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Serological evidence of herpesvirus infection in gibbons
Kamol Sakulwira, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Phingphol Charoonrut, Parntep Ratanakorn, Yong Poovorawan
BMC Microbiology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-2-11
Abstract: The prevalence of IgG antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV and CMV was 28.2%, 28.2%, 14.1% and 17.9%, respectively.Antigenic cross-reactivity is expected to exist between the human herpesviruses and gibbon herpesviruses. Gibbons have antibodies to human herpesviruses that may reflect zoonotic infection with human herpesviruses or infection with indigenous gibbon herpesviruses. Therefore, it is difficult to draw concrete conclusions from serological studies alone. Identification should be based on further isolation and molecular characterization of viruses from seropositive animals.Gibbons (Hylobates spp.) have become valuable animals for zoological, medical and psychological research. Their small size (the smallest of the anthropoids), ease of handling and maintenance in captivity and their close phylogenetic relationship to humans represent only a few of their desirable characteristics as laboratory animals. Gibbons are found throughout the tropical rainforest of South and Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Illegal pet trade is the main cause of the decreasing gibbon population in Thailand. Since gibbons were categorized as a conserved species in Thailand, hundreds of appropriated and abandoned animals have been handed over to the authorities of the Royal Forest Department (RFD). An infectious disease screening process is necessary to interrupt the spread of diseases, including herpesvirus infection. Little is known regarding natural or experimental herpesvirus infections in this interesting arboreal primate and reports of outbreaks or natural disease are still limited. Hence, screening is required to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, including herpesvirus.Herpesviruses have been isolated from a wide variety of mammalian and non-mammalian species. The eight human herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus
Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Human Enterovirus Serotype 68 in Thailand, 2006–2011
Piyada Linsuwanon, Jiratchaya Puenpa, Kamol Suwannakarn, Vittawat Auksornkitti, Preeyaporn Vichiwattana, Sumeth Korkong, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Yong Poovorawan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035190
Abstract: Background Publications worldwide have reported on the re-occurrence of human enterovirus 68 (EV68), a rarely detected pathogen usually causing respiratory illness. However, epidemiological data regarding this virus in particular on the Asian continent has so far been limited. Methodology/Findings We investigated the epidemiology and genetic variability of EV68 infection among Thai children with respiratory illnesses from 2006–2011 (n = 1810). Semi-nested PCR using primer sets for amplification of the 5′-untranslated region through VP2 was performed for rhino-enterovirus detection. Altogether, 25 cases were confirmed as EV68 infection indicating a prevalence of 1.4% in the entire study population. Interestingly, the majority of samples were children aged >5 years (64%). Also, co-infection with other viruses was found in 28%, while pandemic H1N1 influenza/2009 virus was the most common co-infection. Of EV68-positive patients, 36% required hospitalizations with the common clinical presentations of fever, cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. The present study has shown that EV68 was extremely rare until 2009 (0.9%). An increasing annual prevalence was found in 2010 (1.6%) with the highest detection frequency in 2011 (4.3%). Based on analysis of the VP1 gene, the evolutionary rate of EV68 was estimated at 4.93×10?3 substitutions/site/year. Major bifurcation of the currently circulating EV68 strains occurred 66 years ago (1945.31 with (1925.95–1960.46)95% HPD). Among the current lineages, 3 clusters of EV68 were categorized based on the different molecular signatures in the BC and DE loops of VP1 combined with high posterior probability values. Each cluster has branched off from their common ancestor at least 36 years ago (1975.78 with (1946.13–1984.97)95% HPD). Conclusion Differences in epidemiological characteristic and seasonal profile of EV68 have been found in this study. Results from Bayesian phylogenetic investigations also revealed that EV68 should be recognized as a genetically diverse virus with a substitution rate identical to that of enterovirus 71 genotype B (4.2×10?3 s/s/y).
Molecular Evolution of Human H1N1 and H3N2 Influenza A Virus in Thailand, 2006–2009
Kamol Suwannakarn,Thaweesak Chieochansin,Chitima Thongmee,Jarika Makkoch,Kesmanee Praianantathavorn,Apiradee Theamboonlers,Srinand Sreevatsan,Yong Poovorawan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009717
Abstract: Annual seasonal influenza outbreaks are associated with high morbidity and mortality.
Serum adiponectin and transient elastography as non-invasive markers for postoperative biliary atresia
Sittisak Honsawek, Maneerat Chayanupatkul, Voranush Chongsrisawat, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Kesmanee Praianantathavorn, Wanvisa Udomsinprasert, Paisarn Vejchapipat, Yong Poovorawan
BMC Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-11-16
Abstract: Sixty BA patients post Kasai operation and 20 controls were enrolled. The mean age of BA patients and controls was 9.6 ± 0.7 and 10.1 ± 0.7 years, respectively. BA patients were classified into two groups according to their serum total bilirubin (TB) levels (non-jaundice, TB < 2 mg/dl vs. jaundice, TB ≥ 2 mg/dl) and liver stiffness (insignificant fibrosis, liver stiffness < 7 kPa vs. significant fibrosis, liver stiffness ≥ 7 kPa). Serum adiponectin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Liver stiffness scores were examined by transient elastography (FibroScan).BA patients had markedly higher serum adiponectin levels (15.5 ± 1.1 vs. 11.1 ± 1.1 μg/ml, P = 0.03) and liver stiffness than controls (30.1 ± 3.0 vs. 5.1 ± 0.5 kPa, P < 0.001). Serum adiponectin levels were significantly elevated in BA patients with jaundice compared with those without jaundice (24.4 ± 1.4 vs. 11.0 ± 0.7 μg/ml, P < 0.001). In addition, BA patients with significant liver fibrosis had remarkably greater serum adiponectin than insignificant fibrosis counterparts (17.7 ± 1.2 vs. 9.4 ± 1.1 μg/ml, P < 0.001). Subsequent analysis revealed that serum adiponectin was positively correlated with total bilirubin, hyaluronic acid, and liver stiffness (r = 0.58, r = 0.46, and r = 0.60, P < 0.001, respectively).Serum adiponectin and liver stiffness values were higher in BA patients compared with normal participants. The elevated serum adiponectin levels also positively correlated with the degree of hepatic dysfunction and liver fibrosis. Accordingly, serum adiponectin and transient elastography could serve as the useful non-invasive biomarkers for monitoring the severity and progression in postoperative BA.Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive, inflammatory, fibrosclerotic cholangiopathy resulting in complete obliteration of the extrahepatic bile ducts [1]. The obstruction of bile flow leads to worsening cholestasis, hepatic fibrosis, biliary cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and death
Complete coding sequence characterization and comparative analysis of the putative novel human rhinovirus (HRV) species C and B
Piyada Linsuwanon, Sunchai Payungporn, Kamol Suwannakarn, Thaweesak Chieochansin, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Yong Poovorawan
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-5
Abstract: To gain new insight into HRV genetic diversity, we determined the complete coding sequences of putative new members of HRV species C (HRV-CU072 with 1% prevalence) and HRV-B (HRV-CU211) identified from clinical specimens collected from pediatric patients diagnosed with a symptom of acute lower RTI. Complete coding sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the HRV-CU072 strain shared a recent common ancestor with most closely related Chinese strain (N4). Comparative analysis at the protein level showed that HRV-CU072 might accumulate substitutional mutations in structural proteins, as well as nonstructural proteins 3C and 3 D. Comparative analysis of all available HRVs and HEVs indicated that HRV-C contains a relatively high G+C content and is more closely related to HEV-D. This might be correlated to their replication and capability to adapt to the high temperature environment of the human lower respiratory tract. We herein report an infrequently occurring intra-species recombination event in HRV-B species (HRV-CU211) with a crossing over having taken place at the boundary of VP2 and VP3 genes. Moreover, we observed phylogenetic compatibility in all HRV species and suggest that dynamic mechanisms for HRV evolution seem to be related to recombination events. These findings indicated that the elementary units shaping the genetic diversity of HRV-C could be found in the nonstructural 2A and 3D genes.This study provides information for understanding HRV genetic diversity and insight into the role of selection pressure and recombination mechanisms influencing HRV evolution.Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are one of the most highly prevalent ethological agents of acute respiratory tract illness (RTI) and, among other factors, contribute to children's hospitalization and morbidity. The clinical manifestations associated with HRV infection are predominantly asymptomatic or self-limited upper RTIs with a short incubation period of 1 to 3 days, similar to a common cold or in
Whole Genome Characterization, Phylogenetic and Genome Signature Analysis of Human Pandemic H1N1 Virus in Thailand, 2009–2012
Jarika Makkoch, Kamol Suwannakarn, Sunchai Payungporn, Slinporn Prachayangprecha, Thaweesak Cheiocharnsin, Piyada Linsuwanon, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Yong Poovorawan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051275
Abstract: Background Three waves of human pandemic influenza occurred in Thailand in 2009–2012. The genome signature features and evolution of pH1N1 need to be characterized to elucidate the aspects responsible for the multiple waves of pandemic. Methodology/Findings Forty whole genome sequences and 584 partial sequences of pH1N1 circulating in Thailand, divided into 1st, 2nd and 3rd wave and post-pandemic were characterized and 77 genome signatures were analyzed. Phylogenetic trees of concatenated whole genome and HA gene sequences were constructed calculating substitution rate and dN/dS of each gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed a distinct pattern of pH1N1 circulation in Thailand, with the first two isolates from May, 2009 belonging to clade 5 while clades 5, 6 and 7 co-circulated during the first wave of pH1N1 pandemic in Thailand. Clade 8 predominated during the second wave and different proportions of the pH1N1 viruses circulating during the third wave and post pandemic period belonged to clades 8, 11.1 and 11.2. The mutation analysis of pH1N1 revealed many adaptive mutations which have become the signature of each clade and may be responsible for the multiple pandemic waves in Thailand, especially with regard to clades 11.1 and 11.2 as evidenced with V731I, G154D of PB1 gene, PA I330V, HA A214T S160G and S202T. The substitution rate of pH1N1 in Thailand ranged from 2.53×10?3±0.02 (M2 genes) to 5.27×10?3±0.03 per site per year (NA gene). Conclusions All results suggested that this virus is still adaptive, maybe to evade the host's immune response and tends to remain in the human host although the dN/dS were under purifying selection in all 8 genes. Due to the gradual evolution of pH1N1 in Thailand, continuous monitoring is essential for evaluation and surveillance to be prepared for and able to control future influenza activities.
Prevalence and Characterization of Enterovirus Infections among Pediatric Patients with Hand Foot Mouth Disease, Herpangina and Influenza Like Illness in Thailand, 2012
Jiratchaya Puenpa, John Mauleekoonphairoj, Piyada Linsuwanon, Kamol Suwannakarn, Thaweesak Chieochansin, Sumeth Korkong, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Yong Poovorawan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098888
Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand.
Genetic variations of nucleoprotein gene of influenza A viruses isolated from swine in Thailand
Nattakarn Thippamom, Donreuthai Sreta, Pravina Kitikoon, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Yong Poovorawan, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Kamol Suwannakarn, Sujira Parchariyanon, Sudarat Damrongwatanapokin, Alongkorn Amonsin
Virology Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-7-185
Abstract: Twelve influenza A virus specimens were isolated from Thai swine. All samples were subjected to nucleotide sequencing of the complete NP gene. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted by comparing the NP gene of swine influenza viruses with that of seasonal and pandemic human viruses and highly pathogenic avian viruses from Thailand (n = 77). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the NP gene from different host species clustered in distinct host specific lineages. The NP gene of swine influenza viruses clustered in either Eurasian swine or Classical swine lineages. Genetic analysis of the NP gene suggested that swine influenza viruses circulating in Thailand display 4 amino acids unique to Eurasian and Classical swine lineages. In addition, the result showed 1 and 5 amino acids unique to avian and human lineages, respectively. Furthermore, nucleotide substitution rates showed that the NP gene is highly conserved especially in avian influenza viruses.The NP gene sequence of influenza A in Thailand is highly conserved within host-specific lineages and shows amino acids potentially unique to distinct NP lineages. This information can be used to investigate potential interspecies transmission of influenza A viruses. In addition, the genetic variations of the NP gene will be useful for monitoring the viruses and preparing effective prevention and control strategies for potentially pandemic influenza outbreaks.Influenza A virus poses a serious threat to public health worldwide, particularly the virus circulating in humans and animal species such as birds, pigs and horses. Influenza A subtypes H1-3 and N1-2 have been circulating in the human population, while Influenza A subtypes H1 and 3 and N1-2 have been reported in swine. On the other hand, all H1-16 and N1-9 can be found in avian species [1,2]. The virus genome contains 8 segments of single-stranded RNA that encode 10-11 proteins. Among those genes, the NP gene plays a major role with regard to host range or host species barri
Genetic characterization of 2008 reassortant influenza A virus (H5N1), Thailand
Alongkorn Amonsin, Jiradej Lapkuntod, Kamol Suwannakarn, Pravina Kitikoon, Sanipa Suradhat, Rachod Tantilertcharoen, Supanat Boonyapisitsopa, Napawan Bunpapong, Manoosak Wongphatcharachai, Trong Wisedchanwet, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Yong Poovorawan, Jiroj Sasipreeyajan, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
Virology Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-7-233
Abstract: H5N1 influenza A virus has caused avian influenza (AI) outbreaks worldwide. In Thailand, 7 major AI outbreaks have been reported since early 2004 [1-3]. In January 2008, outbreaks of H5N1 virus occurred in two provinces, Nakhon Sawan and Phichit. The outbreak in Nakhon Sawan affected 60,000 birds in a broiler farm and chicken in nearby backyards, while the outbreak in Phichit occurred among backyard chicken. In November 2008, H5N1 outbreaks were also reported in two provinces, Sukhothai and Uthai Thani. Both outbreaks occurred among backyard poultry in villages (Fig 1). Currently, at least two clades of influenza A virus (H5N1) have been reported in Thailand including clade1 viruses which are predominant in lower-north and central Thailand and clade2.3.4 viruses which are predominant in northeast Thailand [1,3,4]. Clade1 H5N1 viruses in Thailand have been further divided into 3 distinct subclades including the original clade1 (CUK2-like), clade1.p1 (PC168-like) and clade1.p2 (PC170-like) [3,5]. One study has documented evidence of genetic reassortment of H5N1 viruses in Thailand in 2007 [6]. In this study, we have comprehensively characterized the 2008 H5N1 viruses recovered during the 6th and 7th waves of AI outbreaks in Thailand. The 2008 H5N1 viruses were compared with H5N1 isolates obtained from each wave of AI outbreaks in Thailand. The whole genome sequences of the viruses were analyzed for nucleotide identity, genetic relatedness, virulence determinants, and possible sites of reassortment among H5N1 viruses.Eight H5N1 viruses were isolated from Nakhon Sawan (n = 3), Phichit (n = 1), Sukhothai (n = 2) and Uthai Thani (n = 2) (Table 1 and Fig 1). The viruses were isolated by embryonated egg inoculation [7]. All 8 viruses were confirmed as Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 by real-time-RT-PCR [8]. Whole genome sequences were obtained as previously described [9]. Phylogenetic and genetic relatedness analyses were conducted using the MEGA 4.0 program applying the nei
Methods for Analyzing Hospital Length of Stay with Application to Inpatients Dying in Southern Thailand
Apiradee Lim,Phattrawan Tongkumchum
Global Journal of Health Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v1n1p27
Abstract: This study investigated length of stay (LOS) for patients who died in hospital in Southern Thailand from 2000 to 2003 with respect to principal diagnosis and demographic, geographic and hospital size factors. The computerized data of 40,498 mortality cases were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health from 167 hospitals in 14 provinces of Southern Thailand between October 2000 and September 2003 with information on age, gender, principal diagnosis, province and hospital size. Logistic and linear regression with log-transformed LOS was used to analyze the data. Patients with injuries as principal diagnosis had shortest LOS, whereas cancer patients had the longest LOS. Older patients, particularly females, had higher LOS for all diagnoses. LOS increased with hospital size except in the North and North West. Small hospitals in the South West region had the lowest LOS whereas large hospitals in the North West had the highest. The highest proportion of bed days (11.2%) occurred in males aged less than 60 diagnosed with infectious diseases. Males aged less than 60 diagnosed with injuries and digestive diseases, and aged at least 60 diagnosed with COPD, and aged less than 60 diagnosed with infectious diseases, accounted for more than double those for female patients in the same disease groups. Both logistic regressions with LOS at least 1 week as the outcome and linear regression on appropriately log transformed LOS gave consistent results. Providing suitable palliative care or allowing patients to select the place for spending their final time of life, especially for patients with chronic diseases, which can reduce hospital resource utilization.
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