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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 310 matches for " Anuranjini Nigam "
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The Giardia lamblia vsp gene repertoire: characteristics, genomic organization, and evolution
Rodney D Adam, Anuranjini Nigam, Vishwas Seshadri, Craig A Martens, Gregory A Farneth, Hilary G Morrison, Theodore E Nash, Stephen F Porcella, Rima Patel
BMC Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-424
Abstract: The WB Giardia isolate has been sequenced at 10× coverage and assembled into 306 contigs as large as 870 kb in size. We have used this assembly to evaluate the genomic organization and evolution of the vsp repertoire. We have identified 228 complete and 75 partial vsp gene sequences for an estimated repertoire of 270 to 303, making up about 4% of the genome. The vsp gene diversity includes 30 genes containing tandem repeats, and 14 vsp pairs of identical genes present in either head to head or tail to tail configurations (designated as inverted pairs), where the two genes are separated by 2 to 4 kb of non-coding DNA. Interestingly, over half the total vsp repertoire is present in the form of linear gene arrays that can contain up to 10 vsp gene members. Lastly, evidence for recombination within and across minor clades of vsp genes is provided.The data we present here is the first comprehensive analysis of the vsp gene family from the Genotype A1 WB isolate with an emphasis on vsp characterization, function, evolution and contributions to pathogenesis of this important pathogen.Giardia lamblia (syn. G. duodenalis, G. intestinalis) is an anaerobic protist that is medically important as a common cause of intestinal infection and diarrhea [1]. Humans and other susceptible mammals become infected when cysts are ingested from contaminated water or food and excyst into trophozoites in the proximal small intestine. These trophozoites replicate and cause the symptoms of diarrhea. Infections with Giardia are frequently prolonged and malabsorption with weight loss may last for months in the absence of treatment, despite an immune response that would be expected to eradicate the infection. One of the possible reasons for the persistence of infection is antigenic variation of the variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs).A single trophozoite expresses only a single member of this protein family at any one time [2], but may switch expression from one VSP to another in vitro at a r
Botulinum toxin
Nigam P,Nigam Anjana
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2010,
Abstract: Botulinum toxin, one of the most poisonous biological substances known, is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum elaborates eight antigenically distinguishable exotoxins (A, B, C 1 , C 2 , D, E, F and G). All serotypes interfere with neural transmission by blocking the release of acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle paralysis. The weakness induced by injection with botulinum toxin A usually lasts about three months. Botulinum toxins now play a very significant role in the management of a wide variety of medical conditions, especially strabismus and focal dystonias, hemifacial spasm, and various spastic movement disorders, headaches, hypersalivation, hyperhidrosis, and some chronic conditions that respond only partially to medical treatment. The list of possible new indications is rapidly expanding. The cosmetological applications include correction of lines, creases and wrinkling all over the face, chin, neck, and chest to dermatological applications such as hyperhidrosis. Injections with botulinum toxin are generally well tolerated and side effects are few. A precise knowledge and understanding of the functional anatomy of the mimetic muscles is absolutely necessary to correctly use botulinum toxins in clinical practice.
Science education through open and distance learning at Higher Education level
Amrita NIGAM
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2007,
Abstract: The changes faced by the society in the past few decades brought revolution in all areas. The job requirements have undergone change tremendously. The emergence of e-culture, e-education, e-governance, e-training, e-work sites and so on questioned the capacity of conventional face to face education in catering to all and relevance of existing job related skills to a great extent in the emerging global society. Today, every one has to update his/her educational and/or professional skills and competencies to cope up with the emerging work challenges. This is more so in the field of science and technology. At the same time, it is impossible to cater to educational and training opportunities to one and all those who aspire for it through the conventional set up. The distance and open learning (ODL) seems to be one of the viable alternatives. Today, the success and viability of ODL is accepted globally. Coulter (1989), through a study demonstrated that ODL is a cost-effective medium in providing educational opportunities. Similarly Holmberg (1981) also mentioned ODL as a systematic teaching-learning medium by using variety of medium for imparting learning. The present study is an attempt to study the experiences of the open science learners of IGNOU on different aspect of the science higher education. Here a questionnaire was used to collect the data and responses from 81 students enrolled for B. Sc. from IGNOU were collected. The findings of the study reported that society has undergone drastic changes in the last few decades. The revolution led due to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have widely affected all aspects of society. The emerging jobs require entirely new skills and competencies i.e., employment in BPOs or switching over to e-governance, e-Banking and e- based sectors. Even e-learning has made numerous expectations from teachers and other personnel. The use of ICTs in almost every field needs adequately trained workers so that they can work efficiently and effectively. The training and retraining avenues in the conventional system is grossly inadequate to cope up with the present and future demands. In this situation open and distance education is the available alternative.
Serum zinc and copper levels and Cu: Zn ratio in psoriasis
Nigam P
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2005,
Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing
Nigam P
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2009,
Abstract: Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.
Book review
Nigam P
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1990,
Climbing up the Performance Ladder: A Conceptual Framework for Emerging Country Multinationals
Roli Nigam
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n4p13
Abstract: The paper acknowledges the emergence of the emerging country multinationals (ECMs) and their entry into the global economy. Much research has been done from the point of view of developed country multinationals, while the perspective of ECMs has been ignored. We discuss the entry of emerging country multinationals into developed markets from a cultural point of view. The cultural adaptation that they are required to make and the relevant influencing factors like the institutional environment, HR practices, expatriates, mission of the multinational, etc. Using a conceptual model built on an extensive literature review, we propose several relationships which could be considered as a guide to future research in this emerging field of research.
The Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicle Persistent Surveillance Problem: A Review
Nikhil Nigam
Machines , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/machines2010013
Abstract: Control of autonomous vehicles for applications such as surveillance, search, and exploration has been a topic of great interest over the past two decades. In particular, there has been a rising interest in control of multiple vehicles for reasons such as increase in system reliability, robustness, and efficiency, with a possible reduction in cost. The exploration problem is NP hard even for a single vehicle/agent, and the use of multiple vehicles brings forth a whole new suite of problems associated with communication and cooperation between vehicles. The persistent surveillance problem differs from exploration since it involves continuous/repeated coverage of the target space, minimizing time between re-visits. The use of aerial vehicles demands consideration of vehicle dynamic and endurance constraints as well. Another aspect of the problem that has been investigated to a lesser extent is the design of the vehicles for particular missions. The intent of this paper is to thoroughly review the persistent surveillance problem, with particular focus on multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), and present some of our own work in this area. We investigate the different aspects of the problem and slightly digress into techniques that have been applied to exploration and coverage, but a comprehensive survey of all the work in multiple vehicle control for search, exploration, and coverage is beyond the scope of this paper.
A Novel Stochastic Algorithm Using Pythagorean Means for Minimization  [PDF]
Mona Subramaniam, Manju senthil, Madhav Nigam
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2010.12009
Abstract: In this paper, A Novel Stochastic Algorithm using Pythagorean means for minimization of the objective function is described. The algorithm is initially tested with Rastrigin’s function and compared with Genetic algorithm results for the function with the same initial conditions. After this, it is used in tuning the gains of fuzzy PD + I controller for trajectory control of PUMA 560 robot manipulator. The results are again verified with the results of genetic algorithm.
Nanoparticle Paclitaxel (Nanoxel) as a Safe and Cost-Effective Radio-Sensitizer in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Carcinoma  [PDF]
Akshay Nigam, Anupama Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar Singh
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.31006
Abstract: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is a common malignancy. It is the 7th most common malignancy. Approximately 45,000 new cases are diagnosed each year in the USA. In present study 10 patients were selected of age group between 40 - 60 years from Gwalior-Chambal region, among them 3 were females and 7 were males. 3 patients were suffering from tonsilitis, 4 from Laryngeal carcinoma, 2 from carcinoma in maxillary antrum and 1 patient was suffering from carcinoma of whole tongue. The aim of present study is to evaluate the safety of nanoparticle paclitaxel (Nanoxel, a plant alkaloid) in combination with radiation in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck carcinoma. Further the patients were divided in 2 groups. The 1st group received nanoxel (plant alkaloid) administered concomitantly with radiation therapy. 2nd group received gemcitabine administered in combination with radiation therapy. 9 patients showed response for the therapy. The adverse effects in arm A, 2 patients showed anemia less than 8 gm of Hemoglobin, 2 patient showed leucopenia and 1 patient showed diarrhoea, Nausea/vomiting were shown by 4 patients, in arm B, 1 patient showed leucopenia, 1 patient showed anemia less than 9 gm hemoglobin and 5 patient showed sensory neuropathy. Nanoxel (plant alkaloid) showed best results in the case of head and neck carcinoma. The dose of 30 mg/kg b.w showed best safety with best clinical effect in term of less time of patient admission (hardly 30 mins) with less side effects with greater clinical effects in our study.
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