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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32248 matches for " Antonio "
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Who Meets the Standrads: A Multidimensional Approach  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24069
Abstract: We consider here the evaluation of the performance of a society with respect to a given set of targets. We provide a characterization of an intuitive evaluation formula that consists of the mean of the shares of the achievements in the targets. The criterion so obtained permits one not only to endogenously determine who meets the standards and who does not, but also to quantify the degree of fulfilment. Two empirical illustrations are provided: the compliance of the European Union Stability and Growth Pact, on the one hand, and the evaluation of research excellence in the Spanish universities, on the other hand.
The Educational Development Index: A Multidimensional Approach to Educational Achievements through PISA  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.45042

This paper proposes a multidimensional index that summarizes three relevant aspects of the educational achievements, out of the data provided by the PISA Report, concerning reading abilities of 15-year-old students from 65 countries. The three aspects considered are: performance, equity, and quality. The Educational Development Index (EDI) is the geometric mean of the normalized values of those three variables. We analyse the distribution of the variables that approach those three aspects and the resulting index, relative to the corresponding means of the OECD countries.

The Factorizational Theory of Finite Asymptotic Expansions in the Real Domain: A Survey of the Main Results  [PDF]
Antonio Granata
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.51001

After studying finite asymptotic expansions in real powers, we have developed a general theory for expansions of type (*)\"\" ,x x0 where the ordered n-tuple \"\" forms an asymptotic scale at x0 , i.e.\"\" as x x0, 1 i n 1,

The Role of Asymptotic Mean in the Geometric Theory of Asymptotic Expansions in the Real Domain  [PDF]
Antonio Granata
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.52013

We call “asymptotic mean” (at +∞) of a real-valued function \"\" the number, supposed to exist, \"\", and highlight its role in the geometric theory of asymptotic expansions in the real domain of type (*) \"\" where the comparison functions \"\", forming an asymptotic scale at +∞, belong to one of the three classes having a definite “type of variation” at +∞, slow, regular or rapid. For regularly varying comparison functions we can characterize the existence of an asymptotic expansion (*) by the nice property that a certain quantity F(t) has an asymptotic mean at +∞. This quantity is defined via a linear differential operator in f and admits of a remarkable geometric interpretation as it measures the ordinate of the point wherein that special curve \"\", which has a contact of order n -

Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy in Runners: Relationship between Pain and Tendon Vascularity and Efficacy and Safety of the Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy  [PDF]
Antonio Ammendolia
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.46044
Few studies report the possible correlation pain-paratendon microvascularity during the painful phase of the chronic Achilles tendinopathy and the efficacy of the radial shock wave therapy re-spect to other therapies. The aim of the present longitudinal, controlled study is to demonstrate the variation of the tendon micro vascularization in athletes affected by Achilles tendinopathy and the efficacy and safety of the radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Twelve elite runners with Achilles tendinopathy were compared with 12 healthy amateurs, both treated by radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy in 3 sessions (1/every 3 days). VAS scale was used for pain evaluation at one and six months after treatment and a Color and Power Doppler echography was performed to observe the paratendon microvascularity before the beginning of the treatment and at one and six months after. One month after the beginning of the treatment, it was observed a decrease of the hypervascularity in all 12 subjects with tendinopathy and no variation in the control group participants. Clinically, 80% of patients referred pain relief and they were able to return to sports activity. The decrease of the paratendon microvascularity confirms the correlation between the disappearance of the pain and the normalization of the vascularity in the athletes. Moreover, radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy consented a quickly pain relief and returned to the sport. These results confirmed the efficacy and safety of this physical therapy that it could be considered a good therapeutic choice in the treatment of the chronic Achilles tendinopathy.
Analytic Theory of Finite Asymptotic Expansions in the Real Domain. Part II-C: Constructive Algorithms for Canonical Factorizations and a Special Class of Asymptotic Scales  [PDF]
Antonio Granata
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.58047
Abstract: This part II-C of our work completes the factorizational theory of asymptotic expansions in the real domain. Here we present two algorithms for constructing canonical factorizations of a disconjugate operator starting from a basis of its kernel which forms a Chebyshev asymptotic scale at an endpoint. These algorithms arise quite naturally in our asymptotic context and prove very simple in special cases and/or for scales with a small numbers of terms. All the results in the three Parts of this work are well illustrated by a class of asymptotic scales featuring interesting properties. Examples and counterexamples complete the exposition.
Analytic Theory of Finite Asymptotic Expansions in the Real Domain. Part II-B: Solutions of Differential Inequalities and Asymptotic Admissibility of Standard Derivatives  [PDF]
Antonio Granata
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.58046
Abstract: Part II-B of our work continues the factorizational theory of asymptotic expansions of type (*) \"\"\"\",\"\" , \"\" where the asymptotic scale \"\", \"\" , is assumed to be an extended complete Chebyshev system on a one-sided neighborhood of x0. The main result states that to each scale of this type it remains as-sociated an important class of functions (namely that of generalized convex functions) enjoying the property that the expansion (*), if valid, is automatically formally differentiable n ? 1 times in the two special senses characterized in Part II-A. A second result shows that formal applications of ordinary derivatives to an asymptotic expansion are rarely admissible and that they may also yield skew results even for scales of powers.
Analytic Theory of Finite Asymptotic Expansions in the Real Domain. Part II-A: The Factorizational Theory for Chebyshev Asymptotic Scales  [PDF]
Antonio Granata
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.58045
Abstract: This paper, divided into three parts (Part II-A, Part II-B and Part II-C), contains the detailed factorizational theory of asymptotic expansions of type (?)?\"\", \"\", \"\", where the asymptotic scale?\"\", \"\", is assumed to be an extended complete Chebyshev system on a one-sided neighborhood of . It follows two pre-viously published papers: the first, labelled as Part I, contains the complete (elementary but non-trivial) theory for \"\"; the second is a survey highlighting only the main results without proofs. All the material appearing in §2 of the survey is here reproduced in an expanded form, as it contains all the preliminary formulas necessary to understand and prove the results. The remaining part of the survey—especially the heuristical considerations and consequent conjectures in §3—may serve as a good introduction to the complete theory.
Educational Poverty as a Welfare Loss: Low Performance in the OECD According to PISA 2012  [PDF]
Antonio Villar
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.74049
Abstract: This paper analyses the incidence and intensity of low performance among 15-year old students in the OECD countries according to PISA 2012. Taking level 2 of proficiency as the baseline competence, we approach the measurement of low performance by applying a multidimensional poverty measure that permits interpreting educational poverty as a welfare loss. We use a conventional welfare evaluation function to derive an index that combines the incidence, intensity and inequality of educational poverty. The results show that OECD countries differ in educational poverty much more than in PISA average scores and also that they present different mixes of incidence and intensity.
The Theory of Higher-Order Types of Asymptotic Variation for Differentiable Functions. Part I: Higher-Order Regular, Smooth and Rapid Variation  [PDF]
Antonio Granata
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2016.612063
Abstract: Motivated by a general theory of finite asymptotic expansions in the real domain for functions f of one real variable, a theory developed in a previous series of papers, we present a detailed survey on the classes of higher-order asymptotically-varying functions where “asymptotically” stands for one of the adverbs “regularly, smoothly, rapidly, exponentially”. For order 1 the theory of regularly-varying functions (with a minimum of regularity such as measurability) is well established and well developed whereas for higher orders involving differentiable functions we encounter different approaches in the literature not linked together, and the cases of rapid or exponential variation, even of order 1, are not systrematically treated. In this semi-expository paper we systematize much scattered matter concerning the pertinent theory of such classes of functions hopefully being of help to those who need these results for various applications. The present Part I contains the higher-order theory for regular, smooth and rapid variation.
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