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The knowledge of risk factors associated with the development of osteoporosis (OP) is vital in the prevention strategy of this disease and its physical and economic consequences. The epidemiological characteristics of our population of postmenopausal women exhibit a pattern similar to that described in other studies, showing a proportional relationship between the magnitude of the risk factor and the severity of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Moreover, we observed protective effects for several dietary factors, such as the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals; the moderate consumption of fish, alcohol, and dairy products; and the low intake of red meat, on spinal bone mineral density (BMD). Only the intake of grains and vegetables exerted protective effects on hip BMD.