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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 376 matches for " Aquifer "
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Ground- and Surface-Water Interactions of a Pumice Aquifer in a Headwaters Watershed: Round Meadow, Fremont-Winema National Forest, Oregon, USA  [PDF]
Jonathan M. Weatherford, Michael L. Cummings
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.811081
Abstract: Plinian pumice fall from the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama in the Cascade volcanic arc is an unconfined, perched aquifer in south-central Oregon. The pumice aquifer provides near-surface groundwater storage that maintains biologically diverse wetland environments. Wetland environments reflect post-eruption disruption of the once uniform pumice blanket by fluvial and lacustrine processes operating within the template of the pre-eruption landscape. In the 8.6 km2 Round Meadow watershed the pumice aquifer interacts with a seasonally flooded meadow, fen, springs, and perennial stream. The laterally uniform, isotropic pumice aquifer is disrupted by flat-bottomed ephemeral stream valleys that drain to the seasonally flooded meadow. Surface water levels in the seasonally flooded meadow are controlled by a knickpoint developed on bedrock. The underlying aquifer is confined by a layer of glass-rich diatomaceous silt grading upward to organic-rich silt. Here, the aquifer is comprised of remnants of the pumice deposit, lag sand, and reworked pumice. The water level in the confined aquifer is maintained by recharge from the unconfined pumice aquifer following flow pathways beneath ephemeral stream valleys. The fen is developed on a down-thrown block of welded tuff and pre-eruption diatomaceous silt. Water levels in the fen are sensitive to inter-annual variations in precipitation. Low discharge, low temperature (5.0°C to 6.5°C), and low conductivity (30 to 50 μS/cm) springs appear to be fracture controlled and rising through welded tuff. Spring discharge and seepage through pumice from the welded tuff support perennial flow in the creek that also carries discharge from the seasonally flooded meadow when water levels are high enough to cross the knickpoint.
Natural and Anthropogenic Influence in Water Quality: The Case of Linares City, NE Mexico  [PDF]
Liliana Lizárraga-Mendiola, José Návar, Alberto Blanco-Pi?ón, Ma. Del Refugio González-Sandoval, Héctor De-León-Gómez
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.511112

The aim of this research paper was to identify whether the water quality had been influenced either by the natural environment or by anthropogenic activities or both in the municipality of Linares, the second largest city of the State of Nuevo Leon, NE Mexico. The superficial water (Pablillo River) and the groundwater quality (from a fractured and a porous aquifers hydraulically interconnected) were determined by comparing their chemical composition with maximum permissible limits for water consumption and irrigation use. A hydrogeochemical modeling was performed to identify the distribution of aqueous species responsible for the presence of some dissolved or precipitated mineral species, as well as an identification of geochemical factors responsible of superficial and groundwater quality. A canonical correspondence analysis was allowed to determine if the natural environment and/or anthropogenic activities were responsible for water quality. The parameters analysed in both aquifers, as well as in the Pablillo River, were total solids, suspended solids, nitrate, and chloride; barium and mercury were present in both aquifers. As a natural influence, the predominant mineral species are as following: under-saturated anhydrite (porous aquifer), over-saturated aragonite, calcite, dolomite, and gypsum (both aquifers and Pablillo River), barite and whiterite (only in fractured aquifer). The geochemical factors responsible for natural contamination were rock dominance (fractured aquifer), and evaporation dominance (porous aquifer, Pablillo River). On the other hand, anthropogenic activities such as changes in soil use and the presence of point (old municipal landfill, pig farms, barite deposit), and diffuse (agricultural areas, septic tanks and latrines) pollution sources had influence in the presence of contaminants such as total and fecal coliforms, nitrates, chlorides, mercury and barium. Several control and remediation strategies should be taken into account to prevent this pollution in the future.

Geophysical Evaluation for Evidence of Recharging the Pleistocene Aquifer at El-Nubariya Area, West Nile Delta, Egypt  [PDF]
Ahmed Khalil, Khamis Mansour, Taha Rabeh, Alhussein Basheer, Mohamed Abdel Zaher, Kamal Ali
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.53032

With ever increasing demands on water resources, Egypt is facing increasing water needs, demanded by a rapidly growing population, by higher standards of living and by an agricultural policys. West Nile Delta represents a new agricultural area where the reclaimed lands are irrigated with groundwater in addition to surface water. The evaluation of groundwater aquifers in West Nile Delta area requires information about the extension, depth and distribution and source of recharging these aquifers. In this work, an integrated study using geoelectric, geomagnetic, hydrogeologic and hydrochemistry investigations has been applied to evaluate groundwater aquifers and to delineate subsurface structures predominant in the basement rocks at El-Nubariya area, West Nile Delta, Egypt. Thirty-five Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) have been applied to identify the subsurface geoelctric layers predominant in the study area. As well as a detailed land magnetic survey has been carried out along the study area using two automatic proton precession magnetometers with an accuracy of 1 nT. These surveys allowed us to establish the subsurface structures and their relation with the detected aquifers. The geoelectric results are illustrated along seven geoelectric profiles and correlated with the lithologic and hydrogeologic data of drilled wells. The third geoelectric layer represents the water saturated zone (aquifer) with thickness varies from 14 m to 58 m, increasing to east and southeast directions. The hydrchemisty anlysis shows that the salinity of the water aquifer ranges from 600 ppm in the southeast to 3900 ppm in the south. The major dominant dissolved salt is Nacl. In the east and southeast, the water type becomes more NaSO4 which refers to dissolution of gypsum in addition to fertilizers. The magnetic data have been analyzed using horizontal gradient and 3D magnetic modeling along the locations of geolectric profiles. The results indicate that the fault structures are trending in E-W, NW-SE and NE-SW directions. These faults confirm the results obtained from the well geolectric interpretation. These fault structures act as recharging paths from lower brackish to upper fresh water aquifers.

The Fate of Disi Aquifer as Stratigic Groundwater Reserve for Shared Countries (Jordan and Saudi Arabia)  [PDF]
Alsharifa Hind Jasem, Maisa'a Shammout, Dheaya AlRousan, Marwan AlRaggad
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.310081
Abstract: Disi is a fossil groundwater shred between Jordan and Saudi Arabia with a very high quality properties, this water is limited and has been used for irrigation purposes between both countries, this study helps in highlighted the importance of this water as stratigic reserve to be use later on. This study shows that the amounts of groundwater affected by the thickness of the saturated zone in the aquifer, the porosity of the aquifer and the groundwater flow in the basin. Abstraction from the aquifer will affect water quality so this point must be clearly understood all the time.
Assessing Groundwater Vulnerability in Azraq Basin Area by a Modified DRASTIC Index  [PDF]
Alsharifa Hind Jasem, Marwan Alraggad
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.211112
Abstract: Groundwater is the main source for water supply in Jordan. Surface water is limited due to low precipitation rates. Studying groundwater vulnerability helps to protect this main source of depletion and degradation for present and coming generations. Different vulnerability indices were built taking into consideration the different environmental setting of the different areas for which these indices were established. Environmental and weather conditions are very important factors in determination groundwater vulnerability hence arid to semi arid areas conditions must be taken into account in applying different indices. The reason after selecting Azraq as a rest point is related directly to the availability of fresh water resources in the form of the wetland supported by many potential springs making Azraq a rich environment for economic activities. A modified DRASTIC vulnerability index was applied to Azraq basin area due to its special climate and wetland area conditions. The index takes the special landuse and the different groundwater depths into consideration and suggests a few measures to alleviate the vulnerability of the groundwater resources due to overexploitation and human activities changing the value of landuse. Azraq basin represents four different vulnerability classes, ranging from Low to very high vulnerability class. The lower vulnerability class areas are distributed in theareas with high depth to water table and low recharge areas with low human activities. The higher vulnerability classes are shown in the areas with high possibility of the pollutants to reach the groundwater. The modified DRASTIC index added the value of the human activity and the structural features in the area which give a more ease to pollutant to permit the aquifer.
A Hydrogeophysical Model of the Relationship between Geoelectric and Hydraulic Parameters, Central Jordan  [PDF]
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.16048
Abstract: Geoelectrical soundings using the Schlumberger array were carried out in the vicinity of 23 pumping test sites to determine aquifer parameters, central Jordan. On the basis of aquifer geometry, the area has been di-vided into two hydraulic units: the northern flood plain and the flood plain to its south. Field resistivity data are interpreted in terms of the true resistivity and thickness of subsurface layers. These parameters are then correlated with the available pumping test data. Significant correlations between the transmissivity and modified transverse resistance as well as between the hydraulic conductivity and formation factor were ob-tained for the two hydraulic units, in central Jordan are presented here.
Support of Space Techniques for Groundwater Exploration in Lebanon  [PDF]
Amin Shaban
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.25054
Abstract: Lebanon is known by the availability in water resources whether on surface or among the existing rock for-mations. However, the status-quo does not reflect this availability due to a number of physical factors, as well as the mismanagement of these resources. Hence, the per capita has been reduced by about 50% in the last three decades. There are sixteen exposed rock formations in Lebanon, two of them are major aquifers and they are characterized by highly fractured and karstified carbonate rocks. Recently, challenges for groundwater in Lebanon have been developed. These are the: overexploitation, climate change and the acute geologic setting, which led to decline in rainfall rate, and thus exacerbated water demand. The existing chal-lenges resulted with a number of problems in ground water resources management, namely: quality deterio-ration, impact on springs and groundwater behavior, loss of groundwater o the sea, saltwater intrusion and exacerbated by the lack of data and mismanagement in water sector. In this respect, new technologies can be utilized as a helpful instrument in managing groundwater resources to treat the unfavorable situation. Space techniques and GIS have been recently raised in several topics on water resources management, including, mainly exploration and monitoring. They proved to be capable to extract hydrogeologic information and thus to manipulate this information in creditable approaches of analysis. This study introduced the present status on the Lebanese groundwater resources and the existing challenges and problems. Thus, it extends an appli-cation from Lebanon on the used new approaches for exploring groundwater.
Ground Water Vis-A-Vis Sea Water Intrusion Analysis for a Part of Limestone Tract of Gujarat Coast, India  [PDF]
Abhay K. Soni, Paras R. Pujari
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.25053
Abstract: The present study analyses the hydro-chemical data of groundwater samples of three different limestone mine sites, which are in close proximity and covers a tract along the Gujarat Coast of Indian peninsula. Higher TDS (> 4000 mg/L) and Cl values (> 2000 mg/L) as well as the Chloride: Bicarbonate (HCO3) ratio of more than one clearly support that the sea water intrusion is present in the coastal aquifer at all the three sites. In view of the economic importance of the area and the vulnerability of the coastal aquifer to sea water intrusion recommendations are made for sustainable use of groundwater by the mining companies and other stake holders.
Comparative Study of Analytical Solutions for Time-Dependent Solute Transport Along Unsteady Groundwater Flow in Semi-infinite Aquifer  [PDF]
Mritunjay Kumar Singh, Nav Kumar Mahato, Priyanka Kumar
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2011.24048
Abstract: A comparative study is made among Laplace Transform Technique (LTT) and Fourier Transform Technique (FTT) to obtain one-dimensional analytical solution for conservative solute transport along unsteady groundwater flow in semi-infinite aquifer. The time-dependent source of contaminant concentration is considered at the origin and at the other end of the aquifer is supposed to be zero. Initially, aquifer is not solute free which means that the solute concentration exits in groundwater system and it is assumed as a uniform concentration. The aquifer is considered homogeneous and semi-infinite. The time-dependent velocity expressions are considered. The result may be used as preliminary predictive tools in groundwater management and benchmark the numerical code and solutions.
Determination of Aquifer Properties and Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping Using Geoelectric Method in Yenagoa City and Its Environs in Bayelsa State, South South Nigeria  [PDF]
Kenneth S. Okiongbo, Edirin Akpofure
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.46040
Abstract: Nineteen Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) were carried out within and around Yenagoa city, South South Nigeria, using a maximum current electrode separation ranging between 300 - 400 m. The objectives of the study were 1) to evaluate the possibility of mapping Quaternary sediments to infer the geological structure from the electrical interpretation and identify formations that may hold fresh water with low concentration of conducting minerals such as iron 2) to evaluate the vulnerability of the aquifer in the study area. The interpretation of the data collected was by computer assisted iterative interpretation using 1-D inversion technique software (1X1D, Interpex, USA). The results of the interpretation revealed four distinct geoelectric layers. Sounding curve types obtained in the area are mostly of the form ρ1 > ρ2 < ρ3 < ρ4 (where ρ is the density) but fresh water lenses with low concentration of conducting minerals such as iron were obtained only in locations that exhibit ρ1 > ρ2 < ρ3 < ρ4 curve types. Depth to the aquifer ranges from 4.5 m in the vicinity of VES 05 to 27.0 m at the vicinity of VES 14. The resistivity of the aquiferous horizon varies between 60 - 2868 Ωm. High transverse resistance values obtained were associated with zones of high transmissivity which agrees with the geology of the Benin Formation (Coastal Plain sands) consisting of fine-medium-coarse sands. The aquifer vulnerability map illustrates the impermeability of the overburden clay layer. Values of >0.5 mhos indicate good protective capacity, while values <0.3 mhos indicate vulnerable zones with probable risk of contamination.
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