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Molecular Identification and Diversity of Yeasts Associated with Apis cerana Foraging on Flowers of Jatropha integerrima
Microbiology Indonesia , 2010, DOI: 10.5454/mi.4.1.9
Abstract: There are only a few reports from tropical countries, and none from Indonesia, on yeasts associated with the Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana. Here we report on yeasts associated with A. cerana foraging on flowers of Jatropha integerrima in the campus of the Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia. Yeasts were isolated from guts of 30 individual pollen-collecting bees (PCB) and nectar-collecting bees (NCB), and identified by their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of their rDNA sequences. Based on ITS regions sequence data, 14 representative yeast isolates obtained from A. cerana were found to be closely related to Aureobasidium pullulans, Dothioraceae sp., Candida cf. apicola, C. cf. azyma, C. cellae, Metschnikowia sp., Kodamaea ohmeri and Yarrowia lipolytica. Undescribed yeast of the genus of Metschnikowia was also discovered in this study. At present, we assume there is association between C. cf. apicola and species closely related to C. cellae with A. cerana. Yeasts species associated with PCB differ from those found in NCB, indicating that PCB and NCB possess different and specific yeasts communities. Some yeasts species isolated from A. cerana show a low degree of similarity to their closest related species. Our study sheds light on the detection of several new taxa of yeasts associated with A. cerana.
Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan
Tomomi Morimoto,Yuriko Kojima,Mikio Yoshiyama,Kiyoshi Kimura,Bu Yang,Tatsuhiko Kadowaki
Viruses , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/v4071093
Abstract: Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sac brood virus (SBV), previously reported in Japan. Because of its low prevalence (5.6%) in A. mellifera colonies, the incidence of colony losses by CBPV infection must be sporadic in Japan. The presence of the (?) strand RNA in dying workers suggests that CBPV infection and replication may contribute to their symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a geographic separation of Japanese isolates from European, Uruguayan, and mainland US isolates. The lack of major exchange of honey bees between Europe/mainland US and Japan for the recent 26 years (1985–2010) may have resulted in the geographic separation of Japanese CBPV isolates.
BIOTROPIA : the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology , 1999,
Abstract: Three species of Asian native honey bees (Apis cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata) from northern Vietnam and Thailand were morphologically analyzed fo r investigations on their geographic variations and relations. In Vietnam, samples were collected from feral and managed colonies. In Thailand, the collections were from feral colonies or from field bees on flowers. Morphological analysis was carried out, using measurements common to honeybee taxonomy. Measured characters were done under stereomicroscope with an ocular micrometer. ANOVA program and multivariate statistical analyses were applied for treating the data. Overall, A. cerana populations in northern Vietnam are significantly morphologically different than from those in Thailand. It may be due to their different geographic locations between the Thai and Vietnamese populations of A. cerana. A. florea bees from Vietnam are generally bigger in size than those from Thailand, but the differences are uncertain. In contrast, the body size of A. dorsata populations from Thailand are bigger than t hose from Vietnam. However, these differences are also not significant. It is nece ssary to take further comparative investigations of these bee species from both countries
Comparative study on the niches of Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis cerana cerana
意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera ligustica)与中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana ceraca)的生态位比较

YU Lin-Sheng,ZOU Yun-Ding,CAO Yi-Feng,BI Shou-Dong,WU Hou-Zhang,DING Jian,XIE Wen-Fei,

生态学报 , 2008,
Abstract: To elucidate ecological adaptability of Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica in Wannan mountain areas of Anhui province, food niche, temporal niche and spatial niche of the two types of bees were systematically compared. Our results indicated that food niche breadths of Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica were 0.923 and 0.765, respectively. For Apis cerana cerana, there was very little difference in their preference for different plants, whilst Apis mellifera ligustica showed a much higher variance. The niche overlap index and niche similarity between the two bee species were 0.160 and 0.755, respectively. During the florescence of brassica campestie, temporal niche breadths of Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica were 0.879 and 0.801, respectively, whilst during florescence of Eriobotra japomica, temporal niche breadths of the two species were 0.760 and 0.677, and their spatial niche breadths were 0.797 and 0.670, respectively. Our results also suggested that all niche breadths of Apis cerana cerana were broader than those of Apis mellifera ligustic, and that three-dimensional niche values of Apis cerana cerana were 1.57 and 1.61 times higher than those of Apis mellifera ligustica. Above results clearly indicated that Apis cerana cerana has a better ecological adaptability than Apis mellifera ligustica in Wannan mountain areas.
The chemosensory protein of Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana: Molecular cloning of cDNA, immunocytochemical localization and expression
HongLiang Li,BingGan Lou,Jia’An Cheng,QiKang Gao
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-007-0210-4
Abstract: Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are ubiquitous soluble small proteins isolated from sensory organs thought to be involved in chemical communication. Here we report the first cDNA of CSPs, called Ac-ASP3, cloned and characterized from antennas of adult worker bees in Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana. The Ac-ASP3 cDNA comprises 2 exons, with an ORF of 393-bp encoding 130 aa. Protein signature analyses show that the protein consists of four conserved cysteines and a signal peptide with 19 aa in the N-terminal sequence. The deduced protein sequence shares high homology with Am-ASP3 of Apis mellifera and low similarity with other species of insects. Immunocytochemical localization shows that Ac-ASP3 is only specifically expressed on the antenna contact chemosensilla such as sensilla trichodea B and sensilla basiconica, whereas Ac-ASP3 is scarcely expressed on olfactory chemosensilla such as sensilla placodea. Real-time PCR of Ac-ASP3 transcripts shows that Ac-ASP3 is highly expressed on wings and legs, but expression is lower on antenna. Temporal expression patterns suggest that Ac-ASP3 is expressed during the period of pupa and adults from 1-d to 6-d stages when bees act as house bees, cleaning the comb and taking care of the queen and larvae in comb. The above evidence suggests that Ac-ASP3 is unique in species and is generally not involved in olfaction during searching for honey and pollen. Rather, the protein seems to function in recognition of chemosensory substances on bees’ cuticle and mechanical movement of antenna.
New mutations in hind wing vein of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) induced by lower developmental temperature

ZHOU Bingfeng,ZHU Xiangjie,LI Yue,

生态学报 , 2011,
Abstract: 在封盖发育期,将中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana封盖子放入24℃低温环境中分别处理24、48、72 h,再恢复到正常的发育温度35℃至羽化,或将封盖子放在30℃低温中培养至羽化,发现羽化后的蜜蜂后翅翅脉发生明显变异。发现翅脉变异有3种类型,翅脉增加、翅脉突出和翅脉缺失。后翅翅脉增加的变异只发现一种,基室、缘室共有的径分脉与基室、盘室共有的中脉之间,新增径中横脉。新增的径中横脉发生的程度不同,有的在径分脉和中脉相对的位置相向伸出,有的形成完整的新脉,新增的径中横脉与原径中横脉相似,在末端均有"弱化点"。由于原有径中横脉较短,一直忽略其存在,这次径中横脉的确定,可以判定原来公认的"中脉分叉"应分别是径分脉和中脉延伸出来的两条翅脉。后翅突出的变异有2种,中脉向基室突出,径分脉向基室突出。翅脉突出的程度不同,有的略突出,有的明显突出,有的伸出翅脉较长。中脉突出均发生在中脉的转折点上,且此类翅脉变异,仅发生在雄蜂样本中,在工蜂样本中还未见。后翅翅脉缺失的变异有2种,发生在肘臀横脉和中脉。肘臀横脉"弱化点"处缺失。将中华蜜蜂雄蜂封盖子放入低温30℃恒温培养箱中发育,发现2个羽化的雄蜂样本发生肘臀横脉在"弱化点"处缺失。中脉向盘室伸出的部分发生缺失。翅脉缺失的程度不同,有的明显缩短,有的仅存痕迹,有的缺失大部分或完全缺失。中脉向盘室伸出的部分是东方蜜蜂Apis cerana区别于西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera的主要形态特征之一,如果东方蜜蜂这段翅脉全部缺失,此部位的形态与西方蜜蜂完全相同。这意味着这个翅脉作为区分东方蜜蜂和西方蜜蜂的翅脉特征将面临挑战。对蜜蜂种质资源鉴定,蜜蜂的系统发育和进化生物学等领域的研究将具有重要影响。温度影响翅脉发育的深入研究,为研究蜜蜂翅脉发育过程,揭示翅脉发育调控机制,以及蜜蜂发育的温度适应生理机制提供一个新思路。
Genetic study on the behavior of honeybees influenced by polyandry system
Yan Ouyang,Liming Wu,Feng Jin,Wei Shi,Pingping Tan,Qinhua Bai,Xianshu Liu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 1999, DOI: 10.1007/BF02886349
Abstract: Within a honeybee population, due to polyandry, there are supersister and halfsister relations, thus many subfamilies exist. For the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana F.) a phylogenetic dendrogram has been constructed in which 4 subfamilies are clustered based on DNA fingerprint patterns. And it has been observed that each kind of workers is distributed to several dierent sub-families.
Honeybee Flora at Kabre, Dolakha District
Sanjaya Bista,Gopal P Shivakoti
Nepal Agriculture Research Journal , 2000, DOI: 10.3126/narj.v4i0.4859
Abstract: Adequate knowledge about bee flora is the prerequisite to initiate bee keeping. A study was conducted at Kabre area of Dolakha district during 1997-1999 to identify existing bee flora and develop a floral calendar. Based on the interview with bee farmers and visual observations, 119 important plant species were recorded, out of which 47 species were found major sources for honeybees. Spring season (mid-March to mid-June) and autumn season (mid-Sept to Oct) were identified as honey flow periods having a number of floral plants such as Guizotia abyssinica , Fraxinus floribunda , Prunus cerasoides , Pyrus communis , Castanopsis indica , Brassica spp., Citrus spp., Berberis spp., Rubus spp., Rhododendron spp. and Trifolium spp. Winter season (mid- Nov to Feb) is the critical dearth period with a few flowering plants like Reinwardtia indica , Pogestemon glaber , Caesalpinia spp. and Eupatorium spp. Depending upon the climatic conditions, possibility of planting multipurpose plants has been discussed. Based on available flora, major characteristics of these plant species, utility status and flowering duration a bee floral calendar was developed for Kabre. To conserve these floras, attention must be made to maintain and multiply the existing flora. Key words: Apis cerana ; Bee flora; Bee keeping; Dearth period; Honey flow DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/narj.v4i0.4859 Nepal Agriculture Research Journal Vol. 4&5, 2001/2002 Page: 18-25 Uploaded date : 8 June, 2011
Foraging Behaviour of the Himalayan Honeybee (Apis cerana F.) on Flowers of Fagopyrum esculentum M. and its Impact on Grain Quality and Yield
Madhusudan Man Singh
Ecoprint: An International Journal of Ecology , 2008, DOI: 10.3126/eco.v15i0.1940
Abstract: This paper presents the findings of two studies - one conducted on foraging behaviour of Himalayan honeybee ( Apis cerana F.) on flowering buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) in November 2001 to 2002 and another on its impact on the grain quality and yield increment of this crop conducted during 2000-2002 under different pollination treatments at Kirtipur, Kathmandu valley. Apis cerana bees started their foraging activities early in the morning (06.14 ± 0.004) and ceased late in the evening (17.28 ± 0.011). Total duration of foraging activity was 10:00 h and the average duration of foraging trip was 4.5 ± 0.14 min. Two peaks of foraging activities were observed between 08.30 to 10.30 (Peak I) and 11.30 to 13.30 O' clock (Peak II). The peak I period was the main foraging period and peak II was the second foraging period, both were very useful from the pollination point of view. After this, Apis cerana activity slowly diminished to a stand still at 17.30 pm. The time spent by Apis cerana on the buckwheat inflorescence at different hours of the day 09.00, 12.00, 15.00 O' clock showed longest (24 ± 3 min) in the morning and it decreased as the afternoon approached. This study revealed that Apis cerana bee pollination increased grain set in terms of the total number of grains per plant (169.76 ± 4.10), grain weight (33.03 ± 0.26 g) and grain yield (4.40 ± 0.12 g). It also increased the value of fertility (16.08 ± 0.21) and harvest index (35.32 ± 0.35) when compared with Control pollination/excluding all the insects (CP) and Open pollination (OP) treatment. This is mainly due to greater number of pollinators in the Bee pollination (BP) treatment, their longer duration of foraging and also due to superior pollinating efficiency of Apis cerana bees. Key words : Apis cerana, F. beekeeping, buckwheat, fertility, foraging, harvest index, pollination, Kathmandu valley. ? doi: 10.3126/eco.v15i0.1940 ? ECOPRINT 15: 37-46, 2008
Absence of Wolbachia in the workers of Asian honeybee, Apis cerana indica
Mahesh Pattabhiramaiah,Dorothea Brueckner,MS Reddy
International Journal of Life Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ijls.v5i1.5230
Abstract: Wolbachia is a group of cytoplasmically inherited bacteria that can cause reproductive alterations in arthropods including parthenogenesis, reproductive incompatibility and feminization of genetic males. Wolbachia are found in a well studied group of insects, but there is a lack of data on their distribution. Workers of the honeybee sub species Apis cerana indica, collected from different parts of Karnataka, India were screened by PCR for Wolbachia, because this endosymbiont has been implicated in causing thelytoky in other Hymenoptera. In the present communication, we report the absence of Wolbachia endosymbiont in the workers of honeybee collected from different geographic locations of Karnataka using Wolbachia specific 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction enzymes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijls.v5i1.5230 International Journal of Life Sciences Vol.5(1) 2011 19-24
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