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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 36522 matches for " Apicella Antonio and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu "
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Deuteron Dimensions
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu, Aversa Raffaella, Samuel Kozaitis, Apicella Antonio and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2017.649.654
Abstract: The exact sizes of a Deuteron are extremely important today because deuterons are proposed for use as a raw material for the completion of the merger in the nuclear power station. The work proposes a study in the kinematic and dynamic design of a particle deuteron in motion. Mechanical equations of movement introduced are original and have been already determined for the study of a basic particle located in motion, such as for example the electron. The paper presents all the dimensions of a deuteron in motion, determined with an ultra-high precision depending on its speed of travel. The equation of motion has been deducted and using the theory of the mechanisms and of the classic mechanics because they have been used and moments of mechanical inertia mass of a body when it is in motion.
Some Proposed Solutions to Achieve Nuclear Fusion
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu, Aversa Raffaella, Samuel Kozaitis, Apicella Antonio and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2017.703.708
Abstract: Despite research carried out around the world since the 1950s, no industrial application of fusion to energy production has yet succeeded, apart from nuclear weapons with the H-bomb, since this application does not aims at containing and controlling the reaction produced. There are, however, some other less mediated uses, such as neutron generators. The fusion of light nuclei releases enormous amounts of energy from the attraction between the nucleons due to the strong interaction (nuclear binding energy). Fusion it is with nuclear fission one of the two main types of nuclear reactions applied. The mass of the new atom obtained by the fusion is less than the sum of the masses of the two light atoms. In the process of fusion, part of the mass is transformed into energy in its simplest form: Heat. This loss is explained by the Einstein known formula E = mc2. Unlike nuclear fission, the fusion products themselves (mainly helium 4) are not radioactive, but when the reaction is used to emit fast neutrons, they can transform the nuclei that capture them into isotopes that some of them can be radioactive. In order to be able to start and to be maintained with the success the nuclear fusion reactions, it is first necessary to know all this reactions very well. This means that it is necessary to know both the main reactions that may take place in a nuclear reactor and their sense and effects. The main aim is to choose and coupling the most convenient reactions, forcing by technical means for their production in the reactor. Taking into account that there are a multitude of possible variants, it is necessary to consider in advance the solutions that we consider them optimal. The paper takes into account both variants of nuclear fusion and cold and hot. For each variant will be mentioned the minimum necessary specifications.
Some Basic Reactions in Nuclear Fusion
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu, Aversa Raffaella, Samuel Kozaitis, Apicella Antonio and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2017.709.716
Abstract: Over time it has advanced the idea that the achievement of a hot nuclear reaction can require tens or hundreds of millions of degrees. Precise calculations clearly indicate a much higher temperature. At least 10 million degrees are necessary for 1 keV in thermonuclear reaction. At 400 keV it needs a temperature of 4000 million degrees to occur the hot fusion reaction. Hot fusion needs a temperature of about 4000 million degrees, or 4 billion degrees if we believe in the calculations the radius of deuterium static. If we believe in the calculations the radius of the real, dynamic deuterium, in movement, the temperature required to achieve the warm fusion reaction increases still 10000 times, reaching a value of 40 trillions degrees. Unfortunately, this clarification does not bring us closer to the realization of the hot fusion reaction, but on the contrary, us away from the day when we will be able to achieve it. Today we have only made 150 million degrees. A huge problem is even the achievement of such temperatures. For these reasons we are entitled to think up next following, namely achieving the cold fusion. Authors propose to bomb the fuel with accelerated Deuterium nuclei.
The Quality of Transport and Environmental Protection, Part I
Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu, Aversa Raffaella, Samuel Kozaitis, Apicella Antonio and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/ajeassp.2017.738.755
Abstract: The today main challenge to protect the environment through the development of new and more efficient transportation systems is presented. The absolutely necessary goods distribution and human transfers are polluting and damaging the environment and new solution should be envisaged; the conflicting strategies to adopt new types of environment friendly transportation while maintaining operative the more economically convenient, but largely polluting, already existing machines are discussed and compared. Shipment is an activity that is occurring since the existence of man who felt the need to find ways for him and his goods transportation. Physical human body limits have led to the discovery of a variety of systems for a continuous transportation evolution. This work analyzes the new environment friendly technologies that have been recently developed or that could be further implemented in the next near future. In view of the constantly improvement of the quality of transportation to be carried out, the transportation sector has various aspects that need to be investigated. Passenger comfort, flexible design, maximum interior space, safety and greater range are main features that improve transportation efficiency while making these technologies more familiar and accepted by consumers. Avoiding any excessive generalization, the three major transportation interacting branches, namely, infrastructures, vehicles and management have been reviewed. Such a complex system needed the application of an evolutionary design approach considering renewable energy sources for Hydrogen production as well as electric or internal combustion engines. The overall transportation network and related terminals have been involved as infrastructures, while all aspects of design, construction, operation diagnostics and traffic interactions have been considered for the vehicles. Finally, the management of the engineering responsibilities chain to ensure quality, safety and environmental impact of the transportation systems has been assessed.
Our Universe
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, MirMilad Mirsayar, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.69.79
Abstract: It's hard to know ourselves and our role as humanity, without knowing our precise location first. In the universe where we find ourselves (what we know not much about), there are billions of galaxies. A galaxy is a large cluster of stars (suns), i.e., solar systems; on average an ordinary galaxy contains about two billion stars (suns), which may or may not have planets around them. A constellation is a group of galaxies that depend on each other. Virgo is a very famous zodiacal constellation. Her name comes from Latin, the virgin and her symbol is ?. The constellation of the Virgin is located between the Lion to the west and the Libra to the east, being the second constellation in the sky (after Hydra) in size. The constellation of the Virgin can easily be observed in the sky of the earth due to its sparkling star named Spica. So our universe contains about two billion galaxies and many constellations; a constellation comprises several galaxies and a galaxy has about 2 billion stars. Nowadays, thanks to modern telescopes, we know a great many galaxies, but only 88 constellations have been identified by humanity (for now).
What is a UFO?
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, MirMilad Mirsayar, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.80.90
Abstract: There is much talk about UFOs sometimes. Is there anyway? If so what are they? Here are some questions we want to answer them briefly in this paper. An unidentified flying object or UFO is defined as any apparent object in the sky that can’t be identified and classified as an object or phenomenon already known. But the name is generally widely used to refer to the alleged or actual observations of alien ships. Today, the vast majority of observed UFOs are later identified as conventional objects or phenomena (such as aircraft, meteorological balloons, clouds). However, some of them can not be identified, either due to lack of evidence or due to the lack of conventional explanations, despite extensive evidence. Some people believe that the latest cases represent possible observations of alien spacecraft craft. The issue of past observations is difficult to explain otherwise than through the existence of other civilizations more advanced than ours. UFO events in the last thirty years are hard to analyze and classify, as we now have intelligent ships with special capabilities that can easily be confused with an alien ship.
About Northrop Grumman
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.162.185
Abstract: The Northrop Grumman (formerly Ryan Aeronautical) RQ-4 Global Hawk (known as Tier II during development) is an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) used by the United States Air Force and Navy and the German Air Force as a surveillance aircraft. The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit (also known as the Stealth Bomber) is an American strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses; it is able to deploy both conventional and nuclear weapons. The bomber has a crew of two and can drop up to eighty 500 lb (230 kg)-class JDAM GPS-guided bombs, or sixteen 2,400 lb (1,100 kg) B83 nuclear bombs. The B-2 is the only aircraft that can carry large airto-surface standoff weapons in a stealth configuration. The BQM-74 Chukar is a series of aerial target drones produced by Northrop. The Chukar has gone through three major revisions, including the initial MQM-74A Chukar I, the MQM-74C Chukar II and the BQM-74C Chukar III. They are recoverable, remote controlled, subsonic aerial target, capable of speeds up to Mach 0.86 and altitudes from 30 to 40,000 ft (10 to 12,000 m). Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) is an American global aerospace and defense technology company formed by the 1994 purchase of Grumman by Northrop. The company was the fourth-largest defense contractor in the world as of 2010 and the largest builder of naval vessels. Northrop Grumman employs over 75,000 people worldwide. Its 2010 annual revenue is reported at US$34 billion. Northrop Grumman ranks #72 on the 2011 Fortune 500 list of America's largest corporations and ranks in the top ten military-friendly employers. It has its headquarters in Falls Church, Virginia. Separate sectors, such as Aerospace Systems, produce aircraft for the US and other nations. The B-2 Spirit strategic bomber, the E-8C Joint STARS surveillance aircraft, the RQ-4 Global Hawk and the T-38 Talon supersonic trainer, are used by the US Air Force. The US Army uses Northrop Grumman's RQ-5 Hunter unmanned air vehicle, which has been in operational use for more than 10 years. The US Navy uses Northrop Grumman-built aerial vehicles such as the BQM-74 Chukar, RQ-4 Global Hawk based BAMS UAS, C-2 Greyhound, E-2 Hawkeye and the EA-6B Prowler. Northrop Grumman provides major components and assemblies for different aircraft such as F/A-18 Hornet, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and the EA-18G Growler. Many aircraft, such as the F-5, T-38 Talon and E-2 Hawkeye are used by other nations.
Some Special Aircraft
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.186.203
Abstract: In this study, the authors want to present a few more distinct aircraft from a constructive and functional point of view. Their role has often been determined by the need to achieve or fulfill certain more or less strategic objectives. Such ships will also be built in the future more and more often in order to be able to respond to all new flight requirements and to meet, under optimal conditions, the new and increasingly demanding requirements. Many of the new special aircraft have been built so far to achieve special tasks, or at the request of the defense ministry in some highly developed countries, even with the United States of America. The PA-23 was the first twin-engine design from Piper and was developed from a proposed "Twin Stinson" design inherited when Piper bought the Stinson Division of the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation. The prototype PA-23 was a four-seater low-wing all-metal monoplane with a twin tail, powered by a two 125 hp Lycoming O-290-D piston engines the prototype first flew 2 March 1952. The aircraft performed badly and it was redesigned with a single vertical stabilizer and an all-metal rear fuselage and more powerful 150 hp Lycoming O-320-A engines. Two new prototypes of re-designed aircraft now named Apache were built in 1953 and entered production in 1954; 1,231 were built. In 1958, the Apache 160 was produced by upgrading the engines to 160 hp (119 kW) and 816 were built before being superseded by the Apache 235, which went to 235 hp (175 kW) engines and swept tail surfaces (119 built). In 1958 an upgraded version with 250 hp (186 kW) Lycoming O-540 engines and adding a swept vertical tail was produced as the PA-23-250 and was named Aztec. These first models came in a five-seat configuration which became available in 1959. In 1961 a longer nosed variant the Aztec B entered production. The later models of the Aztec were equipped with IO-540 fuel injected engines and six-seat capacity and continued in production until 1982. There were also turbocharged versions of the later models, which were able to fly at higher altitudes. The US Navy acquired 20 Aztecs, designating them UO-1, which changed to U-11A when unified designations were adopted in 1962. In 1974, Piper produced a single experimental PA-41P Pressurized Aztec concept.
About Helicopters
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.204.223
Abstract: A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine-driven rotors. In contrast with fixed-wing aircraft, this allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover and to fly forwards, backward and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft would not be able to take off or land. The capability to efficiently hover for extended periods of time allows a helicopter to accomplish tasks that fixed-wing aircraft and other forms of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft cannot perform. The word 'helicopter' is adapted from the French hélicoptère, coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amecourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix/helik = "twisted, curved" and pteron = "wing". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936. Some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it was the single main rotor with antitorque tail rotor configuration of this design that would come to be recognized worldwide as the helicopter. The earliest references for vertical flight have come from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys and the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi ("Master who Embraces Simplicity") reportedly describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft: Someone asked the master about the principles of mounting to dangerous heights and traveling into the vast inane. The Master said, "Some have made flying cars with wood from the inner part of the jujube tree, using ox-leather fastened to returning blades so as to set the machine in motion." It was not until the early 1480s when Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw" that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight. His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the whole craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, men continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight.
Modern Propulsions for Aerospace-A Review
Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Ronald Bucinell, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, MirMilad Mirsayar, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu
Journal of Aircraft and Spacecraft Technology , 2017, DOI: 10.3844/jastsp.2017.1.8
Abstract: A spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. There are several different methods, each with advantages and disadvantages, spacecraft propulsion being an active area of research. However, most current spacecraft are propelled by forcing a gas exits through the rear of the vehicle at high speed through supersonic nozzle of a rocket engine. All spacecraft are using chemical rockets (fuel or solid fuel) to launch, although some (such as Pegasus missiles and Space Ship One) are using air jet engines in the first step. Most satellites have simple chemical thrusters (often missiles mono) or missiles resistojet to maintain orbit. Soviet bloc satellites have used electric propulsion for decades and the new Western geo-orbital spacecraft begin using electric propulsion for orbit maintenance of north-south. There is a need increasingly of more new propulsion systems, modern, technology-based. Copyright ? 2017 Relly Victoria Petrescu, Raffaella Aversa, Bilal Akash, Ronald Bucinell, Juan Corchado, Filippo Berto, MirMilad Mirsayar, Antonio Apicella and Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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