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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 125 matches for " Anxious Arousal "
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Study on the Classification of Speech Anxiety Using Q-Methodology Analysis  [PDF]
SeoYoung Lee
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2014.23008
Abstract: Public speaking is one of the cornerstones of mass communication, the influence of which has only been enhanced with the advent of the modern era. Yet despite its importance, up to 40% of the world’s population feels anxious when faced with the prospect of presenting in front of an audience (Wilbur, 1981). However, public speaking anxiety is human condition that can be understood and with effort, overcome by sufferers. Based on theoretical research, this study presents an empirical investigation of speech anxiety. The research uses Q-methodology to generate categories of speakers and then draws on the PQ-method program to suggest ways for speakers to improve their speaking confidence based on these categories. This research is of a value to those who are interested in speech anxiety for therapeutic or pedagogical practice.
Assessing a dysphoric arousal model of acute stress disorder symptoms in a clinical sample of rape and bank robbery victims
Maj Hansen,Cherie Armour,Ask Elklit
European Journal of Psychotraumatology , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/ejpt.v3i0.18201
Abstract: Background: Since the introduction of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) into the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) research has focused on the ability of ASD to predict PTSD rather than focusing on addressing ASD's underlying latent structure. The few existing confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies of ASD have failed to reach a clear consensus regarding ASD's underlying dimensionality. Although, the discrepancy in the results may be due to varying ASD prevalence rates, it remains possible that the model capturing the latent structure of ASD has not yet been put forward. One such model may be a replication of a new five-factor model of PTSD, which separates the arousal symptom cluster into Dysphoric and Anxious Arousal. Given the pending DSM-5, uncovering ASD's latent structure is more pertinent than ever. Objective:Using CFA, four different models of the latent structure of ASD were specified and tested: the proposed DSM-5 model, the DSM-IV model, a three factor model, and a five factor model separating the arousal symptom cluster. Method:The analyses were based on a combined sample of rape and bank robbery victims, who all met the diagnostic criteria for ASD (N = 404) using the Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Results:The results showed that the five factor model provided the best fit to the data. Conclusions:The results of the present study suggest that the dimensionality of ASD may be best characterized as a five factor structure which separates dysphoric and anxious arousal items into two separate factors, akin to recent research on PTSD's latent structure. Thus, the current study adds to the debate about how ASD should be conceptualized in the pending DSM-5.
Relationships as Regulators  [PDF]
Tiffany Field
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.36066
Abstract: This paper reviews the Hofer (1984, 1996) and Field (1985, 1994) models on relationships as regulators, suggesting that relationships regulate optimal stimulation and thereby modulate arousal levels and attenuate stress. In these models, the behavioral, physiological and biochemical rhythms of individuals become synchronized within close relationships like mother-infant and peer relationships both in human and animal species, and they become more coordinated over time, with some potentially remaining stable, much like zeitgebers. Hofer supports his model by data on infant rat separation stress and Field describes “psychobiological attunement” between human infants and their mothers and between young peers. This review revisits the “relationships as regulators” model, summarizing studies on relationships between non-depressed versus depressed mothers and their infants, between infant, preschool and preadolescent friends versus acquaintances and between happily versus unhappily married couples. Although some behavioral and physiological data support Hofer’s and Field’s “relationships as regulators” model, many studies on relationships have focused instead on the effects of separation or loss. Both Hofer and Field suggest that the real question is “what was there about the relationship that was then missing after the loss?” Future research could address the question of potential mediators and underlying mechanisms for relationships becoming regulators. Potential mediators are explored here including mirror neurons, affective priming, imitation and empathy. The individuals’ rhythms and the attraction to others’ rhythms as regulators may be an epigenetic programming phenomenon, suggesting both genetic and early experience effects that endure across development.
Effects of Weight Consciousness, Circadian Arousal, and Depression on Young Women’s Memory  [PDF]
Christie Chung, Frishta Sharifi, Sara Harris
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27112
Abstract: Weight consciousness has been found to significantly affect women’s cognitive performance. In the present study, the effects of circadian arousal and depression were investigated by examining the relationship between young women’s weight consciousness and memory performance. College women were tested on a picture recall task consisting of neutral and weight-related pictures. Participants were categorized into morning, evening, and intermediate types, and were tested either in the morning or late afternoon/evening (peak and non-peak testing times, or control). Our results showed that participants who were weight conscious were also more depressed. When tested at non-peak times, depressed participants recalled significantly more weight-related pictures than neutral pictures, while non-depressed participants did not show this recall pattern. These results suggest that young women with depression are less likely to inhibit memory of weight-related pictures when tested at their non-peak times of the day.
Enhancing Effects of Post-Learning Stress on Memory  [PDF]
Mingming Lin, Yoshihiko Tanno
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.35059
Abstract: To investigate the enhancing effect of post-learning stress on memory, we requested 38 Japanese undergraduates to perform a learning task that involved positive, negative, and neutral words with controlled arousal and subsequently assigned them to a stress group (exposed to acute white noise) or a control group. After a 10-min filler task, we administered a delayed free recall test and a recognition test. We found that exposure to acute stress after learning significantly enhanced recognition memory of words, but found no differences in memory scores for stimuli of varying valence. We accordingly propose that post-learning stress, though enhancing memory performance, may not depend on word valence when stimulus arousal is controlled. This is the first study to find that post-learning stress enhances memory after a short delay, and it has several implications with regard to traumatic memories in stress-related disorders.
The Effect of Food Images on Mood and Arousal Depends on Dietary Histories and the Fat and Sugar Content of Foods Depicted  [PDF]
Gregory J. Privitera, Danielle E. Antonelli, Heather E. Creary
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.31001

Background: While brain imaging studies show that reward regions in the human brain that regulate reward-guided behavior and integrate sensory modalities of smell, taste, and texture respond preferentially to high calorie foods, few studies account for dietary histories or account for recent behavioral evidence showing preferential responding for fruits (a low calorie food that tastes sweet). To address these concerns, the present study tested the hypothesis that images of high/low fat and sugar foods, even sugary foods that are low calorie (i.e., fruits), will enhance emotional responsiveness and that these changes may be related to dietary histories with fat and sugar intake. Method: Participants were shown 4 sets of 15 food images with each food image automatically timed every 9 s to transition to a new food image; participant pre-post mood and arousal was measured. The 4 sets of food images were high fat-high sugar (HFHS; desserts), high fat-low sugar (HFLS; fried foods), low fat-high sugar (LFHS; fruits), or low fat-low sugar (LFLS; vegetables) foods. To account for dietary histories, participants also completed estimated daily intake scales (EDIS) for sugar and fat. Results: Mood and arousal significantly increased in all groups, except Group LFLS, and even in a group that was low calorie but shown foods that taste sweet, i.e., Group LFHS. Interestingly, changes in arousal, but not mood, were dependent on participant histories with sugar and fat intake. Conclusion: Changes in emotional responsiveness to food images were nutrient-specific, which can be a more detailed level of analysis for assessing responsiveness to food images. Also, participant histories with sugar and fat should be taken into account as these histories can explain the changes in arousal observed here.

Expressing Food through Art: Evidence for a Nutrient-Specific Effect on Mood  [PDF]
Gregory J. Privitera, Brianne K. Moshaty, Frank C. Marzullo, Melissa L. Misenheimer
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.32016

Background: Brain imaging studies show evidence of selective brain reward responses to high calorie foods. Behavioral studies extend this research by showing that such foods can enhance emotions, even for sweet-tasting low calorie foods (i.e., fruits). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that participants will show more positive emotional change when drawing pictures of foods that are high fat or taste sweet compared to bitter-tasting foods—as a possible behavioral intervention for enhancing mood. Method: Participants were randomly assigned to one of four art groups: high fat-high sugar (HFHS; stimulus food: cupcakes), high fat-low sugar (HFLS; stimulus food: pizza), low fat-high sugar (LFHS; stimulus food: strawberries), or low fat-low sugar (LFLS; stimulus food: peppers). Participants used three colors (red, green, black) in their art, were required to use all three colors, and told that the colors they use must reflect actual colors that are natural for the food depicted. Participants drew images of a stimulus food and prepost measures of mood and arousal were recorded. Results: Consistent with the hypothesis, the results show that drawing pictures of high fat foods (cupcakes, pizzas) and a food that tastes sweet (strawberries) results in greater increases in mood compared to drawing a bitter-tasting food (peppers). Changes in mood were independent of BMI, daily sugar intake, daily fat intake, arousal, and hunger. Conclusion: These results extend a growing body of biobehavioral research on the positive impact of food images on mood by showing that this impact can be applied to enhance mood when expressing food images through art.

Decision-Making in Foreign Language Reduces Emotional Arousal  [PDF]
Josef N. Lazar, Atar Stern, Ran Cohen
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.519220
Abstract: The study of bilingual’s qualities suggests that their decision-making process might differ in both languages. A recent research by Keysar, Hayakawa & An (2012) investigated the phenomenon of reduction in emotional reactivity in the second language on decision-making process, especially amongst bilinguals who acquired their second language later in life, often in a more formal setting (Pavlenko, 2005). This research intended to show a more convincing argument regarding this phenomenon by checking the participants’ physiological arousal during the decision processes, using three physiological measures (Electrocardiogram, Galvanic Skin Response and Electroencephalogram). In congruence with the detachment effect theory, our hypothesis is that when bilinguals think in their foreign language, less emotional reactivity will be shown. The participants (N = 69) are students from Tel-Hai academic college. All of them, native Hebrew speakers who speak English as a foreign language, accomplish a decision-making task (Robert’s apperception test for children 2). All the tasks were performed in both languages, one after the other, while being connected to the physiological measures which measured their arousal in-vivo. In accordance with our hypothesis, a significant difference was found in the task. A significant difference was also found in the Electroencephalogram of the right prefrontal cortex but in the opposite direction to our initial hypothesis. No other significant differences were found. The explanation for these results might derive from a different phenomenon that is well documented, and the anxiety that stem from the need of using a foreign language (Woodrow, 2006). Although we were not able to demonstrate an emotional detachment effect on a physiological level, we believe that holding the anxiety variable constant will yield that effect in future studies.
The Physiological Response to Drawing and Its Relation to Attention and Relaxation  [PDF]
Gareth H. Loudon, Gina M. Deininger
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.73011
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the physiological response of participants during a creative activity and compare the results to their physiological response during states of high attention and relaxation. Our interest was not only about the relationship between creativity and attention, but also about the role of valence and arousal. We used heart rate variability (HRV) as our physiological measure. We asked twenty-two participants to undertake three activities: a stroop test; a relaxation activity; and a drawing activity. After each activity, the participants were asked to reflect on their levels of attention, relaxation and enjoyment. The results showed significant physiological differences between the three activities: mean heart rate, F(2, 42) = 8.96, p = 0.001; log-transformed low frequency HRV power, F(1.43, 30.07) = 18.12, p < 0.001; and log-transformed high frequency HRV power, F(2, 42) = 6.25, p = 0.004. Overall, the results suggested that participants had high levels of attention during the drawing activity, with positive valence. The results also suggested that participants’ levels of arousal differed between the three activities. The implications of these results are described in the discussion.
Sleep Fragmentation and Risk of Automobile Accidents in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea—Sleep Fragmentation and Automobile Accidents in OSA  [PDF]
Akiko Noda, Fumihiko Yasuma, Seiko Miyata, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Yoshinari Yasuda, Norio Ozaki
Health (Health) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/health.2019.112015
Abstract: Objectives: Automobile accidents related to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent an important public health concern. Frequent arousal response during sleep is responsible for the symptoms of daytime sleepiness and an increased risk of automobile accidents in patients with OSA. We therefore investigated the potential relationships between the intensity of arousal and occurrence of automobile accidents in OSA. Methods: We determined the incidence of automobile accidents in the past 5 years among 51 men with OSA (age, 58.5 ± 10.4 years) using a questionnaire. Daytime sleepiness was rated with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). We calculated an automobile accident score, with two points per automobile accident causing damage and one point per near miss. Standard polysomnography was performed for all patients, and arousals were classified as electroencephalographic (EEG) arousal of an abrupt shift in EEG frequency alone and Movement arousal, which was defined as EEG arousal with increased electromyographic activity persisting for ≥3 s. The number of EEG or Movement arousals per hour (arousal index) was determined. Results: The Movement arousal index was significantly greater in the 27 patients who experienced at least one automobile accident causing damage than in the resting 24 patients who had no history of automobile accidents. Multiple regression analysis including age, body mass index, and sleep parameters revealed that the Movement arousal index was the most significant factor of risk for automobile accidents (β = 0.563, P = 0.017) as well as the ESS score (β = 0.417, P = 0.022). Conclusion: Movement arousal during sleep contributes to daytime sleepiness and the resulting frequent involvement of OSA patients in automobile accidents.
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