A Nazarian
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases in the world. It affects 6.6% of world population and about 3 million individuals in Iran. Cumin (Cuminum Cyminum L) is a plant used in traditional Iranian medicine to cure obesity, and some recent studies have suggested that Cumin could have a role in diabetes treatment and reduction of lipid levels. In this study, we investigated the Cumin oil effects on serum glucose and lipid levels of rats. Methods: We divided 24 male rats of Wistar race into 6 hexadic groups; the control group with normal regimen(group a), the Cumin oil group with normal regimen(group b), the control group with high fat regimen(group c), the Cumin oil group with high fat regimen(group d). The consumed dosages of Cumin oil were 400 μg/kg and 3mg/kg, respectively which was administered by Gavages (tube feeding). Samples from the hungry rats were taken during three various periods including the first day of the study, 20th day (the beginning of the medicine usage) and 55 th day (the end of the medicine usage) in order to measure their serum glucose and lipid levels. Results: The results of this study showed a significant decrease in glucose(p=0.007), cholesterol(p=0.001), triglyceride(p=0.002), LDL (p=0.004) levels and a significant increase in serum HDL levels(p=0.05). Conclusion: Cumin oil administered via Gavages can significantly affect the serum glucose and lipid levels.
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Isolation from the Removed Medium of Rat’s Bone Marrow Primary Culture and their Differentiation into Skeletal Cell Lineages
Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad,Hamid Nazarian,Leila Taghiyar
Cell Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: In all protocols for isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a fewdays after culture initiation, the medium were discarded along with its contentsof non-adherent cells and the adherent cell population kept and expanded asMSCs population. In the present study, attempt was made to expand the cellssuspended in removed medium of primary culture and compare them with theadherent cell population.Materials and Methods: Four days after rat’s bone marrow culture initiation,medium of the culture was collected and its suspended cells were cultureexpandedin parallel with adherent cells till passage 3. During the cultureperiod, the cells from either group were statistically compared with respect ofthe time required for cell confluency (the stage in which cells cover the entiresurfaces) as an index of growth rate. At the end, the cells from both cultureswere evaluated in terms of their differentiation potential.Results: The primary culture of the cells from removed medium contained largecolonies of spindle-shaped cells that reached into confluency after 5.36±0.5days, while those from the adherent population possessed small coloniesreaching into confluency in 8.09±0.70 days. According to the results, at allstudied passages, the cells of removed medium were significantly (p<0.05)achieved confluency in shorter time than the adherent population. Moreover,the cells from either culture could easily differentiate into bone, cartilage andadipose cells.Conclusions: It seems that some cells from removed medium, usuallydiscarded in medium substitution, are MSCs possessing more growth rate thanthe primarily adherent cell population.
The Difference of Mental Skills in Superior Basketball Players and Gymnasts with Different Levels of Experience  [PDF]
Mohammad Maleki, Sardar Mohammadi, Ali Nazarian
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100591
Abstract:

This study aimed to compare mental skills between superior basketball players and gymnasts. Subjects included 161 basketball players (91 experienced: aged 22.47 ± 2.27, and 70 inexperienced, aged 23.13 ± 2.2) and 114 gymnasts (66 experienced; aged 22.77 ± 2.03 and 48 inexperienced, aged 22.79 ± 2.25). The questionnaire used for this study was OMSAT-3 that assessed mental skills in three main categories of foundation mental skills, psychosomatic skills and cognitive skills. Results showed significant differences between elite and sub-elite basketball players and gymnasts in basic mental skills, psychosomatic skills and cognitive skills. These results will help coaches and athletes to improve their performance and consolidate and expand the use of mental skills they need for each competition in closed and open sport skills.

Isolation and in vitro Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from the Pulp Tissue of Human Third Molar Tooth
Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad,Hamid Nazarian,Mahsa Shariati,Sourena Vahabi
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Background: It is still controversial that the stem cells isolatedfrom human dental pulp meets the criteria for mesenchymalstem cells (MSCs). The aim of the present study wasto examine whether or not they are MSCs, or are distinct stemcells population residing in tooth pulp.Methods: Adherent fibroblastic cells in the culture of pulptissue from human third molars were propagated through severalsuccessive subcultures. Passaged-3 cells with a tendencyto differentiate into odontoblastic cells were used to examinethe key properties of MSCs including typical tripotent differentiationpotential into bone, cartilage and adipose cell lineagesand the expression of typical surface antigens. Moreover,they were examined for growth capacity in culture.Results: Dental pulp stem cells successfully progressed towardsdifferentiation among three skeletal cell lineages. Morethan 90% of the cell population exhibited the expression ofsurface antigens known to be found on mesenchymal lineagessuch as CD105, CD90, CD44, and CD73, while only less than2% expressed endothelial-hematopoietic epitopes includingCD56, CD11b, CD34, CD31, CD33, and CD45. The cells exhibiteda relatively high proliferation capacity with populationdoubling time of about 21.9 hours.Conclusion: The dental pulp stem cells are of MSC population,and may be considered suitable for use in regenerativemedicine, owing to their relatively rapid rate of in vitro propagation.
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